Skip to main content

Full text of "Encyclopedia Britannica"

See other formats




FIRST edit 

Ion, published 

in three 


1768— 1771. 


» >> 


1777— 1784. 


y ? 


17S8— 1797. 


9 » 


1801 — 1810. 


9 » 




» » 


1823 — 1824. 


> » 


1830— 1842. 


» J 


l8 53— 1860. 


> > 




, ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

1902 — 1903. 


, publi 


in twenty-nine volumes, 

1910 — 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 



of the 

All rights reurvtd 










New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 




A. B. R. 
A. B. H. 

A. E. S. 

A. F. P. 













A. J. G. 

A. J. L. 

A. Lo. 




M. C. 




S. C. 

A. T. Q.-C 


W. H.* 

Alfred Barton Rendle, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.A., D.Sc. 
Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum. 

A. E. Houghton. 

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the 
Bourbons in Spain. 

Arthur Everett Shipley, F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc. 

\ Botany. 


Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge i Brachiopoda. 
University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. I 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of all Souls' 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- 
1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892. Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Thomas Cranmer; &c. 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. 

Burghley, Baron. 

J Blandrata; Brenz; 
I Buckholdt. 

Arthur Henry Bullen. f 

Founder of the Shakespeare Head Press, Stratford-on-Avon. Editor of Collection "j Burton, Robert. 
of Old English Plays; Lyrics from the Song Books of the Elizabethan Age; &c. I 



Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. 

Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A. 

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. . 
Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of 
Greek Sculpture in the British Museum ; &c. L 

Rev. Alexander J. Grieve, M.A., B.D. f 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent -I Butler Bishop (in part). 

College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of 

Mysore Educational Service. l _ . , _ ,. . _ 

r Bogota; Bolivia: Geography 

Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. _ __ _ __ .._.._ J and Statistics; Brazil: Gee- 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University, 
de Janeiro), 18 79-1 901. 

Editor of the Rio News (Rio ' 

graphy and Statistics; 
Buenos Aires. 

Auguste Longnon. 

Professor at the College de France. Director of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute. Author of Geo- 
graphie de la Gaule au VI. siecle; Documents relatifs au comte de Champagne et de 
Brie; &c. 

Mrs Alice Meynell. 

Author of Poems ; Later Poems ; The Rhythm of Life and other Essays ; &c. 

Miss Agnes Mary Clerke. 

See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 

Alan Summerly Cole, C.B. r 

Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of J Brocade 
Ornament in European Silks ; Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Lace and Egyptian 1 
Textiles in Victoria and Albert Museum; &c. 

Sir Arthur T. Quiller-Couch. 

See the biographical article: Quiller-Couch, Sir A. T. 

Arthur William Holland. f Brandenburg: Margr aviate-. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. \ Burdett, Sir Francis. 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volumvs. 

Blois: Countship of. 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett 

Brahe, Tycho. 

Bunting; Bustard; 

\ Brown, Thomas Edward. 


A. W. Po. 

A. W. R, 

B. R. 

















Book Collecting. 

Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws < Boarding-House. 




C. El. 

C. E. S. 
C. H. 

C. K. S. 
C. L. K. 
C. Pf. 

C. S. S. 

C W. W. 

D. B. Ma. 

D. C. B. 
D. C. T. 
D. F. T. 


Alfred William Pollard, M.A. 

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, 
London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books 
and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of The Library. Chief Editor of the " Globe " 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. 
of England. 

Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.Inst.C.E., 
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of Londpn Authority. President of the Society of Chemical - 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of Cantor Lectures on Petroleum ; Petroleum and its 
Products; Chemical Technology; &c. 

Charles Bemont, D. is. L., Litt.D. (Oxon.). 
See the biographical article : Bemont, C. 

Cyril J. H. Davenport, F.S.A. 

Assistant to the Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Cantor Lecturer on 
Decorative Bookbindings, Society of Arts. Author of Royal English Bookbindings ; ' 
English Embroidered Bookbindings ; History of the Book ; &c. 

Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright. 

See the biographical article : Wright, C. D. 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

C. E. Akers. 

Formerly The Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. 
America, 1854-1904. 

Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. f 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. . . . 

H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Pro- 1 Bokhara (in part). 
tectorate ; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar ; and Consul-General for German 
East Africa, 1900-1904. Author of Turkey in Europe; Letters from the FarEast;&c. '- 

Hon. Charles Emory Smith. 

See the biographical article: Smith, Charles Emory. 

Charles Hose, D.Sc. 

Formerly Divisional Resident and Member of the Supreme Council of Sarawak. . 
Author of A Descriptive Account of the Mammals of Borneo, and numerous papers in 
scientific journals. L 

Cllment King Shorter. f 

Editor of the Sphere. Author of Charlotte Bronte and her Circle; The Brontes : "j Bronte, C, E. and A. 

Life and Letters; &c. L 

Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor - 

of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 

Christian Pfister, D. is. L. 

("Building Societies: United 

\ States. 

\ Bone: Industrial. 

Author of A History of South A Brazil: History (in part). 



Buckingham, 2nd Duke of. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of J u rnn i. sm« 
Atude sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duche merovingien d' Alsace et la legende de\ Brunnllaa ' 
Saint-Odile. I 

Charles Scott Sherrington, D.Sc, M.D., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 1 

Professor of Physiology, University of Liverpool. Foreign Member of Academies J 
of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, Gottingen, &c. Author of The Integrative Action of the] 
Nervous System. 

Major-General Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., R.E. 

Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858-1862. British, 
Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895- 
1898. Author of From Korti to Khartum; Life of Lord Clive; &c. 

Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of _ 
Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory ; Selections 
from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Altitude and Life in Islam; &c. 

Demetrius Charles Boulger. 

Author of History of Belgium.; England and Russia in Central Asia; History of - 
China ; Life of Gordon ; India in the 19th Century ; &c. 

David Croal Thomson. 

Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of Tlie Brothers Maris; The Barbizon- 
School of Painters; Life of " Phiz " ; Life of Bewick ; &c. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Balrfol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The . 
Classical Concerts, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical 

David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
J3iy-i6S8; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. 

Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 

Brain: Physiology. 

Caesarea Mazaca (in part). 



Browne, Hablot Knight. 


Bouvet; Brenton; 
Brigandage; Buccaneers; 
. Byng; Calderon, Rodrigo. 



D. LI. T. 

D. Mn. 

E. Ca. 
E. C. B. 
















E. L. B. 

E. Ma. 

E. 0.* 
E. Pr. 


E. W. B. 

F. By. 

F. D. A. 
F. G. P. 

F. J. C, 

Daniel Lleufer Thomas. 

Stipendiary Magistrate for Pontypridd and Rhondda. Formerly Assistant Com- 
missioner to the Labour Commission and Secretary to the Welsh Land Commission. 

Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A. 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London 
Missionary Society. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals. 

Ernest Barker, M.A. 

Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. 

Egerton Castle, M.A., F.S.A. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of English Book Plates ; Bibliotheca Dimicatcria ; 

Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. 
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. 

Edmond Esmonin. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund 

Ernest Hartley Coleridge, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Editor of Byron's Poems; Letters of Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge; &c. 

Sir Edward H. Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895). 

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; 


("Blaikie; Boston, Thomas; 
1 Bruce, Alexander Balmain; 
L Cairns, John. 

Formerly i Bohemund. 

Book Plates. 

|" Bridgittines; 

■\ Brothers of Common Life; 
•-Bruno, Saint. 

fBombelles, Marc Marie, 
I Marquis de. 
("Bjornson; Blank Verse; 
■j Bouts-Rimes; Bucolics; 
L Busken-Huet. 


H Bithynia (in pari). 

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. j" B 0sporus cimmerius* 

Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, 1 RiifKni ' 

Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography. I BUdlm. 


■J Brook Farm. 

Head Master of Eton i Boat. 

Edmund Knecht, Ph.D., F.I.C. 

Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical 
Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor 
of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists. 

Edward Livermore Burlingame, A.M., Ph.D. 

Editor of Scribner's Magazine. Formerly on Staff of New York Tribune. 

Edward Manson. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Joint-editor with Sir John Macdonell, C.B., i Bond. 
of the Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author of Law of Trading Companies ; &c. 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. f 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J Bladder and Prostate Diseases; 
Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cam- 1 Bone: Medical. 
bridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. <- 

Edgar Prestage. f 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com- J 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal | Bocage. 
Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Examiner in Portuguese 
in the University of London, Manchester, &c. *- 

Rev. Edmond Warre, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O. 

Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. 
College, 1884-1905. Author of Grammar of Rowing; &c. 

Sir Edward William Brabrook, C.B. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, 1891-1904. J Building Societies: 
Author of Building Societies; Provident Societies and Industrial Welfare; Institutions 1 United Kingdom, 
for Thrift ; &c. I 

Frank Brinkley. f 

Captain R.N. Foreign Adviser to Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Tokyo. Correspondent of J p._; n T c i nrl r1 c 
The Times in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail. Formerly Professor of Mathe- com " «««*nua. 
matics at Imperial Engineering College, Tokyo. Author of Japan ; &c. I 

Frank Dawson Adams, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. [ 

Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, and Logan Professor of Geology, McGill { British Columbia (in part). 
University, Montreal. President of Canadian Mining Institute. I 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. -! Brain: Anatomy. 
Formerly Examiner in the Universities of Cambridge, Aberdeen, London and Bir- 
mingham; and Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Francis Hueffer, Ph.D. (1845-1899). 

Formerly Musical Critic of The Times.- Author of The Troubadours: a History of ^ 
Provencal Life and Literature in the Middle Ages; Richard Wagner and the Music of' 
the Future. Editor of Great Musicians. 

Sir Francis J. Campbell, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.S.A. 

Principal, Royal Normal College for the Blind, Norwood, London. 
Papers on the Education of the Blind. 


Author oi\ Blindness. 


F. J* M. 
F. LI. G. 






















G. E. 

G. F. Z. 
G. G. P.* 
G. L. G. 

G. M. D. 


T. G. 


W. Ca. 


W. T. 







H. De. 
H. Fr. 
H. H. J. 
H. M. C. 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Author 
of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 

Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and 
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Hon. Member of ^Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute, the Societe Asiatique, and the Institut Egyptien, 
Cairo. Author of Stones of the High Priests of Memphis; Catalogue of the Demotic 
Papyri in the Rylands Collection, Manchester ; &c. 

Lady Lugard. 

See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G. 

Lieut. -Col. R.A. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 1897- 
1898. Military Attache, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. Author of 
Central Kurdistan ; &c. 

Frederick Wedmore. 

See the biographical article : Wedmore, F. 

Frederick William Hasluck, M.A. 

Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, 
College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist, 1901. 

Frederick William Maitland, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Maitland, F. W. 

George A. Boulenger, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British ' 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. 

Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. [Bolivia: History {in part)] 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909- J Brabant: Duchy 
1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the | D ra7 :i. it- < /• h ,\ 


Britain: Pre- Roman and 

Caerleon; Caledonia. 




J Bornu; 

I British Empire. 

4 British East Africa. 



Athens. Fellow of King's -j Bithynia (in part). 






Burial and Burial Acts. 

Blood: Pathology of the. 

British Columbia (in part). 

British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations. 

G. F. Zimmer, A.M.Inst.CE., F.Z.S. 

Author of Mechanical Handling of Material. 

George Grenville Phillimore, M.A., B.C.L. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. 

George Lovell Gulland, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). 

Assistant Physician to the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. Lecturer on Medicine at 
Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh. 

George Mercer Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Formerly Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. Geologist and Naturalist 
to H.M. North American Boundary Commission, 1873-1875; one of H.M. Bering 
Sea Commissioners, 1891. Author of numerous scientific and technical reports 
printed by the Canadian Government. 

Sir George D. Taubman Goldie. 

See the biographical article: Goldie, Sir G. D. T. 

George Washington Cable. 

See the biographical article: Cable, G. W. 

Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. r 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and J Buhturl; 
Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 1 Buslrl. 

Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D. r 

Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. J Caedmon. 
Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c. 1 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. r Boulanger 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth Edition of -j oriJomtn ' T aura n 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition. I BrlQ S man > Liaura U. 


Brazza, Count de. 

\ Bryant, William Cullen. 

Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K. C.M.G. 

Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly 
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author- 
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary 
of the Malay Language. 

Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J. 

Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Acta Sanctorum. 


Henri Frantz. 

Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts (Paris). 

Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. 
See the biographical article: Johnston, Sir H. H. 

Hector Munro Chad wick, M.A. 

Fellow and Librarian of Clare College Cambridge. 
Saxon Institutions. 

j Bollandists. 

J Bocklin; 
LBonheur, Rosa. 

\ British Central Africa. 

Author of Studies on Anglo- 

\ Britain: 




. P. B. 




W. C. D, 


W. S. 


A. F. M. 


, G. 

C. A, 












. R. 


















Henry Percival Biggar. - J 

Author of The Voyages of the Cabots to Greenland. \ Cabot, John. 

Henry Stuart Jones, M.A. r 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J p ae . np t..v 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. 1 oaesar > JuuUS. 
Author of The Roman Empire ; &c. I 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. f Bohun; 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, < Breaute, Falkes de; 
1895-1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins; &c. Burgh Hubert de. 

H. Wickham Steed. f 

Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna. 1 Bonghi, RuggerO. 

John Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. f 

Musical Critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician's Pilgrim- 
age; Masters of German Music; English Music in the Nineteenth Century; The Age\ Brahms. 
of Bach and Handel. Editor of the new edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music 
and Musicians; &c. "-- 

J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc. ■ J Bunter; 

Curator and Librarian, Museum of Practical Geology, London. 1 Cainozoic. 

J. A. M. James Alexander Manson. r 

Formerly Literary Editor of the Daily Chronicle. Author of The Bowler's Handbook ; -I Bowls. 
&c. [ 

J. B.* Joseph Burton. J" uric* (in part). 

Partner in Pilkington's Tile and Pottery Co., Clifton Junction, Manchester. 1 

J. Bt. James Bartlett. f „ . . . 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, King's College, J BrlCKWOrK, 
London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity 1 Building. 
Surveyors' Association. Author of Quantities. I 

J.C.C. J. W Comyns-Carr. J Blak wmiam> 

Author of Essays on Art; &c. [. 

J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. r 

Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders J _ , 

of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the ] Bulgaria. 

Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. I 

J. E. H. Julius Eggeling, Ph.D. [nrahman. n-ohmano. 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Edinburgh University. Formerly -I ° ra J| man » Branmana, 
Secretary and Librarian to Royal Asiatic Society. (_ Branmanism. 

3. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. (" 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. I Breton de lOS HerrerOS; 

Norman MacColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 1 Caballero; 

Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Calderon de la Barca 

Literature; &c. *- 

John George Clark Anderson, M.A. f 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, -j Caesarea Mazaca (in part). 
Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. L 

Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E. J Boiler; Boiler-making; 

Author of Plating and Boiler Making; Practical Metal Turning; &c. 1 Brazing and Soldering. 

Sir James George Scott, K.C.I. E. f 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma ; 1 Burma. 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). J 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and] Burgh. 
Pedigree; &c. [_ 

John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge Uni- J Bonaparte: Family (in part). 
versity Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic 1 Bourrienne 
Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c. [ 

Joseph Jefferson. r . 

See the biographical article: Jefferson, J. \ Booth, Edwin. 

John Malcolm Mitchell. ^Boule* 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London i ' . 

College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. I Br««0, Giordano (in part). 

Viscount Morley of Blackburn. J T> llr fc rj mlln j 

See the biographical article: Morley, Viscount. \ BurKe > MmBMl 

John Nichol. { n „_ c „„. , 

See the biographical article: Nichol, John. ^ Burns, KODeri. 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. ("Bookcase; Boulle; 

Editor of the Guardian (London). \ Cabinet: Furniture. 

Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D. f 

Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in j Bismya; 
the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Baby- "j Borsippa; 
Ionia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Calah. 
Euphrates; Scriptures. Hebrew and Christian. ' <■ 


J. S. F. 

J. T. M. 

J. T. S.* 
J. W. D. 

J. W. He. 

K. G. J. 

K. J. 

K. S. 

L. B. 
L. D.* 
L. F. S. 
L. F. V.-H. 

L. G. 
L. J. S. 

L. R. D. 

L. S. 
L. V.* 









John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in . 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh* Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

James Tayler Milton, M.I.C.E. 

Chief Engineer Surveyor to Lloyd's Registry of Shipping. Vice-President, Institute 
-of Naval Architects. Member of Council, Institute of Marine Engineers. Author 
of many papers on Marine Engineering subjects. 

James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 

Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N. 

Nautical Assessor to Court of Appeal since 1906. Formerly Staff Commander, 
Medway Fleet Reserve. 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

Kingsley Garland Jayne. 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. 

J Borolanite; 
1 Breccia. 

' Boiler. 

Boniface, Saint. 


Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903, 

A. Keith Johnston. 

See the biographical article: Johnston, A. K. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra ; &c. 

Count Lutzow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), Ph.D. (Prague), F.R.G.S. 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member 
of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. 
Author of Bohemia: An Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester 
Lecture, Oxford, 1904) ; The Life and Times of John Hus; &c. 

Laurence Binyon. 

See the biographical article : Binyon, L. 

Louis Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. 

Leslie Frederic Scott, K.C., M.A. 

New College, Oxford. Joint Hon. Secretary of International Maritime Committee. 

Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.CE. (1839-1907). f 

Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882-1905. British J Breakwater; 
Member of Jury for Civil Engineering, Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Rivers I Caisson. 
and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as Applied in Construction; &c. *- 

Bucher, Lothar. 

/Bosnia and Herzegovina; 
1 British Honduras. 

-j Brazil: History (in part). 

Bombardon; Bow; 
Buccina; Bugle; 

Bohemia: History and Litero 

Burne-Jones, Sir E. B. 
Boniface (Popes I.-VII.). 

Laurence Ginnell, M.P. 

Barrister, Middle Temple and Irish Bar. Author of Brehon Laws; Land and Liberty; ' 
&c. M.P. for North Westmeath since 1906. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 
Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. - 
Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. Author of English translations of M. Bauer's 
Precious Stones and R. Brauns's Mineral Kingdom. 

Lawrence Robert Dicksee, M.Com. (Birmingham), F.C.A. 

Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science. Formerly Professor 
of Accounting at Birmingham University. Author of Auditing; Advanced Account-' 
ing; Book-keeping; &c. 

Sir Leslie Stephen, K.C.B. 

See the biographical article: Stephen, Sir L. 

Luigi Villari. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phil-, 
adelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town 
and Country ; Giovanni Segantini ; Russia under the Great Shadow ; Fire and Sword 
in the Caucasus ; &c. 

Lord Macaulay. 

See the biographical article: Macaulay, T. B. M., Baron. 

Miss Mary Bateson (1865-1906). 

Formerly Fellow of Newnham College, Cambridge. Author of Medieval England; 
Borough Customs; &c. 

Miss Margaret Bryant. 

Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig). 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and By- 
zantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. 
Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian 
Popular Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of 
the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle. 

Brehon Laws. 

Bismuthite; Blende; 
Boracite; Bournonite; 
Brochantite; Bromlite; 
Bronzite; Brookite; 
Brucite; Bytownite; 
Calamine; Calcite. 


Browning, Robert. 

Borgia, Cesare; 
Borgia, Lucrezia; 

j Bunyan, John. 

Borough: English. 
■I Caesar: Medieval Legends. 





M. St J. 
N. W. T. 


0. H. 

P. A. K. 
P. C. M. 

P. C. Y. 
P. Si. 

P. G. K. 

P. W. C. 



R. Ad. 


A. S. 











N. 8. 

Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. r 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of T> r : _„ i. rJiSfoon. 
France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of V Industrie du sel en\ » r |enne-ie-onaieaU, 
Franche-Comte; Les Armoiries ecarteles des conjoints; Francois I et le comte de Bour- Wrissac, Dukes Of. 
gogne. L 

Molyneux St John. -J British Columbia: {in part). 

Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A. C 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the | Tj nnmBr _ 
Societe d' Anthropologic de Paris. Author of Thought Transference ; Kinship and "1 -Boomerang. 
Marriage in A ustralia ; &c. 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage. 
Editor of the Ancestor, 1902-1905. 

Oscar Briliant. 

Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the City . 
and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent Figures; 

Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article : Kropotkin, P. A. 

Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. 
Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892-1894; at London Hospital, 
1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892-1896, 1901- 
1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological 
Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c. 

Paul G. Konody. 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. • 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. 

Philip Schidrowitz, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

Member of Council, Institute of Brewing. Member of Committee of Society of '_ 
Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and Technology 
of Brewing, Distilling, &c. 

Peter William Clayden (d. 1902). 

Formerly President, Institute of Journalists, London. Literary Editor of the 
Daily News. Author of Scientific Men and Religious Teachers; England under Lord- 
Beaconsfield; Early Life of Samuel Rogers; Rogers and his Contemporaries; England 
under the Coalition; &c. 

Butler: Family. 

J Bohemia: Geography and 
I Statistics; Budapest. 

Calculating Machines. 

("Bokhara: (in part); 
\ Bulgaria: Eastern. 

Breeds and Breeding. 

Boleyn, Anne; Bolingbroke; 


Bristol, 1st and 2nd Earls of; 

Buckingham, 1st Duke of 

(in part) ; 
Buckingham, 2nd Duke of. 



Bright, John. 

Robert Anchel. 

Archivist to the Department de l'Eure. 

Robert Adamson, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Adamson, R. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine 
tion Fund. 

Richard Garnett, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Garnett, R. 

R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. r 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of St James's Gazette, -\ Bunker Hill. 

fBoissy D' Anglais, Francois 
1 Antoine de. 

f Bonaventura, Saint; 
-j Bruno, Giordano (in part) ; 
I Butler, Bishop (in part). 
(" Bozrah; 
Explora- j Caesarea Palaestina; 
L Caesarea Philippi. 


Burton, John Hill. 

f Book-Scorpion; 

I Caddis-Fly and Caddis- Worm. 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Member of Staff of Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of' 
Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum ; &c. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900; The First Romanovs, < 
16 1 j to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1796; &c. 




Bocskay, Stephen; 
Boris Fedorovich Godunov; 
Boyar; Brahe, Per; 
Buslaev, Fedor Ivanovich. 

R. P.* 
R. Po. 

S. A. C. 

S. C. 
S. H. V.* 

S. L.-P. 

S. R. G. 

T. AS. 

T. Ba. 

T. G. Br. 
T. H. H.* 

T. Se. 

T. W.-D. 
T. W. R. D. 

W. A. B. C. 

W. A. P. 
W. B.* 
W. B. S.* 



Robert Peele. /Blasting; 

Professor of Mining in Columbia University, New York. \ Boring. 

Rene Poupardin, D. es L. r 

Secretary to the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian to the Bibliotheque J 
Nationale. Author of Le Royaume de Bourgogne; Le Royaume de Provence sous les\ Burgundy, 
Carolingiens ; &c. [_ 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew 
and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 
1904-1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and 
the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient 
Palestine; &c. 

Sidney Colvin, M.A., Litt.D. 

See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney. 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: Iddesleigh: ist Earl of. 

Sydney Howard Vines, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Sherardian Professor of Botany, Oxford University. Fellow of Magdalen College. 
Author of Lectures on the Physiology of Plants ; Text-Book of Botany ; &c. 

Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D. 

Formerly Professor of Arabic, Dublin University, and Examiner in the University 
of Wales. Corresponding Member of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. 
Member of the Khedivial Commission for the Preservation of the Monuments of 1 
Arab Art, &c. Author of Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe; Life of Sir Harry I 
Parkes ; Cairo ; Turkey ; &c. Editor of The Koran ; The Thousand and One Nights ; &c. [ 



{Brongniart, Adolphe 

Burton, Sir Richard Francis. 

Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Gardiner, S. R. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.). 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Member of the Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. 
Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Author of The Classical 
Topography of the Roman Campagna. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council 
of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of 
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 

Author of Essentials 

Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. 
Experimental Physiology. 

Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I. E., D.Sc. 

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 
Award; India; Tibet; &c. 

f Buckingham, 1st Duke of (it, 
I part). 

Bologna; Bolsena; Bononia; 

Borgo San Donnino; 

Bovianum; Bovillae; 

Bracciano; Brescia; 

Brindisi; Brundisium; 

Bruttli; Caere; Cagli; 

Cagliari; Caietae Portus; 
I Calabria. 


Anatomy and 

f Blood 

Bolan Pass; 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. r 

Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. ) Boswell. 
Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. . Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National"] 
Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. I 

Theodore Watts-Dunton. 

See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, T. 

T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali 
Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal . 
Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists 
Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern). 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, ,St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphine; The Range of i 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald ; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889, &c. 





Bitzius; Blane, Mont; 
Bonstetten; Botzen; 
Bourrit; Bregenz; 
Brenner Pass; Briancon; 
Brieg; Brienz, Lake of; 
Brignoles; Brixen; 
Burckhardt, Jakob; Burgdofi 


Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, . 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. 

William Burton, M.A., F.C.S. r 

Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of J Brick (in part). 
English Stoneware and Earthenware ; &c. [ 

William Barclay Squire, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. r 

Assistant in charge of Printed Music, British Museum. Hon. Secretary of the J g vr fl 
Purcell Society. Formerly Musical Critic of Westminster Gazette, Saturday Review 1 * * 
and Globe. Editor of Byrd's Masses. L 



























R. C. 


















William Charles Smith, K.C., M.A., LL.D. 

Formerly Sheriff of Ross, Cromarty and Sutherland. Editor of Judicial Review, - 

William Cawthorne Unwin, LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., 
A.R.I B.A. . 

Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Central Technical College, City and Guilds of 
London Institute. Author of Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs ; Treatise on Hydraulics. I 

Wilfranc Hubbard. f_ ,. . TT . 1 ,. ^ A 

Correspondent of The Times in Rome. j Bolivia: History (in part). 

William H. Lang, D.Sc. f 

Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, University of Manchester. Author of . 
Papers on Botanical Subjects, including Morphology and life history of Bryophyta, 
Pteridophyta and Gymnosperms, in scientific journals. 

William Henry Whitfeld, M.A. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Card Editor of the Field. 

W. J. Hughan. 

Past Senior Grand Deacon of Freemasons of England, 1874. Hon. Senior Warden - 
of Grand Lodges of Egypt, Quebec and Iona, &c. 

Right Rev. William Lawrence, D.D., LL.D. 

Bishop of Massachusetts. Author of Study of Phillips Brooks; Life of Roger - 
Wolcotl; &c. 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. f 

Professor of Colonial History, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly J ' 
Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy 1 1 
Council (Canadian Series). I 

William Liest Readwin Cates (1821-1895). 

Editor of Dictionary of General Biography. Author of A History of England from 
the Death of Edward the Confessor to the Death of King John. Part author of Encyclo- 
paedia of Chronology. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

Borough: Irish and Scottish. 


Bridge: Game. 
Builders' Rites. 

Brooks, Phillips. 

Brock, Sir Isaac; 
Brown, George. 


W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A. 

Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council. 
Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c. 

William Stanley Jevons. LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Jevons, William Stanley. 

Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congrega- 
tional Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c. [_ 

William Warde Fowler, M.A. f 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, J Bona Dea. 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 1 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period ; &c. I 

William Walker Rockwell, Lie. Theol. J" ij on jf aee (p n e s VIII.-IX.). 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. \ "' 

Brown, Ford Madox. 

Byzantine Art. 


Bushnell, Horace. 



Bizet, Georges. 

Black Sea. 


Blake, Robert. 

Blanc, Louis. 














Bonnet, Charles. 





Borders, The. 

Boric Acid. 












Bowring, Sir John. 


Boyle, Robert. 




Bradlaugh, Charles. 

Brahma Samaj. 












Brewster, Sir David. 





Broglie, de. 




Brooke, Fulke Greville. 

Brooke, Sir James. 



Brown, John. 

Browne, Sir Thomas. 





Bryan, William J. 
Buchanan, George. 
Buchanan, James. 
Buckingham, Earls, 

Marquesses and 

Dukes of. 

Buffalo, U.S.A. 
Buffon, G. L. E., Comte 

Bull Run. 
Bttlow, Prince von. 
Bunsen, C. C. J., Baron 

Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm 


Burmese Wars. 

Burnet, Gilbert. 

Burney, Charles. 

Burr, Aaron. 



Butler, Benjamin 

Butler, Samuel. 

Buxtorf, Johannes. 


Cabinet (Political). 

Cairnes, Prof. Elliot. 
Cairns, 1st Earl. 

Caisson Disease. 
Calabar Bean. 




BISH&RlN (the anc. Ichthyophagi), a nomad tribe of African 
" Arabs," of Hamitic origin, dwelling in the eastern part of the 
Nubian desert. In the middle ages they were known as Beja 
{q.v.), and they are the most characteristic of the Nubian 
" Arabs." With the Ababda and Hadendoa they represent the 
Blemmyes of classical writers. Linguistically and geographically 
the Bisharln form a connecting link between the Hamitic popula- 
tions and the Egyptians. Nominally they are Mahommedans. 
They, however, preserve some non-Islamic religious practices, 
and exhibit traces of animal-worship in their rule of never 
killing the serpent or the partridge, which are regarded as 

BISHOP, SIR HENRY ROWLEY (1786-1855), English musical 
composer, was born in London on the 18th of November 1786. 
He received his artistic training from Francisco Bianchi, and in 
1804 wrote the music to a piece called Angelina, which was 
performed at Margate. His next composition was the music to 
the ballet of Tamerlan et Bajazet, produced in 1806 at the King's 
theatre. This proved successful, and was followed within two 
years by several others, of which Caractacus, a pantomimic 
ballet, written for Drury Lane, may be named. In 1809 his first 
opera, The Circassian's Bride, was produced at Drury Lane; 
but unfortunately the theatre was burned down after one per- 
formance, and the score of the work perished in the flames. His 
next work of importance, the opera of The Maniac, written for 
the Lyceum in 1810, established his reputation, and probably 
secured for him an appointment for three years as composer for 
Covent Garden theatre. The numerous works — operas, burlettas, 
cantatas, incidental music to Shakespeare's plays, &c. — which 
he composed while in this position, are in great part forgotten. 
The most successful were — The Virgin of the Sun (181 2), The 
Miller and his Men (1813), Guy Mannering and The Slave (1816), 
Maid Marian and Clari, introducing the well-known air of 
" Home, Sweet Home " (1822). In 1825 Bishop was induced 
by Elliston to transfer his services from Covent Garden to the 
rival house in Drury Lane, for which he wrote with unusual care 
the opera of Aladdin, intended to compete with Weber's Oberon, 
commissioned by the other house. The result was a failure, and 
with Aladdin Bishop's career as an operatic composer may be 
said to close. On the formation of the Philharmonic Society 
(1813) Bishop was appointed one of the directors, and he took 
his turn as conductor of its concerts during the period when that 
office was held by different musicians in rotation. In 1 830 he was 
appointed musical director at Vauxhall; and it was in the course 
of this engagement that he wrote the popular song " My Pretty 
Jane." His sacred cantata, The Seventh Day, was written for the 
Philharmonic Society and performed in 1833. In 1839 he was 
made bachelor in music at Oxford. In 1841 he was appointed 
to the Reid chair of music in the university of Edinburgh, but 

IV. 1 

he resigned the office in 1843. He was knighted in 1842, being the 
first musician who ever received that honour. In 1848 he suc- 
ceeded Dr Crotch in the chair of music at Oxford. The music 
for the ode on the occasion of the installation of Lord Derby as 
chancellor of the university (1853) proved to be his last work. 
He died on the 30th of April 1855 in impoverished circumstances, 
though few composers ever made more by their labours. Bishop 
was twice married: to Miss Lyon and Miss Anne Riviere. Both 
he and his wives were singers. His name lives in connexion with 
his numerous glees, songs and smaller compositions. His 
melodies are clear, flowing, appropriate and often charming; and 
his harmony is always pure, simple and sweet. 

BISHOP, ISABELLA (1832-1904), English traveller and author, 
daughter of the Rev. Edward Bird, rector of Tattenhall, Cheshire, 
was born in Yorkshire on the 15th of October 1832. Isabella 
Bird began to travel when she was twenty-two. Her first book, 
The Englishwoman in A merica (1856), consisted of her correspond- 
ence during a visit to Canada undertaken for her health. She 
visited the Rocky Mountains, the South Pacific, Australia and« 
New Zealand, producing some brightly written books of travel. 
But her reputation was made by the records of her extensive 
travels in Asia: Unbeaten Tracks in Japan (2 vols., 1880), 
Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan (2 vols., 1891), Among the 
Tibetans (1894), Korea and her Neighbours (2 vols., 1898), The 
Yangtze Valley and Beyond (1899), Chinese Pictures (1900). 
She married in 1881 Dr John Bishop, an Edinburgh physician, 
and was left a widow in 1886. In 1892 she became the first lady 
fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and in 1901 she rode a 
thousand miles in Morocco and the Atlas Mountains. She died in 
Edinburgh on the 7th of October 1904. 

See Anna M. Stoddart, The Life of Isabella Bird (1906). 

BISHOP (A.S. bisceop, from Lat. episcopus, Gr. kirlaKcnros, 
" overlooker " or " overseer "), in certain branches of the 
Christian Church, an ecclesiastic consecrated or set apart to 
perform certain spiritual functions, and to exercise oversight over 
the lower clergy (priests or presbyters, deacons, &c). In the 
Catholic Church bishops take rank at the head of the sacerdotal 
hierarchy, and have certain spiritual powers peculiar to their 
office, but opinion has long been divided as to whether they 
constitute a separate order or form merely a higher degree of 
the order of priests (ordo sacerdotium) . 

In the Roman Catholic Church the bishop belongs to the 
highest order of the hierarchy, and in this respect is the peer even 
of the pope, who addresses him as "venerable brother." 
By the decree of the council of Trent he must be thirty catholic. 
years of age, of legitimate birth, and of approved 
learning and virtue. The method of his selection varies 
in different countries. In France, under the Concordat, the 
sovereign — and under the republic the president — had the right 



of nomination. The same is true of Austria (except four sees), 
Bavaria, Spain and Portugal. In some countries the bishop 
is elected by the cathedral chapter (as in Wurttemberg), or by the 
bishops of the provinces (as in Ireland). In others, as in Great 
Britain, the United States of America and Belgium, the pope 
selects one out of a list submitted by the chapter. In all cases 
the nomination or election is subject to confirmation by the 
Holy See. Before this is granted the candidate is submitted to 
a double examination as to his fitness, first by a papal delegate 
at his place of residence {processus informativus in parjibus 
electi), and afterwards by the Roman Congregation of Cardinals 
assigned for this purpose {processus electionis definitivus in curia). 
In the event of both processes proving satisfactory, the bishop- 
elect is confirmed, preconized, and so far promoted that he is 
allowed to exercise the rights of jurisdiction in his see. He can- 
not, however, exercise the functions proper to the episcopal order 
{potestas ordinis) until his consecration, which ordinarily takes 
place within three months of his confirmation. The bishop is con- 
secrated, after taking the oath of fidelity to the Holy See, 
and subscribing the profession of faith, by a bishop appointed 
by the pope for the purpose, assisted by at least two other bishops 
or prelates, the main features of the act being the laying on of 
hands, the anointing with oil, and the delivery of the pastoral staff 
and other symbols of the office. After consecration the new bishop 
is solemnly enthroned and blesses the assembled congregation. 

The potestas ordinis of the bishop is not peculiar to the Roman 
Church, and, in general, is claimed by all bishops, whether 
Oriental or Anglican, belonging to churches which have retained 
the Catholic tradition in this respect. Besides the full functions 
of the presbyterate, or priesthood, bishops have the sole right 
(i) to confer holy orders, (2) to administer confirmation, (3) to 
prepare the holy oil, or chrism, (4) to consecrate sacred places 
or utensils (churches, churchyards, altars, &c), (5) to give the 
benediction to abbots and abbesses, (6) to anoint kings. In 
the matter of their rights of jurisdiction, however, Roman 
Catholic bishops differ from others in their peculiar responsibility 
to the Holy See. Some of their powers of legislation and admini- 
stration they possess motu proprio in virtue of their position as 
diocesan bishops, others they enjoy under special faculties 
granted by the Holy See; but all bishops are bound, by an oath 
taken at the time of their consecration, to go to Rome at fixed 
'intervals {visitare sacra lintina apostolorum) to report in person, 
and in writing, on the state of their dioceses. 

The Roman bishop ranks immediately after the cardinals; 
he is styled reverendissimus, sanctissimus or bealissimus. In 
English the style is " Right Reverend "; the bishop being 
addressed as " my lord bishop." 

The insignia {pontificalia or pontificals) of the Roman Catholic 
bishop are (1) a ring with a jewel, symbolizing fidelity to the 
church, (2) the pastoral staff, (3) the pectoral cross, (4) the 
vestments, consisting of the caligae, stockings and sandals, the 
tunicle, and purple gloves, (5) the mitre, symbol of the royal 
priesthood, (6) the throne {cathedra), surmounted by a baldachin 
or canopy, on the gospel side of the choir in the cathedral church. 

The spiritual function and character of the Anglican bishops, 
allowing for the doctrinal changes effected at the Reformation, 
are similar to those of the Roman. They alone can 
' administer the rite of confirmation, ordain priests 
and deacons, and exercise a certain dispensing power. In the 
established Church of England the appointment of bishops 
is vested effectively in the crown, though the old form of election 
by the cathedral chapter is retained. They must be learned 
presbyters at least thirty years of age, born in lawful wedlock, 
and of good life and behaviour. The mode of appointment is 
regulated by 25 Henry VIII. c. 20, re-enacted in 1 Elizabeth 
c. 1 (Act of Supremacy 1558). On a vacancy occurring, the 
dean and chapter notify the king thereof in chancery, and pray 
leave to make election. A licence under the Great Seal to proceed 
to the election of a bishop, known as the conge d'eslire, together 
with a letter missive containing the name of the king's nominee, 
is thereupon sent to the dean and chapter, who are bound under 
the penalties of Praemunire to proceed within twelve days to 

the election of the person named in it. In the event of their 
refusing obedience or neglecting to elect, the bishop may be 
appointed by letters patent under the Great Seal without the 
form of election. Upon the election being reported to the crown, 
a mandate issues from the crown to the archbishop and metro- 
politan, requesting him and commanding him to confirm the 
election, and to invest and consecrate the bishop-elect. There- 
upon the archbishop issues a commission to his vicar-general to 
examine formally the process of the election of the bishop, and 
to supply by his authority all defects in matters of form, and 
to administer to the bishop-elect the oaths of allegiance, of 
supremacy and of canonical obedience (see Confirmation op 
Bishops). In the disestablished and daughter Churches the 
election is by the synod of the Church, as in Ireland, or by a 
diocesan convention, as in the United States of America. 

In the Church of England the potestas ordinis is conferred by 
consecration. This is usually carried out by an archbishop, 
who is assisted by two or more bishops. The essential " form " 
of the consecration is in the simultaneous " laying on of hands " 
by the consecrating prelates. After this the new bishop, who 
has so far been vested only in a rochet, retires and puts on the 
rest of the episcopal habit, viz. the chimere. After consecration 
the bishop is competent to exercise all the spiritual functions of 
his office; but a bishopric in the Established Church, being a 
barony, is under the guardianship of the crown during a vacancy, 
and has to be conferred afresh on each new holder. A bishop, 
then, cannot enter into the enjoyment of the temporalities of his 
see, including his rights of presentation to benefices, before doing 
homage to the king. This is done in the ancient feudal form, 
surviving elsewhere only in the conferring of the M.A. degree at 
Cambridge. The bishop kneels before the king, places his hands 
between his, and recites an oath of temporal allegiance; he 
then kisses hands. 

Besides the functions exercised in virtue of their order, bishops 
are also empowered by law to exercise a certain jurisdiction over 
all consecrated places and over all ordained persons. This 
jurisdiction they exercise for the most part through their con- 
sistorial courts, or through commissioners appointed under the 
Church Discipline Act of 1840. By the Clergy Discipline Act 
of 1892 it was decreed that the trial of clerks accused of unfitness 
to exercise the cure of souls should be before the consistory court 
with five assessors. Under the Public Worship Regulation Act 
of 1874, which gave to churchwardens and aggrieved parishioners 
the right to institute proceedings against the clergy for breaches 
of the law in the conduct of divine service, a discretionary right 
was reserved to the bishop to stay proceedings. 

The bishops also exercise a certain jurisdiction over marriages, 
inasmuch as they have by the canons of the Church of England 
a power of dispensing with the proclamation of banns before 
marriage. These dispensations are termed marriage licences, 
and their legal validity is recognised by the Marriage Act of 1823. 
The bishops had formerly jurisdiction over all questions touching 
the validity of marriages and the status of married persons, but 
this jurisdiction has been transferred from the consistorial 
courts of the bishops to a court of the crown by the Matri- 
monial Causes Act of 1857, They have in a similar manner 
been relieved of their jurisdiction in testamentary matters, and 
in matters of defamation and of brawling in churches; and the 
only jurisdiction which they continue to exercise over the 
general laity is with regard to their use of the churches and 
churchyards. The churchwardens, who are representative 
officers of the parishes, are also executive officers of the bishops 
in all matters touching the decency and order of the churches 
and of the churchyards, and they are responsible to the bishops 
for the due discharge of their duties; but the abolition of church 
rates has relieved the churchwardens of the most onerous part 
of their duties, which was connected with the stewardship of the 
church funds of their parishes. 

The bishops are still authorized by law to dedicate and set 
apart buildings for the solemnization of divine service, and 
grounds for the performance of burials, according to the rites 
and ceremonies of the Church of England; and such buildings 


and grounds, after they have been duly consecrated according 
to law, cannot be diverted to any secular purpose except under 
the authority of an act of parliament. 

The bishops of England have also jurisdiction to examine 
clerks who may be presented to benefices within their respective 
dioceses, and they are bound in each case by the 95th canon of 
1604 to inquire and inform themselves of the sufficiency of each 
clerk within twenty-eight days, after which time, if they have 
not rejected him as insufficiently qualified, they are bound to 
institute him, or to license him, as the case may be; to the 
benefice, and thereupon to send their mandate to the archdeacon 
to induct him into the temporalities of the benefice. Where 
the bishop himself is patron of a benefice within his own diocese 
he is empowered to collate a clerk to it, — in other words, to confer 
it on the clerk without the latter being presented to him. Where 
the clerk himself is patron of the living, the bishop may institute 
him on his own petition. (See Benefice.) 

As spiritual peers, bishops of the Church of England have 
(subject to the limitations stated below) seats in the House of 
Lords, though whether as barons or in their spiritual character 
has been a matter of dispute. The latter, however, would seem 
to be the case, since a bishop was entitled to his writ of summons 
after confirmation and before doing homage for his barony. 
Doubts having been raised whether a bishop of the Church of 
England, being a lord of parliament, could resign his seat in the 
Upper House, although several precedents to that effect are on 
record, a statute of the realm, which was confined to the case 
of the bishops of London and Durham, was passed in 1856, 
declaring that on the resignation of their sees being accepted by 
their respective metropolitans, those bishops should cease to sit 
as lords of parliament, and their sees should be filled up in the 
manner provided by law in the case of the avoidance of a 
bishopric. In 1869 the Bishops' Resignation Act was passed. 
It provided that, on any bishop desiring to retire on account of 
age or incapacity, the sovereign should be empowered to declare 
the see void by an order in council, the retiring bishop or arch- 
bishop to be secured the use of the episcopal residence for life 
and a pension of one-third of the revenues of the see, or £2000, 
whichever sum should prove the larger. Other sections defined 
the proceedings for proving, in case of need, the incapacity of a 
bishop, provided for the appointment of coadjutors and defined 
their status (Phillimore i. 82). 

In view of the necessity for increasing the episcopate in the 
19th century and the objection to the consequent increase of 
the spiritual peers in the Upper House, it was finally enacted by 
the Bishoprics Act of 1878 that only the archbishops and the 
bishops of London, Winchester and Durham should be always 
entitled to writs summoning them to the House of Lords. The 
rest of the twenty-five seats are filled up, as a vacancy occurs, 
according to seniority of consecration. 

■ Bishops of the Church of England rank in order of precedency 
immediately above barons. They may marry, but their wives as 
such enjoy no title or precedence. Bishops are addressed as 
"■ Right Reverend " and have legally the style of " Lord," 
which, as in the case of Roman Catholic bishops in England, 
is extended to all, whether suffragans or holders of colonial 
bishoprics, by courtesy. 

The insignia of the Anglican bishop are the rochet and the 
chimere, and the episcopal throne on the gospel side of the 
chancel of the cathedral church. The use of the mitre, pastoral 
staff and pectoral cross, which had fallen into complete disuse 
by the end of the 18th century, has been now very commonly, 
though not universally, revived; and, in some cases, the inter- 
pretation put upon the " Ornaments rubric " by the modern 
High Church school has led to a more complete revival of the 
pre-Reformation vestments. 

In the Orthodox Church of the East and the various com- 
munions springing from it, the potestas ordinis of the bishop is 
the same as in the Western Church. Among his 
Eastern* qualifications the most peculiar is that he must be 
unmarried, which, since the secular priests are com- 
pelled to marry, entails his belonging to the " black clergy " or 

monks. The insignia of an oriental bishop, with considerable 
t variation in form, are essentially the same as those of the 
Catholic West. 

Besides bishops presiding over definite sees, there have been 
from time immemorial in the Christian Church bishops holding 
their jurisdiction in subordination to the bishop of the 
diocese. (1) The oldest of these were the chorepiscopi Sab " 
(rrjs x&pas kiriffKoroi.), i.e. country bishops, who were bishops. 
delegated by the bishops of the cities in the early 
church to exercise jurisdiction in the remote towns and villages 
as these were converted from paganism. Their functions varied 
in different times and places, and by some it has been held that 
they were originally only presbyters. In any case, this class of 
bishops, which had been greatly curtailed in the East in A.D. 343 
by the council of Laodicea, was practically extinct everywhere 
by the 10th century. It survived longest in Ireland, where in 
1152 a synod, presided over by the papal legate, decreed that, 
after the death of the existing holders of the office, no more 
should be consecrated. Their place was taken by arch-presbyterr 
and rural deans. (2) The Episcopi regionarii, or gentium, were 
simply missionary bishops without definite sees. Such were, 
at the outset, Boniface, the apostle of Germany, and Willibrord, 
the apostle of the Frisians. (3) Bishops in partibus infidelium 
were originally those who had been expelled from their sees by 
the pagans, and, while retaining their titles, were appointed to 
assist diocesan bishops in their work. In later times the custom 
arose of consecrating bishops for this purpose, or merely as an 
honorary distinction, with a title derived from some place once 
included within, but now beyond the bounds of Christendom. 
(4) Coadjutor bishops are such as are appointed to assist the 
bishop of the diocese when incapacitated by infirmity or by other 
causes from fulfilling his functions alone. Coadjutors in the early 
church were appointed with a view to their succeeding to the 
see; but this, though common in practice, is no longer the rule. 
In the Church of England the appointment and rights of co- 
adjutor bishops were regulated by the Bishops' Resignation Act 
of 1869. . Under this act the coadjutor bishop has the right of 
succession to the see, or in the case of the archiepiscopal sees 
and those of London, Winchester and Durham, to the "see 
vacated by the bishop, translated from another diocese to fill 
the vacancy. (5) Suffragan bishops {episcopi suffraganei or 
auxiliares) are those appointed to assist diocesan bishops in their 
pontifical functions when hindered by infirmity, public affairs 
or other causes. In the Roman Church the appointment of the 
suffragan rests with, the pope, on the petition of the bishop, 
who must £>rove that such is the custom of the see, name a suitable 
priest and guarantee his maintenance. The suffragan is given a 
title in partibus, but never that of archbishop, and the same 
title is never given to two suffragans in succession. In the 
Church of England the status of suffragan bishops was regulated 
by the Act 26 Henry VIII. c. 14. Under this statute, which, 
after long remaining inoperative, was amended and again put 
into force by the Suffragans' Nomination Act of 1888, every, 
archbishop and bishop, being disposed to have a suffragan to 
assist him, may name two honest and discreet spiritual persons 
for the crown to give to one of them the title, name, style and 
dignity of a bishop of any one of twenty-six sees enumerated 
in the statute, as the crown may think convenient. The crown, 
having made choice of one of such persons, is empowered to 
present him by letters patent under the great seal to the metro- 
politan, requiring him to consecrate him to the same name, 
title, style and dignity of a bishop; and the person so conse- 
crated is thereupon entitled to exercise, under a commission 
from the bishop who has nominated him, such authority and 
jurisdiction, within the diocese of such bishop, as shall be given 
to him by the commission, and no other. 

The title of bishop survived the Reformation in certain of the 
Lutheran churches of the continent, in Denmark, Norway, 
Finland, Sweden and Transylvania; it was tern- 
porarily restored in Prussia in 1701, for the coronation churches. 
of King Frederick I., again between 1816 and 1840 by 
Frederick William III., and in Nassau in 181 8. In these latter 


cases, however, the title bishop is, equivalent to that of " super- 
intendent," the form most generally employed. The Lutheran 
bishops, as a rule, do not possess or claim unbroken "apostolic 
succession"; those of Finland and Sweden are, however, an 
exception. The Lutheran bishops of Transylvania sit, with the 
Roman and Orthodox bishops, in the Hungarian Upper House. 
In some cases the secularization of. episcopal principalities 
at the Reformation led to the survival of the title of bishop as a 
purely secular distinction. Thus the see of Osnabruck (Osna- 
burgh) was occupied, from the peace of Westphalia to 1802, 
alternately by a Catholic and a Protestant prince. From 1762 
to 1802 it was held by Frederick, duke of York, the last prince- 
bishop. Similarly, the bishopric of Schwerin survived as a 
Protestant prince-bishopric until 1648, when it was finally 
secularized and annexed to Mecklenburg; and'the See of Liibeck 
was held by Protestant " bishops " from 1530 till its annexation 
to Oldenburg in 1803. 1 

In other Protestant communities, e.g. the Moravians, the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the Mormons, the office and 
title of bishop have survived, or been created. Their functions 
and status will be found described in the accounts of the several 

See Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, s. "Bischof" and "Weihen" ; 
Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, vol. ii. ; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, 
s. " Bischof " (the author rather arbitrarily classes Anglican with 
Lutheran bishops as not bishops in any proper sense at all) ; 
Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law, the articles Order, Holy; Vest- 
ments; Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction; Episcopacy. (W. A. P.) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, a market town in the Bishop Auckland 
parliamentary division of Durham, England, 11 m. S.S.W. of the 
city of Durham, the junction of several branches of the North 
Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 11,969. It is 
beautifully situated on an eminence near the confluence of the 
Wear and the Gaunless. The parish church is 1 m. distant, at 
Auckland St Andrews, a fine cruciform structure, formerly 
collegiate, in style mainly Early English, but with earlier portions. 
The palace of the bishops of Durham, which stands at the north- 
east end of the town, is a spacious and splendid, though irregular 
pile v The site of the palace was first chosen by Bishop Anthony 
Beck, in the time of Edward I. The present building covers 
about 5 acres, and is surrounded by a park of 800 acres. On the 
Wear i|m. above Bishop Auckland there is a small and very 
ancient church at Escomb, massively built and tapering from the 
bottom upward. It is believed to date from the 7th century, 
and some of the stones are evidently from a Roman building, 
one bearing an inscription. These, no doubt, came from Bin- 
chester, a short distance up stream, where remains of a Roman 
fort ( Vinovia) are traceable. It guarded the great Roman north 
road from York to Hadrian's wall. The industrial population 
of Bishop Auckland is principally employed in the neighbouring 
collieries and iron works. 

BISHOP'S CASTLE, a market town and municipal borough 
in the southern parliamentary division of Shropshire, England; 
the terminus of the Bishop's Castle light railway from Craven 
Arms. Pop. (1901) 1378. It is pleasantly situated in a hilly 
district to the east of Clun Forest, climbing the flank and occupy- 
ing the summit of an eminence. Of the castle of the bishops 
of Hereford, which gave the town its name, there are only the 
slightest fragments remaining. The town has some agricultural 
trade. It is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 1 2 councillors. 
Area, 1867 acres. 

Bishop's Castle was included in the manor of Lydbury; which 
belonged to the church of Hereford before the Conquest., The castle, 
at first called Lydbury Castle, was built by one of the bishops of 
Hereford between 1085 and 1 154, to protect his manor from the 
Welsh, and the town which sprang up round thecastle walls acquired 
the name of Bishop's Castle in the 13th century. In 1292 the bishop 
claimed to have a market every Friday, a fair on the eve, day and 

1 The title prince-bishop, attached in Austria to the sees of Laibach, 
Seckau, Gurk, Brixen, Trent and Lavant, and in Prussia to that of 
Breslau, no longer implies any secular jurisdiction, but is merely a 
title of honour recognized by the state, owing either to the importance 
of the sees pr for reasons purely historical. 

morrow qf the Decollation of St John f and assize of bread and aje 
in Bishop's Castle, which his predecessors had held from time 
: immemorial. Ten years later he received a grant from Richard II. 
of a market every Wednesday and a fair on the 2nd of November 
and two days following. Although the town was evidently a borough 
by the 13th century, since the burgesses are mentioned as early as 
1292, it has no charter earlier than the incorporation charter granted 
by Queen Elizabeth in 1572. This was confirmed by James I. in 
1617 and by James II. in 1688. In 1584 Bishop's Castle returned 
two members to parliament, and was represented until 1832, when 
it was disfranchised. - 

BISHOP STORTFORD, a market town in the Hertford parlia- 
mentary division of Hertfordshire, England; 305 m. N.N.E. 
from London by the Cambridge line of the Great Eastern railway. 
Pop. of urban district (190 1) 7143. It lies on the river Stort, 
close to the county boundary with Essex, and has water-com- 
munication with London through the Lea and Stort Navigation. 
The church of St Michael, standing high above the valley, is a 
fine embattled Perpendicular building with western tower and 
spire. The high school, > formerly the grammar school, was 
founded : in the time of Elizabeth. Here were educated Sir 
Henry Chauncy, an early historian of Hertfordshire (d. 17 19), 
and Cecil Rhodes, who was born at Bishop Stortford in 1853. 
There are a Nonconformist grammar school, a diocesan training 
college for mistresses* and other educational establishments. 
The industries include brewing and malting, coach-building, 
lime-burning and founding, and there are important horse and 
cattle markets. 

Before the Conquest the manor of Bishop Stortford is said to have 
'belonged to Eddeva the Fair, wife of Harold, who sold it to the bishop 
of London, from whom it was taken by William the Conqueror. 
William restored it after a few years, and with it gave the bishop a 
small castle called Waytemore, of which there are scanty remains. 
The dungeon of this castle, called " Bishop's Hole " or " Bishop's 
Prison," was used as an ecclesiastical prison' until the 16th century. 
The town now possesses no early incorporation charters, and although 
both Chauncy and Salmon in their histories of Hertfordshire state 
that it was created a borough by charter of King John in 1206, the 
charter cannot now be found. The first mention of Bishop Stortford 
as a borough occurs in 1311, in which year the burgesses returned 
two members to parliament. The town: was represented from that 
date until 1332, and again in 1335-1336, but the privilege was then 
allowed to lapse and has never been revived. 

BISKRA, a town of Algeria, in the arrondissement of Batna> 
department of Constantine, 150 m. S.W. of the city of Constantine 
and connected with it and with Philippeville by rail. It lies in 
the Sahara 360 ft. above the sea, on the right bank of the Wad 
Biskra, a river which, often nearly dry for many months in the 
year, becomes a mighty torrent after one or two days' rain in 
winter. The name Biskra applies to a union of five or six 
villages of the usual Saharan type, scattered through an oasis 
3 m. in length by less than 1 m. broad, and separated by huge 
gardens full of palm and olive trees. The houses are built of 
hardened mud, with doors and roof of palm wood. The foreign 
settlement is on the .north of the oasis; it consists of a broad 
main street, the rue Berthe (from which a few side streets branch 
at right angles), lined with European houses, the whole in the 
style of a typical French winter resort, a beautiful public garden, 
with the church in the centre, an arcade, a pretentious mairie 
in pseudo-Moorish style with entrance guarded by terra-cotta 
lions, some good shops, a number of excellent hotels and cafes, 
a casino, clubs, and, near by, a street of dancing and singing 
girls of the tribe qf Walad-Nail. East of the public garden is 
Fort St Germain, named after an officer killed in the insurrection 
of the Zaatcha in 1849; it is capable of resisting any attack of 
the Arabs, and extensive enough to shelter the whole of the 
civil population, who took refuge therein during the rebellion of 
1871. It contains barracks, hospital and government offices. 
To the south-east lies the Villa Landon with magnificent gardens 
filled with tropical plants. The population (1906) of the chief 
settlement was 4218, of the whole oasis 10,413. 

From November to April the climate of Biskra is delightful. 
Nowhere in Algeria can be found- more genial temperature or 
clearer skies, and while in summer the thermometer often 
registers 110° F. in the shade, and 90 at night, the pure dryness 
of the air in this practically rainless region makes the heat 


endurable. The only drawback to the climate is the prevalence 
of high cold winds in winter. These winds cause temperatures 
as low as 36 , but the mean reading, on an average of ten years, 

is 73°- 

In the oasis are some 200,000 fruit trees, of which about 
150,000 are date-palms, the rest being olives, pomegranates and 
apricots. In the centre of the oasis is the old kasbah or citadel. 

In 1844 the due d'Aumale occupied this fort, and here, on the 
night of the 12th of May of that year, the 68 men who formed 
the French garrison were, with one exception, massacred by 
Arabs. In the fort are a few fragments of Roman work — all that 
remains of the Roman post Ad Piscinam. 

Biskra is the capital of the Ziban (plural of Zab), a race of 
mixed Berber and Arab origin, whose villages extend from the 
southern slopes of the Aures to the Shat Melrir. These villages, 
built in oases dotted over the desert, nestle in groves of date- 
palms and fruit trees and waving fields of barley. The most 
interesting village is that of Sidi Okba, 12 m. south-east of Biskra. 
It is built of houses of one story made of sun-dried bricks. The 
mosque is square, with a flat roof supported on clay columns, and 
crowned by a minaret. In the north-west corner of the mosque 
is the tomb of Sidi Okba, the leader of the Arabs who. in the 1st 
century of the Hegira conquered Africa for Islam from Egypt 
to Tangier. Sidi Okba was killed by the Berbers near this place 
in a.d. 682. On his tomb is the inscription in Cufic characters, 
" This is the tomb of Okba, son of Nafi. May God have mercy 
upon him." No older Arabic inscription is known to exist in 

BISLEY, a village of Surrey, England, 3J m. N.W. of Woking. 
The ranges of the National Rifle Association were transferred 
from Wimbledon here in 1890. (See Rifle.) 

duke of Lauenburg (1815-1898), German statesman, was born 
on the 1st of April 1815, at the manor-house of Schonhausen, 
his father's seat in the mark of Brandenburg. The family has, 
since the 14th century, belonged to the landed gentry, and many 
members had held high office in the kingdom of Prussia. His 
father (d. 1845), of whom he always spoke with much affection, 
was a quiet, unassuming man, who retired from the army in 
early life with the rank of captain of cavalry {Rittmeister) . His 
mother, a daughter of Mencken, cabinet secretary to the king, 
was a woman of strong character and ability, who had been 
brought up at Berlin under the "Aufklarung." Her ambition 
was centred in her sons, but Bismarck in his recollections 6f his 
childhood missed the influences of maternal tenderness. There 
were several children of the marriage, which took place in 1806, 
but all died in childhood except Bernhard (1810-1893), Otto, 
and one sister, Malvina (b. 1827), who married in 1845 Oscar 
von Arnim. Young Bismarck was educated in BerHn, first at a 
private school, then at the gymnasium of the Graue Kloster 
(Grey Friars). At the age of seventeen he went to the university 
of Gottingen, where he spent a little over a year; he joined the 
corps of the Hannoverana and took a leading part in the social 
life of the students. He completed his studies at Berlin, and in 
1835 passed the examinations which admitted him to the public 
service. He was intended for the diplomatic service, but spent 
some months at ■ Aix-la-Chapelle in administrative work, and 
then was transferred to Potsdam and the judicial side. He soon 
retired from the public service; he conceived a great distaste 
for it, and had shown himself defective in discipline and regu- 
larity. In 1839, after his mother's death, he undertook, with 
his brother, the management of the family estates in Pomerania; 
at this time most of the estate attached to Schonhausen had 
to be sold. In 1844, after the marriage of his sister, he went to 
live with his father at Schonhausen. He and his brother took 
an active part in local affairs, and in 1846 he was appointed 
Deichhauptmann, an office in which he was responsible for the 
care of the dykes by which the country, in the neighbourhood 
of the Elbe, was preserved from inundation. During these years 
he travelled in England, France and Switzerland. The influence 
of his mother, and his own wide reading and critical character, 
made him at one time inclined to hold liberal opinions on govern- 

ment and religion, but he was strongly affected by the religious 
revival of the early years, of the reign of Frederick William IV.; 
his opinions underwent a great change, and under the influence 
of the neighbouring country gentlemen he acquired those strong 
principles in favour of monarchical governmentas the expression 
of the Christian state, of which he was to become the most cele- 
brated exponent. His religious convictions were strengthened 
by his marriage to Johanna von Puttkamer, which took place 
in 1847. ■■•■■. 

In the same year he entered public life, being chosen as 
substitute for the representative of the lower nobility of his 
district in the estates-general, which were in that 
year summoned to Berlin. He took his seat with ParII * m 
the extreme right, and distinguished himself by the CTreer.^ 
vigour and originality with which he defended the 
rights of the king and the Christian monarchy against the 
Liberals. When the revolution broke out in the following year 
he offered to bring the peasants of Schonhausen to Berlin in 
order to : defend the king against the revolutionary party, and in 
the last meeting of the estates voted in a minority of two against 
the address thanking the king for granting a constitution. He 
did not sit in any of the assemblies summoned during the revolu- 
tionary year, but took a very active part in the formation of a 
union of the Conservative party, and was one of the founders of 
the Kreuzzeihmg, which has sinCe then been the organ of the 
Monarchical party in.Prussia. In the new parliament which was 
elected at the beginning of 1849, he sat for Brandenburg, and 
was one of the most frequent and most incisive speakers of what 
was called the Junker party. He took a prominent part in the 
discussions on the new Prussian constitution, always defending 
the power of the king. His speeches of this period show great 
debating skill, combined with strong originality and imagination. 
His constant theme was, that the party disputes were a struggle 
for power between the forces of revolution, which derived their 
strength from the fighters on the barricades, and the Christian 
monarchy, and that between these opposed principles no com- 
promise was possible. He took also a considerable part in the 
debates on the foreign policy of the Prussian government; 
he defended the government for not accepting the Frankfort 
constitution, and opposed the policy of Radowitz, on the ground 
that the Prussian king would be subjected to the control of a 
non-Prussian parliament. The only thing, he said, that had 
come out of the revolutionary year unharmed, and had saved 
Prussia from dissolution and Germany from anarchy, was the 
Prussian army and the Prussian civil service; and in the debates 
on foreign policy he opposed the numerous plans for bringing 
about the union of Germany, by subjecting the crown and 
Prussia to a common German parliament. He had a seat in the 
parliament of Erfurt, but only went there in order to oppose the 
constitution which the parliament had framed. He foresaw 
that the policy of the government would lead it into a position 
when it would have to fight against Austria on behalf of a con- 
stitution by which Prussia itself would be dissolved, and he was, 
therefore, one of the few prominent politicians who defended 
the complete change of front which followed the surrender of 

It was probably his speeches on German policy which induced 
the king to appoint him Prussian representative at the restored 
diet of Frankfort in 185 1. The appointment was a 
bold one, as he was entirely without diplomatic ex- C ^J1T 
perience, but he justified the confidence placed in him. 
During the eight years he spent at Frankfort he acquired an 
unrivalled knowledge of German politics. He was often used 
for important missions, as in 1852, when he was sent to Vienna. 
He was entrusted with the negotiations by which the duke of 
Augustenburg was persuaded to assent to the arrangements by 
which he resigned his claims to Schleswig and Holstein. The 
period he spent at Frankfort, however, was of most importance 
because of the change it brought about in his own political 
opinions. When he went to Frankfort he was still under the 
influence of the extreme Prussian Conservatives, men like the 
Gerlachs, who regarded the maintenance of the principle of the 


Christian monarchy against the revolution as the chief duty of 
the Prussian government. He was prepared on this ground for 
a close alliance with Austria. He found, however*, a deliberate 
intention on the part of Austria to humble Prussia, and to 
degrade her from the position of an equal power, and also great 
jealousy of Prussia among the smaller German princes, many 
of whom owed their thrones to the Prussian soldiers, who, as in 
Saxony and Baden, had crushed the insurgents. He therefore 
came to the conclusion that if Prussia was to regain the position 
she had lost she must be prepared for the opposition of Austria, 
and must strengthen herself by alliances with other powers. 
The solidarity of Conservative interests appeared to him now a 
dangerous fiction. At the time of the Crimean War he advocated 
alliance with Russia, and it was to a great extent owing to 
his advice that Prussia did not join the western powers. After- 
wards he urged a good understanding with Napoleon, but his 
advice was met by the insuperable objection of King Frederick 
William IV. to any alliance with a ruler of revolutionary origin. 

The change of ministry which followed the establishment 
of a regency in 1857 made it desirable to appoint a new envoy 
at Frankfort, and in 1858 Bismarck was appointed ambassador 
at St Petersburg, where he remained for four years. During 
this period he acquired some knowledge of Russian, and gained 
the warm regard of the tsar, as well as of the dowager-empress, 
herself a Prussian princess. During the first two years he had 
little influence on the Prussian government; the Liberal minister's 
distrusted his known opinions on parliamentary government, 
and the monarchical feeling of the prince regent was offended 
by Bismarck's avowed readiness for alliance with the Italians 
and his disregard of the rights of other princes. The failure of 
the ministry, and the estrangement between King William and 
the Liberal party, opened to him the way to power. Roon, who 
was appointed minister of war in 1861, was an old friend of his, 
and through him Bismarck was thenceforward kept closely 
informed of the condition of affairs in Berlin. On several 
occasions the prospect of entering the ministry was open to him, 
but nothing came of it, apparently because he required a free 
hand in foreign affairs, and this the king was not prepared to 
give him. When an acute crisis arose out of the refusal of parlia- 
ment, in 1862, to vote the money required for the reorganization 
of the army, which the king and Roon had carried through, 
he was summoned to Berlin; but the king was still unable to 
make up his mind to appoint him, although he felt that Bismarck 
was the only man who had the courage and capacity for con- 
ducting the struggle with parliament. He was, therefore, in 
June, made ambassador at Paris as a temporary expedient. 
There he had the opportunity for renewing the good under- 
standing with Napoleon which had been begun in 1857. He also 
paid a short visit to England, but it does not appear that this 
had any political results. In September the parliament, by a 
large majority, threw out the budget, and the king, having 
nowhere else to turn for help, at Roon's advice summoned 
Bismarck to Berlin and appointed him minister-president and 
foreign minister. 

Bismarck's duty as minister was to carry on the government 
against the wishes of the Lower House, so as to enable the king 
to complete and maintain the reorganized army. The 
opposition of the House was supported by the country 
and by a large party at court, including the queen and crown 
prince. The indignation which his appointment caused was 
intense; he was known only by the reputation which in his 
early years he had won as a violent ultra-Conservative, and the 
apprehensions were increased by his first speech, in which he 
said that the German question could not be settled by speeches 
and parliamentary decrees, but only by blood and iron. His 
early fall was predicted, and it was feared that he might bring 
down the monarchy with him. Standing almost alone he 
succeeded in the task he had undertaken. For four years he 
ruled without a budget, taking advantage of an omission in the 
constitution which did not specify what was to happen in case 
the crown and the two Houses could not agree on a budget. . The 
conflict of the ministers and the House assumed at times the 


form of bitter personal hostility; in 1863 the ministers refused 
any longer to attend the sittings, and Bismarck challenged 
Virchow, one of his strongest opponents, to a duel, which, 
however, did not take place. In 1852 he had fought a duel with 
pistols against Georg von Vindre, a political opponent. In June 
1863, as soon as parliament had risen, Bismarck published 
ordinances controlling the liberty of the press, which, though in 
accordance with the letter, seemed opposed to the intentions of 
the constitution, and it was on this occasion that the crown 
prince, hitherto a silent opponent, publicly dissociated himself 
from the policy of his father's ministers. Bismarck depended 
for his position solely on the confidence of the king, and the 
necessity for defending himself against the attempts to destroy 
this confidence added greatly to the suspiciousness of his nature. 
He was, however, really indispensable, for his resignation must 
be followed by a Liberal ministry, parliamentary control over 
the army, and probably the abdication of the king. Not only, 
therefore, was he secure in the continuance of the king's support, 
but he had also the complete control of foreign affairs. Thus 
he could afford to ignore the criticism of the House, and the king 
was obliged to acquiesce in the policy of a minister to whom he 
owed so much. 

. He soon gave to the policy of the monarchy a resolution 
which had long been wanting. When the emperor of Austria 
summoned a meeting of the German princes at Frank- 
fort to discuss a reform of the confederation, Bismarck pottcy 
insisted that the king of Prussia must not attend. He 
remained away, and his absence in itself made the congress 
unavailing^ There can be no doubt that from the time he 
entered on office Bismarck was determined to bring to an issue 
the long struggle for supremacy in Germany between the house of 
Habsburg and the house of Hohenzollern. Before he was able 
to complete his preparations for this, two unforeseen occurrences 
completely altered the European situation, and caused the 
conflict to be postponed for three years. The first was the 
outbreak of rebellion in Poland. Bismarck, an inheritor of the 
older Prussian traditions, and recollecting how much of the 
greatness of Prussia had been gained at the expense of the Poles, 
offered his help to the tsar. By this he placed himself in opposi- 
tion to the universal feeling of western Europe; no act of his 
life added so much to the repulsion with which at this time he 
was regarded as an enemy of liberty and right. He won, however, 
the gratitude of the tsar and the support of Russia, which in the 
next years was to be of vital service to him. Even more serious 
were the difficulties arising in Denmark. On the death of King 
Frederick VII. in 1863, Prince Frederick of Augustenburg came 
forward as claimant to the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, 
which had hitherto been joined to the crown of Denmark. He 
was strongly supported by the whole German nation and by 
many of its princes. Bismarck, however, once more was obliged 
to oppose the current of national feeling, which imperiously 
demanded that the German duchies should be rescued from a 
foreign yoke. Prussia was bound by the treaty of London of 
1852, which guaranteed the integrity of the Danish monarchy; 
to have disregarded this would have been to bring about a 
coalition against Germany similar to that of 1851. Moreover, 
he held that it would be of no advantage to Prussia to create a 
new German state; if Denmark were to lose the duchies, he 
desired that Prussia should acquire them, and to recognize the 
Augustenburg claims would make this impossible. His resist- 
ance to the national desire made him appear a traitor to his 
country. To check the agitation he turned for help to Austria; 
and an alliance of the two powers, so lately at variance, was 
formed. He then falsified all the predictions of the opposition 
by going to war with Denmark, not, as they had required, in 
support of Augustenburg, but on the ground that the king of 
Denmark had violated his promise not to oppress his German 
subjects. Austria continued to act with Prussia, and, after the 
defeat of the Danes, at the peace of Vienna the sovereignty of 
the duchies was surrendered to the two allies — the first step 
towards annexation by Prussia. There is no part of Bismarck's 
diplomatic work which deserves such careful study as these 


events. Watched as he was by countless enemies at home and 
airoadj) a. single: false step would have brought ruin and disgrace 
on himself ; the growing national excitement would have burst 
through all restraint, and again, as fifteen years before, Germany 
.divided and unorganized would have had to capitulate to the 
orders of foreign powers (see Schleswig-Holstein Question). 
The peace of Vienna left him once more free to return to his 
plder policy. ; For the next eighteen months he was occupied 
, ., in preparing for war with . Austria. For this war he 

Austria. was a i° ne responsible; he undertook; it deliberately 
as . the only means of securing Prussian ascendancy 
in, Germany. The actual cause of dispute was the disposition 
of the conquered duchies, for Austria now wished to put Augus- 
tenburg in as duke, a plan to which Bismarck would not assent. 
In 1865 a provisional arrangement was made by the treaty of 
pastein, for Bismarck was not yet ready. He would not risk a 
war unless he was certain of success, and for this he required the 
.alliance of Italy and French support; both he secured during 
the next year. In October 1865 he visited Napoleon at Biarritz 
and Paris. No formal treaty was made, but Napoleon promised 
to regard favourably an extension of Prussian power in Germany; 
while Bismarck led the emperor to believe that Prussia would 
help him in extending the frontier of France. A treaty of 
alliance with Italy was arranged in the spring of 1866; and 
jijsmarck then with much difficulty overcame the reluctance 
of the king to embark in a war with his old ally. The results 
of: the war entirely justified his calculations. Prussia, though 
opposed by all the German states except a few principalities 
in the north, completely defeated all her enemies, and at the end 
of a few weeks the whole of Germany lay at her feet. 

The war of 1866 is more than that of 1870 the crisis of modern 
-German history. It finally settled the controversy which had 
begun more than a hundred years before, and left 
<rf/S&& e " Prussia the dominant power in Germany. It deter- 
, - mined that, the unity of Germany should be brought 

about not by revolutionary means as in 1848, not as in 1849 had 
been attempted by voluntary agreement of the princes, not by 
Austria, but by the sword of Prussia. This was the great work 
iof Bismarck's life; he had completed the programme fore- 
shadowed in his early speeches, and finished the work of Frederick 
■the Great.: It is also the. turning-point in Bismarck's own life. 
Having secured the dominance of the crown in Prussia and of 
Prussia, in Germany, he could afford to make a reconciliation 
with the parties which had been his chief opponents, and turn 
to them for help in building up a new Germany. The settlement 
of 1866 was peculiarly his work. We must notice, first, how in 
^arranging the terms of peace he opposed the king and the mili- 
tary party who wished to advance on Vienna and annex part of 
Austrian Silesia; with greater foresight helooked to renewing 
the old friendship with Austria,- and insisted (even with the 
threat of resignation) that no territory should be demanded. The 
southern states he treated with equal moderation, and thereby 
iwas able to arrange an offensive and defensive alliance with 
therm. . On the other hand,in order to secure the complete control 
of North Germany, which was his immediate object, he required 
that the whole of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Nassau and the 
.city of Frankfort, as well as the Elbe duchies, should be absorbed 
; jn Prussia. He then formed a separate confederation of the North 
German states, but did not attempt to unite the whole of Ger- 
.many, partly because of the internal difficulties which this would 
have produced, partly because it would have brought about a 
,war with France. In the new confederation he became sole 
responsible, minister, with the title Bundes-Kanzler; this position 
he held till 1890, in addition to his former post of premier 
minister. In 187 1 the title was altered to Reichs-Kanzler. 

The reconciliation with the Prussian parliament he effected 
by bringing in a. "bill of indemnity for the money which had been 
spent without leave of parliament. The Radicals still continued 
-their opposition, but he thereby made possible the formation 
,01. a large party of moderate Liberals, who thenceforward 
-supported him in his new Nationalist policy. He also, in the 
! constitution for the new confederation, introduced a parliament 

(Bundestag) elected by universal suffrage. This was the chief 
demand of the revolutionists in 1848; it was one to which in 
his early life he had been strongly opposed. His experience 
at Frankfort had diminished his dislike of popular representation, 
and it was probably to the advice of Lassalle that his adoption 
of universal suffrage was due. He first publicly proposed it 
just before the war; by carrying it out, notwithstanding the 
apprehensions of many Liberal politicians, he placed the new 
constitution on a firmer base than would otherwise have been 

Up to 1866 he had always appeared to be an opponent of the 
National party in Germany, now he became their leader. His 
next task was to complete the work which was half-finished, 
and it was this which brought about the second of the great wars 
which he undertook. 

The relations with Napoleon III. form one of the most inter- 
esting but obscurest episodes in Bismarck's career. We have 
seen that he did not share the common prejudice 
against co-operation with France. He found Napoleon an ^" are 
willing to aid Prussia as he had aided Piedmont, and France. 
was ready to accept his assistance. There was this 
difference, that he asked only for neutrality, not armed assist- 
ance, and it is improbable that he ever intended to alienate any 
German territory; he showed himself, however, on more than one 
occasion, ready to discuss plans for extending French territory, 
on the side of Belgium and Switzerland. Napoleon, who had 
not anticipated the rapid success of Prussia, after the battle of 
Koniggratz at the request of Austria came forward as mediator, 
and there were a few days during which it was probable that 
Prussia would have to meet a French attempt to dictate terms 
of peace. Bismarck in this crisis by deferring to the emperor 
in appearance avoided the danger, but he knew that he had 
been deceived, and the cordial understanding was never renewed. 
Immediately after .an armistice had been arranged, Benedetti, at 
the orders of the French government, demanded as recompense 
a large tract of German territory on the left bank of the Rhine. 
This Bismarck peremptorily refused, declaring that he would 
rather have war. Benedetti then made another proposal, 
submitting a draft treaty by which France was to support 
Prussia in adding the South German states to the new con- 
federation, and Germany was to support France in the annexa- 
tion of Luxemburg and Belgium. Bismarck discussed, but did 
not. conclude the treaty; he kept, however, a copy of the draft 
in Benedetti's handwriting, and published it in The Times in 
the summer of 1870 so as to injure the credit of Napoleon in 
England. The failure of the scheme made a contest with France 
inevitable, at least unless the Germans were willing to forgo the 
purpose of completing the work of German unity, and during 
the next four years the two nations were each preparing for the 
struggle, and each watching to take the other at a disadvantage. 

It is necessary, then, to keep in mind the general situation 
in considering Bismarck's conduct in the months immediately 
preceding the war of 1870. In 1 8 6 7 there was a dispute regarding 
the right to garrison Luxemburg. Bismarck then produced the 
secret treaties with the southern states, an act which was, as 
it were, a challenge to France by the whole of Germany. 
During the next three years the Ultramontane party hoped to 
bring about an anti-Prussian revolution, and Napoleon was 
working for an alliance with Austria, where Beust, an old 
opponent of Bismarck's, was chancellor. Bismarck was doubt- 
less well informed as to the progress of the negotiations, for he 
had established intimate relations with the Hungarians. The 
pressure at home for completing the work of German unity was 
so strong that he could with difficulty resist it, and in 1870 he 
was much embarrassed by a request from Baden to be admitted 
to the confederation, which he had to refuse. It is therefore not 
surprising that he eagerly welcomed the opportunity of gaining 
the goodwill of Spain, and supported by all the means in his 
power the offer made by Marshal Prim that Prince Leopold of 
Hohenzollern should be chosen king of that country. It was only 
by his urgent and repeated representations that the prince was 
persuaded against his will to accept. The negotiations were 



carried out with the greatest secrecy, but as soon as the accept- 
ance was made known the French government intervened and 
declared that the project was inadmissible. Bismarck was away 
at Varzin, but on his instructions the Prussian foreign office in 
answer to inquiries denied all knowledge or responsibility. This 
was necessary, because it would have caused a bad impression 
in Germany had he gone to war with France in support of the 
prince's candidature. The king, by receiving Benedetti at Ems, 
departed from the policy of reserve Bismarck himself adopted, 
and Bismarck (who had now gone to Berlin) found himself in 
a position of such difficulty that he contemplated resignation. 
The French, however, by changing and extending their demands 
enabled him to find a cause of war of such nature that the 
whole of Germany would be united against French 
telegram, aggression. France asked for a letter of apology, 
and Benedetti personally requested from the king 
a promise that he would never allow the candidature to be 
resumed. Bismarck published the telegram in which this 
information and the refusal of the king were conveyed, but by 
omitting part of the telegram made it appear that the request 
and refusal had both been conveyed in a more abrupt form than 
had really been the case. 1 But even apart from this, the publica- 
tion of the French demand, which could not be complied with, 
must have brought about a war. 

In the campaign of 1870-71 Bismarck accompanied the head- 
quarters of the army, as he had done in 1866. He was present 
at the battle of Gravelotte and at the surrender of Sedan, and 
it was on the morning of the 2nd of September that he had 
his famous meeting with Napoleon after the surrender of the 
emperor. He accompanied the king to Paris, and spent many 
months at Versailles. Here he was occupied chiefly with the 
arrangements for admitting the southern states to the confedera- 
tion, and the establishment of the empire. He also underwent 
much anxiety lest the efforts of Thiers to bring about an inter- 
ference by the neutral powers might be successful. He had to 
carry on the negotiations with the French preliminary to the 
surrender of Paris, and to enforce upon them the German terms 
of peace. 

For Bismarck's political career after 1870 we must refer to 
the article Germany, for he was thenceforward entirely absorbed 
After 1870 * n ^ e ^^^ °f hi s country. The foreign policy he 
controlled absolutely. As chancellor he was responsible 
for the whole internal policy of the empire, and his influence is to 
be seen in every department of state, especially, however, in the 
great change of policy after 1878. During the earlier period the 
estrangement from the Conservatives, which had begun in 1866, 
became very marked, and brought about a violent quarrel with 
many of his old friends, which culminated in the celebrated 
Arnim trial. He incurred much criticism during the struggle 
with the Roman Catholic Church, and in 1873 he was shot at 
and slightly wounded by a youth called Rullmann, who pro- 
fessed to be an adherent of the Clerical party. Once before, in 
1866, just before the outbreak of war, his life had been attempted 
by a young man called Cohen, a native of Wiirttemberg, who 
wished to save Germany from a fratricidal war. In 1872 he 
retired from the presidency of the Prussian ministry, but returned 
after a few months. On several occasions he offered to retire, 
but the emperor always refused his consent, on the last time with 
the word " Never." In 1877 he took a long leave of absence for 
ten months. His health at this time was very bad. In 1878 he 
presided over the congress of Berlin. The following years were 
chiefly occupied, besides foreign affairs, which were always his 
first care, with important commercial reforms, and he held at 
this time also the office of Prussian minister of trade in addition 
to his other posts. During this period his relations with the 

1 It was not till many years later that our knowledge of these 
events (which is still incomplete) was established; in 1894 the 
publication of the memoirs of the king of Rumania showed, what 
had hitherto been denied, that Bismarck had taken a leading part 
in urging the election of the prince of Hohenzollern. It was in 1892 
that the language used by Bismarck himself made it necessary for 
the German government to publish the original form of the Ems 

Reichstag were often very unsatisfactory, and at ho time did he 
resort so freely to prosecutions in the law-courts in order to injure 
his opponents, so that the expression Bismarck-Beleidigung was 
invented. He was engaged at this time in a great struggle with 
the Social-Democrats, whom he tried to crush by exceptional 
penal laws. The death of the emperor William in 1888 made a 
serious difference in his position. He had been bound to him by 
a long term of loyal service, which had been rewarded with equal 
loyalty. For his relations to the emperors Frederick and William 
II., and for the events connected with his dismissal from office in 
March 1890, we must refer to the articles under those names. 

After his retirement he resided at Friedrichsruh, near Hamburg, 
a house on his Lauenburg estates. His criticisms of the govern- 
ment, given sometimes in conversation, sometimes in the 
columns of the Hamburger Nachrichten, caused an open breach 
between him and the emperor; and the new chancellor, Count 
Caprivi, in a circular despatch which was afterwards published, 
warned all German envoys that no real importance must be 
attached to what he said. When he visited Vienna for his son's 
wedding the German ambassador, Prince Reuss, was forbidden 
to take any notice of him. A reconciliation was effected in 1893. 
In 1895 his eightieth birthday was celebrated with great enthusi- 
asm: the Reichstag alone, owing to the opposition of the Clericals 
and the Socialists, refused to vote an address. In 1891 he had 
been elected a member of the Reichstag, but he never took his 
seat. He died at Friedrichsruh on the 31st of July 1898. - 

Bismarck was made a count in 1865; in 187 1 he received the 
rank of Fiirst (prince). On his retirement the emperor created 
him duke of Lauenburg, but he never used the title, which was not 
inherited by his son. In 1866 he received £60,000 as his share of 
the donation voted by the Reichstag for the victorious generals. 
With this he purchased the estate of Varzin in Pomerania, which 
henceforth he used as a country residence in preference to 
Schonhausen. In 1871 the emperor presented him with a large 
part of the domains of the duchy of Lauenburg. On his seventieth 
birthday a large sum of money (£270,000) was raised by public 
subscription, of which half was devoted to repurchasing the 
estate of Schonhausen for him, and the rest was used by him to 
establish a fund for the assistance of schoolmasters. As a young 
man he was an officer in the Landwehr and militia, and in addi- 
tion to his civil honours he was eventually raised to the rank 
of general. Among the numerous orders he received we may 
mention that he was the first Protestant on whom the pope be- 
stowed the order of Christ; this was done after the cessation of 
the Kulturkampf and the reference of the dispute with Spain 
concerning the Caroline Islands to the arbitration of the pope. 

Bismarck's wife died in 1894. He left one daughter and two 
sons. Herbert (1840-1904), the elder, was wounded at Mars-le- 
Tour, afterwards entered the foreign office, and acted as private 
secretary to his father (1871-1881). In 1882 he became councillor 
to the embassy at London, in 1884 was transferred to St Peters- 
burg, and in 1885 became under-secretary of state for foreign 
affairs. In 1884 he had been elected to the Reichstag, but had 
to resign his seat when, in 1886, he was made secretary of state 
for foreign affairs and Prussian minister. He conducted many 
of the negotiations with Great Britain on colonial affairs. He 
retired in 1890 at the same time as his father, and in 1893 was 
again elected to the Reichstag. He married Countess Margarete 
Hoyos in 1892, and died on the 18th of September 1904. He 
left two daughters and three sons, of whom the eldest, Otto 
Christian Archibald (b. 1897), succeeded to the princely title. 
The second son, Wilhelm, who was president of the province of 
Prussia, died in 1901. By his wife, Sybilla von Arnim-Krochlen- 
dorff , he left three daughters and a son, Count Nikolaus (b. 1896). 

Authorities. — The literature on Bismarck's life is very extensive, 
and it is only possible to enumerate a few of the most important 
books. The first place belongs to his own works. These include 
his own memoirs, published after his death, under the title Gedanken 
und Erinnerungen ; there is an English translation, Bismarck: his 
Reflections and Reminiscences (London, 1898). They are incomplete, 
but contain very valuable discussions on particular points. : The 
speeches are of the greatest importance both for his character and for 
political history; of the numerous editions that by Horst Kbhl, in 


12 vols. (Stuttgart, 1892-1894), is the best; there is a cheap edition 
in Reclam's Universalb'ibliothek. Bismarck was an admirable letter- 
writer, and numbers of his private letters have been published; 
a collected edition has been brought out by Horst Kohl. His letters 
to his wife were published by Prince Herbert Bismarck (Stuttgart, 
1900). A translation of a small selection of the private letters was 
published in 1876 by F. Maxse. Of great value for the years 1851- 
1858 is the correspondence with General L. v. Gerlach, which has 
been edited by Horst Kohl (3rd ed., Berlin, 1893). A selection of the 
political letters was also published under the title Politische Briefe 
aus den Jahren 1 849-1 899 (2nd ed., Berlin, 1890). Of far greater 
importance are the collections of despatches and state papers edited 
by Herr v. Poschinger. These include four volumes entitled Preussen 
im Bundestag, 1851-1859 (4 vols., Leipzig, 1882-1885), which contain 
his despatches during the time he was at Frankfort. Next in import- 
ance are two works, Bismarck als Volkswirth and Aktenstiicke zur 
Wirthschaftspolitik des Fiirsten Bismarck, which are part of the collec- 
tion of state papers, Akenstilcke zur Gesckichte der Wirthschaftspolitik 
in Preussen. They contain full information on Bismarck's com- 
mercial policy, including a number of important state papers. A 
useful general collection io that by Ludwig Hahn, Bismarck, sein 
politisches Leben, &c. (5 vols., Berlin, 1878-1891), which includes a 
selection from letters, speeches and newspaper articles. These 
collections have only been possible owing to the extreme generosity 
which Bismarck showed in permitting the publication of documents; 
he always professed to have no secrets. A full account of the diplo- 
matic history from 1863 to 1866 is given by Sybel in Die Begrundung 
des deutschen Reichs (Munich, 1889-1894), written with the help of 
the Prussian archives. The last two volumes, covering 1866-1870, 
are of less value, as he was not able to use the archives for this 
period. Poschinger has also edited a series of works in which 
anecdotes, minutes of interviews and conversations are recorded; 
they are, however, of very unequal value. They are Bismarck und 
die Parlamentarier, Fiirst Bismarck und der Bundesrath, Die An- 
sprache des Filrsten Bismarck, Neue Tischgesprdche, and Bismarck 
und die Diplomaten. Selections from these have been published in 
English by Charles Lowe, The Tabletalk of Prince Bismarck, and by 
Sidney Whitman, Conversations with Bismarck. By far the fullest 
guide to Bismarck's life is Horst Kohl's Fiirst Bismarck, Regesten 
zu einer wissenschaftlichen Biographie (Leipzig, 1891-1892), which 
contains a record of Bismarck's actions on each day, with references 
to and extracts from his letters and speeches. For the works of 
Moritz Busch, which contain graphic pictures of his daily life, see 
the article Busch. Further materials were published periodically in 
the Bismarck- Jahrbuch, edited by Horst Kohl (Berlin, 1894-1896; 
Stuttgart, 1897-1899). Herr v. Poschinger also brought out a 
Bismarck Portfeuille. Of German biographies may be mentioned 
Hans Blum, Bismarck und seine Zeit (6 vols., Munich, 1894-1895), 
with a volume of appendices, &c. (1898); Heyck, Bismarck (Biele- 
feld, 1898); Kreutzer, Otto von Bismarck (2 vols., Leipzig, 1900); 
Klein- Hattingen, Bismarck und seine Welt, 1815-1871, Bd. i. (Berlin, 
1902) ; Lenz, Geschichte Bismarcks (Leipzig, 1902) ; Penzler, Fiirst 
Bismarck nach seiner Entlassung (7 vols., ib. 1897-1898); Liman, 
one volume under the same title (ib. 1901). There are English 
biographies by Charles Lowe, Bismarck, a Political Biography 
(revised edition in 1 vol., 1895), by James Headlam (1899), and by 
F.Stearns (Philadelphia, 1900). A useful bibliography of all works on 
Bismarck up to 1895 is Paul Schulze and Otto Roller's Bismarck- 
Literatur (Leipzig, 1896). . . (J.W. He.) 

BISMARCK, the capital of North Dakota, U.S.A., and the 
county-seat of Burleigh county, on the E. bank of the Missouri 
river, in the S. central part of the state. Pop. (1890) 2186; 
(1900) 3319, of whom 746 were foreign-born; (1905) 4913; (1910) 
5443. It is on the main line of the Northern Pacific, and on the 
Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie railways; and steamboats 
run from here to Mannhaven, Mercer county, and Fort Yates, 
Morton county. The city is about 1650 ft. above sea-level. It 
contains the state capitol, the state penitentiary, a U.S. land 
office, a U.S. surveyor-general's office, a U.S. Indian school and a 
U.S. weather station; about a mile S. of the city is Fort Lincoln, 
a United States army post. Bismarck is the headquarters for 
navigation of the upper Missouri river, is situated in a good 
agricultural region, and has a large wholesale trade, shipping 
grain, hides, furs, wool and coal. It was founded in 1873, and 
was chartered as a city in 1876; from 1883 to 1889 it was the 
capital of Dakota Territory, on the division of which it became 
the capital of North Dakota. 

BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO, the collective name of a large 
number of islands lying N. and N.E. of New Guinea, between 
i° and 7 S., and 146 and 153° E., belonging to Germany. The 
largest island is New Pomerania, and the archipelago also 
includes New Mecklenburg, New Hanover, with small attendant 
islands, the Admiralty Islands and a chain of islands oS the 

coast of New Guinea, the whole system lying in the form 
of a great amphitheatre of oval shape. The archipelago was 
named in honour of the first chancellor of the German empire, 
after a German protectorate had been declared in 1884. (See 
Admiralty Islands, New Mecklenburg, New Pomerania, 
New Guinea.) 

BISMILLAH, an Arabic exclamation, meaning " in the name 
of God." 

BISMUTH, a metallic chemical element; symbol Bi, atomic 
weight 208-5 (0= 16). It was probably unknown to the Greeks 
and Romans, but during the middle ages it became quite familiar, 
notwithstanding its frequent confusion with other metals. In 
1450 Basil Valentine referred to it by the name " wismut," and 
characterized it as a metal; some years later Paracelsus termed 
it " wissmat," and, in allusion to its brittle nature, affirmed it 
to be a "bastard" or "half-metal"; Georgius Agricola used 
the form " wissmuth," latinized to " bisemutum," and also the 
term " plumbum cineareum." Its elementary nature was 
imperfectly understood; and the impure specimens obtained 
by the early chemists explain, in some measure, its confusion 
with tin, lead, antimony, zinc and other metals; in 1595 
Andreas Libavius confused it with antimony, and in 1675 
Nicolas Lemery with zinc. These obscurities began to be finally 
cleared up with the researches of Johann Heinrich Pott (1692- 
1777), a pupil of Stahl, published in his Exercitationes chemicae 
de Wismutho (1769), and of N. Geoffroy, son of Claude Joseph 
Geoffroy, whose contribution to our knowledge of this metal 
appeared in the Memoir es de I'academie fran$aise for 1753. 
Torbern Olof Bergman reinvestigated its properties and deter- 
mined its reactions; his account, which was published in his 
Opuscula, contains the first fairly accurate description of the 

Ores and Minerals. — The principal source of bismuth is 
the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, 
usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated 
and granular masses with a crystalline fracture. Although 
bismuth is readily obtained in fine crystals by artificial 
means, yet natural crystals are rare and usually indistinct: 
they belong to the rhombohedral system and a cube-like 
rhombohedron with interfacial angles of 92 20' is the predomi- 
nating form. There is a perfect cleavage perpendicular to the 
trigonal axis of the crystals: the fact that only two (opposite) 
corners of the cube-like crystals can be truncated by cleavage 
at once distinguishes them from true cubes. When not tarnished, 
the mineral has a silver- white colour with a tinge of red, and the 
lustre is metallic. Hardness 2-2J; specific gravity 9-70-9-83. 
The slight variations in specific gravity are due to the presence 
of small amounts of arsenic, sulphur or tellurium, or to enclosed 

Bismuth occurs in metalliferous veins traversing gneiss or 
clay-slate, and is usually associated with ores of silver and cobalt. 
Well-known localities are Schneeberg in Saxony and Joachims thai 
in Bohemia; at the former it has been found as arborescent 
groups penetrating brown jasper, which material has occasionally 
been cut and polished for small ornaments. The mineral has 
been found in some Cornish mines and is fairly abundant in 
Bolivia (near Sorata, and at Tasna in Potosi). It is the chief 
commercial source of bismuth. 

The oxide, bismuth ochre, Bi 2 3 , and the sulphide, bismuth 
glance or bismuthite, are also of commercial importance. The 
former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic 
oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and 
other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate 
and hydrate. The hydrated carbonate, bismutite, is of less 
importance; it occurs in Cornwall, Bolivia, Arizona and else- 

Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: — 
the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, 
BiCu 3 S 3 , silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth 
nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), 
BiCuPbS 3 , emplectite, CuBiS 2 , and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6 ; the 
sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, Bi 2 Se 3 , 



the basic tellurate montanite, Bi 2 (OH) 4 Te04; the silicates 
eulytite and agricolite, Bi^SiQi^; and the uranyl arsenate 
walpurgite, Bi(U0 2 ) 3 (OH) M (As0 4 )4. 

Metallurgy. — Bismuth is extracted from its ores by dry, wet, 
or electro-metallurgical methods, the choice depending upon the 
composition of the ore and economic conditions. The dry process 
is more frequently practised, for the easy reducibility of the oxide 
and sulphide, together with the low melting-point of the metal, 
renders it possible to effect a ready separation of the metal from 
the gangue and impurities. The extraction from ores in which the 
bismuth is present in the metallic condition may be accomplished 
by a simple liquation, or melting, in which the temperature isvjust 
. sufficient to melt the bismuth, or by a complete fusion of the ore. 
The first process never extracts all the bismuth, as much as one- 
third being retained in the matte or speiss; the second is more 
satisfactory, since the extraction is more complete, and also allows 
the addition of reducing agents to decompose any admixed bismuth 
oxide or sulphide. In the liquation process the ore is heated in 
inclined cylindrical retorts, and the molten metal is tapped at the 
lower end ; the residues being removed from the upper end. The 
fusion process is preferably carried out in crucible furnaces; shaft 
furnaces are unsatisfactory on account of the disintegrating action 
of the molten bismuth on the furnace linings. 

Sulphuretted ores are smelted, either with or without a preliminary 
calcination, with metallic iron; calcined ores may be smelted with 
carbon (coal). The reactions are strictly analogous to those which 
occur in the smelting of galena (see Lead), the carbon reducing any 
oxide, either present originally in the ore or produced in the calcina- 
tion, and the iron combining with the sulphur of the bismuthite. 
A certain amount of bismuth sulphate is always formed during the 
calcination; this is subsequently reduced to the sulphide and 
ultimately to the metal in the fusion. Calcination in reverberatory 
furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace 
with the addition of about_3 % of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, 
has been adopted for treating the Bolivian, ores, which generally 
contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and 
a little silver. The lowest layer of the molten mass is principally 
metallic bismuth, the succeeding layers are a bismuth copper matte, 
which is subsequently worked up, and a slag. Ores containing the 
oxide and carbonate are treated either by smelting with carbon or 
by a wet process. 

In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as 
oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, 
if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent 
employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid. The solution of 
metallic chlorides or sulphates so obtained is precipitated by iron, 
the metallic bismuth filtered, washed with water, pressed in canvas 
bags, and finally fused in graphite crucibles, the surface being pro- 
tected by a layer of charcoal. Another process consists in adding 
water to the solution and so precipitating the bismuth as oxy- 
chloride, which is then converted into the metal. 

The crude metal obtained by the preceding processes is generally 
contaminated by arsenic, sulphur, iron, nickel, cobalt and antimony, 
and sometimes with silver or gold. A dry method of purification 
consists in a liquation on a hearth of peculiar construction, which 
occasions the separation of the unreduced bismuth sulphide and the 
bulk of the other impurities. A better process is to remelt the metal 
in crucibles with the addition of certain refining agents. The details of 
this process vary very considerably, being conditioned by the composi- 
tion of the impure metal and the practice of particular works. The 
wet refining process is more tedious and expensive, and is only 
exceptionally employed, as in the case of preparing the pure metal 
or its salts for pharmaceutical or chemical purposes. The basic 
nitrate is the salt generally prepared, and, in general outline, the 
process consists in dissolving the metal in nitric acid, adding water 
to the solution, boiling the precipitated basic nitrate with ah alkali 
to remove the arsenic and lead, dissolving the residue in nitric acid, 
and reprecipitating as basic nitrate with water. J. F. W. Hampe 
prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium 
carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed 
in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, re- 
dissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with 
ammonia. The bismuth hydroxide so obtained is finally reduced by 

Properties. — Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystal- 
line fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour. It crystal- 
lizes in rhombohedra belonging to the hexagonal system, having 
interfacial angles of 87 ° 40'. According to G. W^ A. Kahlbaum, 
Roth and Siedler (Zeil. Anorg. Chem. 29, p. 294), its specific gravity is 
9-78143; Roberts and Wrightson give the specific gravity of solid 
bismuth as 9-82, and of molten bismuth as 10-055. It therefore 
expands on solidification; and as it retains this property in a 
number of alloys, the metal receives extensive application in forming 
type-metals. Its melting-point is variously given as 268-3° (F- 
Rudberg and A. D. von Riemsdijk) and 270-5° (C. C. Person); 
commercial bismuth melts at 260° (Ledebur), and electrolytic 
bismuth at 264° (Classen). It vaporizes in a vacuum at 292°, and its 
boiling-point, under atmospheric pressure, is between 1090° and 
1450° (T. Carnelley and W. C. Williams). Regnault determined its 

specific heat between 0° and ioo° to be 0-0368 ;' Kahlbaum, RotH 
and Siedler (loc. cit.) give the value 0-03055. Its thermal conductivity 
is the lowest of all metals, being 18'as compared with silver as 10*00; 
its coefficient of expansion between 0° and 100° is 0-001341.. Its 
electrical conductivity is approximately 1-2, silver at 0°' being taken 
as 100; it is the most diamagnetic substance known, and its therrrio- 
electric properties render it especially valuable for the construction 
of thermopiles. ■' ' ■; 

The metal oxidizes very slowly in dry air at ordinary temperatures; 
but somewhat more rapidly in moist air or when heated. ' • Jn the last 
case it becomes coated with a greyish-black layer of ' an oxidfe 
(dioxide (?) ),at a red heat the layer consists of the trioxide (Bi 2 p 3 ); 
and is yellow or green in the case of pure bismuth, 1 and Violet or'blue 
if impure; at a bright red heat it burns with a bluish flame to the 
trioxide. Bismuth combines directly with the halogens, and the' 
elements of the sulphur group. It readily dissolves, in nitric acid, 
aqua regia, and hot sulphuric acid, but tardily in hot hydrochloric 
acid. It is precipitated as the metal from solutions of its salts by 
the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, 'zinc; iron, copper, &C; 
In its ;chem»cal affinities it resembles arsenic and antimony; an 
important distinction is that it forms no hydrogen' /compound 
analogous to arsine and stibine. ' '•' , V '.'''' 

Alloys. — -Bismuth readily forms alloys with other metals. Treated 
with sodammonium it yields a bluish-black mass, BiN;a 3 , which takes 
fire in the air and decomposes water. A brittle potassium alloy of 
silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 
20 parts of bisfriuth with 16 of crearn'of tartar, a*t a strong red heat. 
When present in other 'metals, even in very Small quantity, bismuth 
renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.' 
With mercury it forms amalgams. Bismuth is a component of many 
ternary alloys characterized by their "low fusibility and expansion in 
solidification; many ' of them are used in : the arts (see FusiBtE 
Metal),; "' ■■' '■ : ' ' : ' ' ' 

Compounds. — Bismuth forms four oxides, of which the trioxide, 
Bi 2 3 , is the most important. This compound occurs in nature as 
bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the 
metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate' .or hydrate; 
.Thus obtained it is a' yellow powder, soluble, in' the mineral acids 
to form soluble salts, which are readily precipitated as basic salts 
;When the solution is diluted. It melt? to a reddish-brown liquid, 
, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass'ori cooling. The hydrate, 
Bi(OH) 3 , is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution 
of a bismuth salt. Bismuth dioxide, BiO or Bi 2 2 , is said to be 
formed by the limited oxidation of the metal, and as a brown pre- 
cipitate by adding mixed solutions of bismuth and stannous chlorides 
to a solution of caustic potash. Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 04, sometimes 
termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth ,tfioxide 
with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potas- 
sium chlorate. It is also formed 'by oxidizing bismuth trioxide 
suspended in caustic potash with chlorine.'thepentoxide being formed 
simultaneously; oxidation and, potassium ferricyanide simply gives 
the tetroxide (Hauser and Vanino, Zeit. Anorg. Chem., 1904,39, p.381). 
The hydrate, Bi 2 Cv2H 2 0, is also known. Bismuth pentoxide, Bi 2 C 6 , 
is obtained by heating bismuthic acid, HBi0 3 ; to 130° C. ; this acid 
(in the form of its salts) being the product of the continued oxidation 
of an alkaline solution of bismuth trioxide. 

Bismuth forms two chlorides : BiCl 2 and BiCl 3 . The dichloride, 
BiCl 2 , is obtained as a brown crystalline powder by fusing the metal 
with the trichloride, or in a current of chlorine, or by heating the 
metal with calomel to 250°. Water decomposes it to metallic 
bismuth and the oxychloride, BiOCl. Bismuth trichloride, BiCl 3 , 
was obtained by Robert Boyle by heating the metal with corrosive 
sublimate. It is the final product of burning bismuth in an excess 
of chlorine. It is a white substance, melting at 225°-230° and 
boiling at 435°-44l°. With excess of water, it gives a white pre- 
cipitate of the oxychloride, BiOCl. Bismuth trichloride forms double 
compounds with hydrochloric acid, the chlorides of the alkaline 
metals, ammonia, nitric oxide and nitrosyl chloride. Bismuth tri- 
fluoride, BiF 3 , a white powder, bismuth tribromide, BiBr 8 , golden 
yellow crystals, bismuth iodide, Bil 3 , greyish-black crystals, are also 
known. These compounds closely resemble the trichloride in their 
methods of preparation and their properties, forming oxyhaloids 
with water, and double compounds with ammonia, &c. 

Carbonates. — The basic carbonate, 2(BiO) 2 C0 3 -H 2 0, obtained as a 
white precipitate when an alkaline carbonate is added to a solution of 
bismuth nitrate, is employed in medicine. Another basic carbonate, 
3(BiO) 2 C0 3 -2Bi(OH) 3 -3H 2 0, constitutes the mineral bismutite. 

Nitrates. — The normal nitrate, Bi(N0 3 ) 3 -5H 2 0, is obtained in 
large transparent asymmetric prisms by evaporating; a solution of 
the metal in nitric acid. The action of water on this solution pro- 
duces a crystalline precipitate of basic nitrate, probably Bi(QH) 2 N0 3 , 
though it varies with the amount of water employed. This pre- 
cipitate constitutes the " magistery of bismuth " or " subnitrate of 
bismuth " of pharmacy, and under the name of pearl white, blanc 
d'Espagne or blanc de fard has long been used as a cosmetic. 

Sulphides. — Bismuth combines directly with ' sulphur to form, a 
disulphide, BisSi, and a trisulphide, Bi 2 S 3 ,, the latter compound 
being formed when the sulphur is in excess. A hydrated disulphide,' 
Bi 2 S 2 -2H 2 0, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a 
solution of bismuth nitrate and stannous chloride. Bismuth 



bisulphide is a grey metallic substance, which is decomposed by 
hydrochloric acid with the separation of metallic bismuth and the 
formation of bismuth trichloride. Bismuth trisulphide, Bi 2 S3, 
constitutes, the mineral hismuthite, and may be prepared by direct 
union of its constituents, or as a brown precipitate by passing 
sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a bismuth salt. It is, 
easily soluble in nitric acid. When heated to 200° it assumes the 
crystalline form of bismuthite. Bismuth forms several oxysulphides : 
B14O3S constitutes the mineral karelinite found at the Zavodinski 
mine in the Altai ;Bi 6 OaS4, and Bi 2 O s S have been prepared artificially. 
Bismuth also forms the sulphohaloids, BiSCl, BiSBr, BiSI, analogous 
to the oyxhaloids. 

Bismuth sulphate, Bi 2 (S04)s, is obtained as a white powder by 
dissolving the metal or sulphide in concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Water decomposes it, giving a basic salt, Bi 2 (S04)(OH)4, which on 
heating gives (BiO) 2 S04. Other basic salts are known, 
'■ Bismuth forms compounds similar to the trisulphide with the 
elements selenium and tellurium. The tritelluride constitutes the 
mineral tetradymite, Bi 2 Te3. ' 

4»<z/yw.-^Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the- 
solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride,, 
a precipitate or dark colpration of bismuth oxide being formed' even 
when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water. The: 
blackish brown sulphide precipitated from bismuth salts by sulphur- 
etted hydrogen is insoluble in ammonium sulphide, but is readily 
dissolved by nitric acid, The metal can be reduced by magnesium, 
2inc, cadmium, iron, tin, copper and substances like hypo-' 
phosphorous acid- from acid solutions or froffi alkaline ones by : 
formaldehyde. In quantitative estimations, it is generally weighed 
as: oxide, after precipitation as sulphide or carbonate, or in the; 
metallic form, reduced as above. 

; Pharmacology. — The salts of bismuth are feebly antiseptic. 
Taken 'internally the subnitrate, coming into contact with water, 
tends to decompose, gradually liberating nitric acid, one of the most, 
powerful antiseptics. The physical properties of the powder 
also give it a mild astringent action. There are no remote 

Tfkrapcutics.— -The subnitrate of bismuth is invaluable in certain 
cases of dyspepsia, and still more notably so in diarrhoea. It owes 
its value to the decomposition described above, by means of which 
a powerful antiseptic action is safely and continuously exerted. 
There is hardly a safer drug. It may be given in drachm doses with 
impunity. It colours the faeces black owing to the formation of 

BISMUTHITE, a somewhat rare mineral, consisting of bismuth 
trisulphide, Bi 2 S3. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system 
and is ispmorphous with stibnite (Sb2S 3 ) , which it closely resembles 
in appearance. It forms loose interlacing aggregates of acicular 
crystals without terminal faces (only in a single instance has a 
terminated crystal been observed), or as masses with a foliated 
or fibrous structure. An important character is the perfect: 
cleavage in one direction parallel to the length of the needles.: 
The colour is lead-grey inclining to tin-white and often with a 
yellowish or iridescent tarnish. The hardness is 2; specific; 
grayity 6/4-6'S- Bismuthite occurs at several localities in, 
Cornwall and Bolivia, often in association with native bismuth: 
and tin-ores. Other localities are known; for instance, Brandy 
Gill in Caldbeck Fells, Cumberland, where with molybdenite and 
apatite it is embedded in white quartz. The mineral was known 
to A. Cronstedt in 1758, and was named bismuthine by F. S. 
Beudant in 1832. This name, which is also used in the forms 
Bismuthite and bismuthinite, is rather unfortunate, since it is : 
readily confused with bismite (bismuth oxide) and bismutitc 
(basic bismuth carbonate), especially as the latter has also been; 
used in the form bismuthite. The name bismuth-glance or, 
bismutholamprite for the species under consideration is free from 
this objection. (L. J.S.) 

BISMYA, a group of ruin mounds, about 1 m. long and 5 m. 
wide, consisting of a number of low ridges, nowhere exceeding 40 
ft. in height, lying in the Jezireh, somewhat nearer to the Tigris 
than the Euphrates, about a day's journey to the south-east of 
Nippur, a little below 32° N. and about 45° 40' E. Excavations 
conducted here for six months, 'from Christmas of 1903 to June 
1904, for the university of Chicago, by Dr Edgar J. Banks, 
proved that these' mounds covered the site of the ancient city of 
Adab (Ud-Nun), hitherto known only from a brief mention of its 
name in the introduction. to the Khammurabi code (e. 2250 B.C.). 
The city was divided into two parts by a canal, on an island in 
■which stood the temple, E-mach, with a ziggurat, or stage tower. 
It was evidently once a city of considerable importance, but 

deserted at a very early peripd, since the ruins found close to the 
surface of the mounds belong to Dungi and Ur Gur, kings of Ur 
in the earlier part of the third millennium B.C. Immediately 
below these, as at Nippur, were found the remains of Naram-Sin 
and Sar-gpn, c. 3000 B.C. Below these there were still 35 ft. 
of stratified remains, constituting seven-eighths of the total 
depth of the ruins. Besides the remains of buildings, walls, 
graves, &c, Dr Banks discovered a large number of inscribed 
clay tablets of a very early period, bronze and stone tablets, 
bronze implements and the like. But the two most nptable 
discoveries were a complete statue in white marble, apparently 
the most ancient yet found in Babylonia (now in the museum in 
Cpnstantinpple), bearing the inscription—" E-mach, King 
Da-uclu, King of, Ud-Nun "; and a temple refuse heap, 
consisting of great quantities of fragments of vases in marble, 
alabaster, onyx, porphyry and granite, some of which were 
inscribed, and others engraved and inlaid with ivory and precious 
stones. ' (J. P. Pe.) 

' BISON, the name of the one existing species of European wild 
ox, Bos (Bison) bonasus, known in Russian as zubr. Together 
with the nearly allied New World animal known in Europe as 
the (North) American bison, but in its own country as " buffalo," 
and scientifically as Bos (Bison) bison, the bison represents a 
group of the ox tribe distinguished from other species by the 
greater breadth and convexity of the forehead, superior length 
of limb, and the longer spinal processes of the dorsal vertebrae, 
which, with the powerful muscles attached for the support of the 
massive head, form a protuberance or hump on the shoulders. 
The bisons have also fourteen pairs of ribs, while the common ox 
has only thirteen. The forehead and neck of both species are 
covered with long, shaggy hair of a dark brown colour; and in 
winter the whole of the neck, shoulders and hump are similarly 
clothed, so as to form a curly, felted mane. This mane in the 
European species disappears in summer; but in the American 
bison it is to a considerable extent persistent. 

The bison is now the largest European quadruped, measuring 
about 10 ft. long, exclusive of the tail, and standing nearly 6 ft. 
high. Formerly it was abundant throughout Europe, as is 
proved by the fossil remains of this or a closely allied form found 
on the continent and in . England, associated with those of the 
extinct mammoth and rhinoceros. Caesar mentions the bison 
as abounding, along with the extinct aurochs or wild ox, in the 
forests of Germany and Belgium, where it appears to have been 
occasionally captured and afterwards exhibited alive in the 
Roman amphitheatres. At that period, and long after, it seems 
to have been common throughout central Europe, as we learn 
from the evidence of Herberstein in the 16th century. Nowadays 
bison are found in a truly wild condition only in the forests of the 
Caucasus, where they are specially protected by the Russian 
government. There is, however, a herd, somewhat in the 
condition of park-animals, in the forest of Byelovitsa, in Lithu- 
ania, where it is protected by the tsar, but nevertheless is 
gradually dying out. In 1862 the Lithuanian bisons numbered 
over 1200, but by 1872 they had diminished to 528, and in 1892 
there were only 491. The prince of Pless has a small herd at 
Promnitz, his Silesian estate, founded by the gift of a bull and 
three cows by Alexander II. in 1855, his herd being the source 
of the menagerie supply. 

Bison feed on a coarse aromatic grass, and browse on the 
leaves, shoots, bark and twigs of trees; 

The American bison is distinguished from its European cousin 
by the following among other features: The hind-quarters are 
weaker and fall away more suddenly, while the withers are 
proportionately higher. Especially characteristic is the great 
mass of brown or blackish brown hair clothing the head, neck 
and forepart of the body. The shape of the skull and horns is 
also different; the horns themselves being shorter, thicker, 
blunter and more sharply curved, while the forehead of the 
skull is more convex and the sockets of the eyes are more 
distinctly tubular. This species formerly ranged over a third of 
North America in countless numbers, but is now practically 
extinct. The great herd was separated into a northern and 



southern division by the completion of the Union Pacific railway, 
and the annual rate of destruction from 1870 to 1875 has been 
estimated at 2,500,000 head. In 1880 the completion of the 
Northern Pacific railway led to an attack upon the northern herd. 
The last of the Dakota bisons were destroyed by Indians in 1883, 
leaving then less than 1000 wild individuals in the United 

A count which was concluded at the end of February 1903, 
put the number of captive bisons at 11 19, of which 969 were in 
parks and zoological gardens in the United States, 41 in Canada 
and 109 in Europe. At the same time it was estimated that 
there were 34 wild bison in the United States and 600 in Canada. 

In England small herds are kept by the duke of Bedford at 
Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, and by Mr C. J. Leyland at 
Haggerston Castle, Northumberland. 

Two races of the American bison have been distinguished — 
the typical prairie form, and the woodland race, B. bison 
athabascae; but the two are very similar. (R. L.*) 

BISQUE (a French word of unknown origin, formerly spelt in 
English "bisk"), a term for odds given in the games of tennis, 
lawn tennis, croquet and golf; in the two former a bisque is one 
point to be taken at any time during a " set " at the choice of 
the receiver of the odds, while in croquet and golf it is one extra 
stroke to be taken similarly during a game. The name is given, 
in cookery, to a thick soup, made particularly of crayfish or 

BISSELL, GEOBGE EDWIN (1839- ), American sculptor, 
son of a quarryman and marble-cutter, was born at New Preston, 
Connecticut, on the 16th of February 1839. During the Civil 
War he served as a private in the 23rd Connecticut volunteers 
in the Department of the Gulf (1862-1863), and on being 
mustered out became acting assistant paymaster in the South 
Atlantic squadron. At the close of the war he joined his father 
in business. He studied the art of sculpture abroad in 1875-1876, 
and lived much in Paris during the years 1883-1896, with 
occasional visits to America. Among his more important works 
are the soldiers' and sailers' monument, and a statue of Colonel 
Chatfield, at Waterbury, Connecticut; and statues of General 
Gates at Saratoga, New York, of Chancellor John Watts in 
Trinity churchyard, New York City; of Colonel Abraham de 
Peyster in Bowling Green, New York City; of Abraham Lincoln 
at Edinburgh; of Burns and "Highland Mary," in Ayr, 
Scotland; of Chancellor James Kent, in the Congressional 
library, Washington; and of President Arthur in Madison 
Square, New York City. 

BISSEXT, or Bissextus (Lat. Ms, twice; sextus, sixth), the 
day intercalated by the Julian calendar in the February of every 
fourth year to make up the six hours by which the solar year was 
computed to exceed the year of 365 days. The day was inserted 
after the 24th of February, i.e. the 6th day before the calends 
(1st) of March; there was consequently, besides the sextus, or 
sixth before the calends, the bis-sextus or " second sixth," our 
25th of February. In modern usage, with the exception of 
ecclesiastical calendars, the intercalary day is added for con- 
venience at the end of the month, and years in which February 
has 29 days are called " bissextile," or leap-years. 

BISTRE, the French name of a brown paint made from the 
soot of wood, now largely superseded by Indian ink. 

BIT (from the verb " to bite," either in the sense of a piece 
bitten off, or an act of biting, or a thing that bites or is bitten), 
generally, a piece of anything; the word is, however, used in 
various special senses, all derivable from its origin, either literally 
or metaphorically. The most common of these are (1) its use 
as the name of various tools, e.g. centre-bit; (2) a horse's " bit," 
or the metal mouth-piece of the bridle; (3) in money, a small 
sum of money of varying value (e.g. threepenny-bit), especially 
in the West Indies and southern United States: 

BITHUR, a town in the Cawnpore district of the United 
Provinces of India, 12 m. N.W. of Cawnpore city. Pop. (1901) 
7173. It is chiefly notable for its connexion with the mutiny of 
1857. The last of the peshwas, B a ji Rao, was banished to Bithur, 
and his adopted son, the Nana Sahib, made the town his head- 

quarters. It was captured by Hayelock on the 19th of July 
1857, when the Nana's palaces were destroyed. 

BITHYNIA (Bidvvla), an ancient district in the N.W. of 
Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus 
and the Euxine. According to Strabo it was bounded on the 
. E. by the river Sangarius; but the more commonly received 
division extended it to the Parthenius, which separated it from 
Paphlagonia, thus comprising the district inhabited by the 
Mariandyni. On the W. and S.W. it was separated from Mysia 
by the river Rhyndacus; and on the S. it adjoined Phrygia 
Epictetus and Galatia. It is in great part occupied by moun- 
tains and forests, but has valleys and districts near the sea-coast 
of great fertility. The most important mountain range is the 
(so-called) " Mysian " Olympus (7600 ft.), which towers above 
Brusaandis clearly visible as far away as Constantinople (70 m.). 
Its summits are covered with snow for a great part of the year. 
East of this the range now called Ala-Dagh extends for above 
100 m. from the Sangarius to Paphlagonia. Both of these ranges 
belong to that border of mountains which bounds the great table- 
land of Asia Minor. The country between them and the coast, 
covered with forests and traversed by few lines of route, is still 
imperfectly known. But the broad tract which projects towards 
the west as far as the shores of the Bosporus, though hilly and 
covered with forests — the Turkish Aghatch Denizi, or "The 
Ocean of Trees " — is not traversed by any mountain chain. The 
west coast is indented by two deep inlets, (1) the northernmost, 
the Gulf of Ismid (anc. Gulf of Astacus), penetrating between 
40 and 50 m. into the interior as far as Ismid (anc. Nicomedia), 
separated by an isthmus of only about 25 m. from the Black 
Sea; (2) the Gulf of Mudania or Gemlik (Gulf of Cius), about 
25 m. long. At its extremity is situated the small town of 
Gemlik (anc. Cius) at the mouth of a valley, communicating 
with the lake of Isnik, on which was situated Nicaea. 

The principal rivers are the Sangarius (mod. Sakaria), which 
traverses the province from south to north; the Rhyndacus, which 
separated it from Mysia; and the Billaeus (Filiyas), which rises 
in the Ala-Dagh, about 50 m. from the sea, and after flowing 
by Boli (anc. ClaudiopoHs) falls into the Euxine, close to the 
ruins of the ancient Tium, about 40 m. north-east of Heraclea, 
having a course of more than 100 m. The Parthenius (mod. 
Bartan), the boundary of the province towards the east, is a 
much less considerable stream. 

Thenaturalresources of Bi thynia are still imperfectly developed. 
Its vast forests would furnish an almost inexhaustible supply 
of timber, if rendered accessible by roads. Coal also is known 
to exist near Eregli (Heraclea). The valleys towards the Black 
Sea abound in fruit trees of all kinds, while the valley of the 
Sangarius and the plains near Brusa and Isnik (Nicaea) are 
fertile and well cultivated. Extensive plantations of mulberry 
trees supply the silk for which Brusa has long been celebrated, 
and which is manufactured there on a large scale. 

According to ancient authors (Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo, 
&c), the Bithynians were an immigrant Thracian tribe. The 
existence of a tribe called Thyni in Thrace is well attested, and 
the two cognate tribes of the Thyni and Bithyni appear to have 
settled simultaneously in the adjoining parts of Asia, where they 
expelled or subdued the Mysians, Caucones, and other petty 
tribes, the Mariandyni alone maintaining themselves in the north- 
east. Herodotus mentions the Thyni and Bithyni as existing side 
by side; but ultimately the latter must have become the more 
important, as they gave their name to the country. They were 
incorporated by Croesus with the Lydian monarchy, with which 
they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 B.C.), and were 
included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the 
countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus. But even before 
the conquest by Alexander the Bithynians appear to have 
asserted their independence, and successfully maintained it 
under two native princes, Bas and Zipoetes, the last of whom 
transmitted his power to his son Nicomedes I., the first to 
assume the title of king. This monarch founded Nicomedia, 
which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign 
(278-250 B.C.), as well as those of his successors, Prusias I., 



Prusias II, and Nicomedes II. (149-91 B.C.), the kingdom of 
Bithynia held a considerable place among the minor monarchies 
of Asia. But the last king, Nicomedes III., was unable to 
maintain himself against Mithradates of Pontus, and, after being 
restored to his throne by the Roman senate, he bequeathed his 
kingdom by will to the Romans (74 B.C.). Bithynia now became 
a Roman province. Its limits were frequently varied, and it 
>yas commonly united for administrative purposes with the 
province of Pontus. This was the state of things in the time of 
Trajan, when the younger Pliny was appointed governor of 
the combined provinces (103-105 a.d.), a circumstance to 
which we are indebted for valuable information concerning the 
Roman provincial administration. Under the Byzantine empire 
Bithynia was again divided into two provinces, separated by the 
Sangarius, to the west of which the name of Bithynia was 

The most important cities were Nicomedia and Nicaea, which 
disputed with one another the rank of capital. Both of these 
were founded after Alexander the Great; but at a much earlier 
period the Greeks had established on the coast the colonies of 
Cius (afterwards Prusias, mod. Gemlik) ; Chalcedon, at the 
entrance of the Bosporus, nearly opposite Constantinople; and 
Heraclea Pontica, on the Euxine, about 120 m. east of the Bos- 
porus. All these rose to be flourishing places of trade, as also 
Prusa at the foot of M. Olympus (see Brusa). The only other 
places of importance at the present day are Ismid (Nicomedia) 
and Scutari. 

. See C. Texier, Asie Mineure (Paris, 1839); G. Perrot, Galatie et 
Bithynie (Paris, 1862); W. von Diest in Petermanns Mittheilungen, 
Erganzungsheft, 116 (Gotha, 1895). (E. H. B.; F. W. Ha.) 

BITLIS, or Betlis (Arm. Paghesh), the chief town of a vilayet 
of the same name in Asiatic Turkey, situated at an altitude of 
4700 ft., in the deep, narrow valley of the Bitlis Chai, a tributary 
of the Tigris. The main part of the town and the bazaars are 
crowded alongside the stream, while suburbs with scattered 
houses among orchards and gardens extend up two tributary 
streams. The houses are massive and well built of a soft volcanic 
tufa, and with their courtyards and gardens climbing up the 
hillsides afford a striking picture. At the junction of two 
streams in the centre of the town is a fine old castle, partly 
ruined, which, according to local tradition, occupies the site 
of a fortress built by Alexander the Great. It is apparently 
an Arab building, as Arabic inscriptions appear on the walls, but 
as the town stands on the principal highway between the Van 
plateau and the Mesopotamian plain it must always have been 
of strategic importance. The bazaars are crowded, covered 
across with branches in summer, and typical of a Kurdish town. 
The population numbers 35,000, of whom about 12,000 are 
Armenians and the remainder are Kurds or of Kurdish descent. 

Kurdish beys and sheiks have much influence in the town 
and wild mountain districts adjoining, while the Sasun moun- 
tains, the scene of successive Armenian revolutions of late years, 
are not far off to the west. The town was ruled by a semi- 
independent Kurdish bey as late as 1836. There are some fine 
old mosques and medresses (colleges), and the Armenians have a 
large monastery and churches. There are British, French and 
Russian consuls in the town, and a branch of the American 
Mission with schools is established also. The climate is healthy 
and the thermometer rarely falls below o° Fahr., but there is a 
heavy snowfall and the narrow streets are blocked for some five 
months in the year. 

A good road runs southward down the pass, passing after a 
few miles some large chalybeate and sulphur springs. Roads 
also lead north to Mush and Erzerum and along the lake to Van. 
Postal communication is through Erzerum with Trebizond. 
Tobacco of an inferior quality is largely grown, and the chief 
industry is the weaving of a coarse red cloth. Manna and gum 
tragacanth are also collected. Fruit is also plentiful, and there 
are many vineyards close by. 

The Bitlis vilayet comprises a very varied section of Asiatic 
Turkey, as it includes the Mush plain and the plateau country 
west of Lake Van, as well as a large extent of wild mountain 

districts inhabited by turbulent Kurds and Armenians on either 
side of the central town of Bitlis, also some of the lower country 
about Sairt along the left bank of the main stream of the Tigris. 
The mountains have been little explored, but are believed to 
be rich in minerals, iron, lead, copper, traces of gold and many 
mineral springs are known to exist. (F. R. M.) 

BITONTO (anc. Butunti), a town and episcopal see of Apulia, 
Italy, in the province of Bari, 10 m. west by steam tramway 
fromBari. Pop. (1901) 30,617. It was a place of no importance 
in classical times. Its medieval walls are still preserved. Its 
cathedral is one of the finest examples of the Romanesque archi- 
tecture of Apulia, and has escaped damage from later restorations. 
The palazzo Sylos-Labini has a fine Renaissance court of 1502. 

BITSCH (Fr. Bitche), a town of Germany, in Alsace-Lorraine, 
on the Horn, at the foot of the northern slope of the Vosges 
between Hagenau and Saargemiind. Pop. (1905) 4000. There 
are a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, a classical school 
and an academy of forestry. The industries include shoe-making 
and watch-making, and there is some trade in grain and timber. 
The town of Bitsch, which was formed cfut of the villages of 
Rohr and Kaltenhausen in the 17th century, derives its name 
from the old stronghold (mentioned in n 72 as Bytis Castrum) 
standing on a rock some 250 ft. above the town. This had long 
given its name to the countship of Bitsch, which was originally 
in the possession of the dukes of Lorraine. In 1297 it passed by 
marriage to Eberhard I. of Zweibriicken, whose line became 
extinct in 1569, when the countship reverted to Lorraine. It 
passed with that duchy to France in 1766. After that date the 
town rapidly increased in population. The citadel, which had 
been constructed by Vauban on the site of the old castle after 
the capture of Bitsch by the French in 1624, had been destroyed 
when it was restored to Lorraine in 1698. This was restored 
and strengthened in 1740 into a fortress that proved impregnable 
in all succeeding wars. The attack upon it by the Prussians 
in 1793 was repulsed; in 181 5 they had to be content with 
blockading it; and in 1870, though it was closely invested by 
the Germans after the battle of Worth, it held out until the end 
of the war. A large part of the fortification is excavated in the 
red sandstone rock, and rendered bomb-proof; a supply of 
water is secured to the garrison by a deep well in the interior. 

sculptor, was born in Vienna on the 6th of December 1867. 
After studying art there, in 1889 he removed to the United 
States, where he became naturalized. In America he gained 
great popularity as a sculptor, and in 1906-1907 was presi- 
dent of the National Sculpture Society, New York. Among 
his principal works are: the Astor memorial gates, Trinity 
church, New York; " Elements Controlled and Uncontrolled," 
on the Administration Building at the Chicago Exposition; 
a large relief, " Triumph of Civilization," in the waiting-room 
of the Broad Street station of the Pennsylvania railway in 
Philadelphia; decorations for the Dewey Naval Arch in New 
York City; the " Standard Bearers," at the Pan-American 
Exposition grounds; a sitting statue and a bust of Dr Pepper, 
provost of the University of Pennsylvania; and the Villard 
and Hubbard memorials in the New York chamber of commerce. 

BITTERFELD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Saxony, 26 m. N. from Leipzig by rail, on the river Mulde, 
and an important junction of railways from Leipzig and Halle 
to Berlin. Pop. (1900) 11,839. It manufactures drain-pipes, 
paper-roofing and machinery, and has saw-mills. Several 
coal-mines are in the vicinity. The town was built by a colony 
of Flemish immigrants in n 53. It was captured by the land- 
grave of Meissen in 1476, and belonged thenceforth to Saxony, 
until it was ceded to Prussia in 18 15. Owing to its pleasant 
situation and accessibility, it has become a favourite residence 
of business men of Leipzig and Halle. 

BITTERLING {Rhodeus amarus), a little carp-like fish of 
central Europe, belonging to the Cyprinid family. In it we 
have a remarkable instance of symbiosis. The genital papilla 
of the female acquires a great development during the breeding 
season and becomes produced into a tube nearlv as long as the 



fish itself; this acts as an ovipositor by means of which the 
comparatively few and large eggs (3 millimetres in diameter) 
are introduced through the gaping valves between the branchiae 
of pond mussels (Unio and Anodonta), where, after being in- 
seminated, they undergo their development, the fry leaving 
their host about a month later. The mollusc reciprocates by 
throwing off its embryos on the parent fish, in the skin of which 
they remain encysted for some time, the period of reproduction 
of the fish and mussel coinciding. 

BITTERN, a genus of wading birds, belonging to the family 
Ardeidae, comprising several species closely allied to the herons, 
from which they differ chiefly in their shorter neck, the back of 
which is covered with down, and the front with long feathers', 
which can be raised at pleasure. They are solitary birds, frequent- 
ing countries possessing extensive swamps, and marshy grounds, 
remaining at rest by day, concealed among the reeds and bushes 
of their haunts, and seeking their food, which consists of fish, 
reptiles, insects and small quadrupeds, in the twilight. The 
<c ommon bittern ( Botaurus stellaris) is nearly as large as the heron, 
mid is widely distributed over the eastern hemisphere. Formerly 
it was common in Britain, but extensive drainage and persecution 


have greatly diminished its numbers and it is now only an un- 
certain visitor. Not a winter passes without its appearing in 
some numbers, when its uncommon aspect, its large size, and 
beautifully pencilled plumage cause it to be regarded as a great 
prize by the lucky gun-bearer to whom it falls a victim. Its 
value as a delicacy for the table, once so highly esteemed, has 
long vanished. The old fable of this bird inserting its beak into 
a reed or plunging it into the ground, and so causing the booming 
sound with which its name will be always associated, is also 
exploded, and nowadays indeed so few people in Britain have 
ever heard its loud and awful voice, which seems to be uttered 
only in the breeding-season, and is therefore unknown in a country 
where it no longer breeds, that incredulity as to its booming at 
all has in some quarters succeeded the old belief in this as in 
other reputed peculiarites of the species. The bittern in the 
days of falconry was strictly preserved, and afforded excellent 
sport. It sits crouching on the ground during the day, with its 
bill pointing in the air, a position from which it is not easily 
roused, and even when it takes wing, it's flight is neither swift 
nor long sustained. When wounded it requires to be approached 
with caution, as it will then attack either man or dog with its 
long sharp bill and its acute claws. It builds a rude nest among 
the reeds and flags, out Of the materials which surround it, and 

the female lays four or five* eggs* bf'a brOWhish olive, ' During 
the breeding season it utters a booming- noise, front which it 
probably derives its generic name, Botaurus, and . which has 
made it in many places an object of superstitious , dreadi Its 
plumage for the'most partis of a pale buff colour, rayed anc[ 
speckled with black and reddish brown. The American bittern 
{Botaurus lentigifiosus) i'.is somewhat smaller, than the European 
species, and is found throughout the central and southern 
portions Of North America. It also occurs' in' Britain as an 
occasional straggler. It is distinguishable by its uniform greyish- 
brown primaries, which want the tawny bars that characterize^ 
B. stellaris. Both species are good eating. . 

BITTERN (from " bitter "), the mother liquor obtained ftom 
sea-water or brines after the separation of the. sodium chloride 
(common salt) by Crystallization. It contains various mag- 
nesium salts (sulphate, chloride, bromide and iodide) and, is 
employed; commercially for the manufacture of Epsom salts 
(magnesium sulphate) and bromine. The same term is applied 
to a mixture of quassia, iron sulphate, cocculus indicus, liquorice. 
&c, used in adulterating beer. 

BITTERS, the name given to aromatized (generally alcoholic) 
beverages containing a bitter substance ,'pr Substances, used as 
tonics, appetizers or digestives. The bitterness is imparted by 
such substances as bitter orange rind, gentian, rhubarb, quassia, 
cascarilla, angostura, quinine and cinchona. Juniper, cinnamon", 
carraway, camomile, cloves and other flavouring agents are also 
employed in conjunction with the bitter principles, alcohol and 
sugar. Sorne bitters are prepared by simple maceration and 
subsequent filtration (see Liqueurs), others by the more conv 
plicated distillation process. Those prepared by the latter 
process are the finer commercial articles.' Bitters are usually 
Sold under the name of the substance which has been used to 
give them the predominant flavour, siich as orange, angostura 
or peach bitters, &c. The alcoholic strength of bitters varies, 
but is generally in the neighbourhood of 46% of alcohol. Some 
bitters, although possessing tonic properties; may be regarded 
as beverages pure and simple, notwithstanding the fact that they 
are seldom consumed in an undiluted" state; others again, are 
obviously medicinal preparations and should be treated as such! 

BITUMEN, the name applied by the Romans to the various 
descriptions of natural hydrocarbons, the yard petroleum not 
being used in classical Latin. In its widest sense it embraces the 
whole range of these substances, including natural gas, the more 
or less liquid descriptions of petroleum, and' the solid forms of 
asphalt, albertite, gilsonite or uintahite, elaterite, ozokerite and 
hatchettite. To distinguish bitumen intermediate in consistency 
between asphalt and the more liquid kinds of crude petroleum, 
the term maltha (Latin) is frequently employed. The bitumens 
of chief commercial importance may be grouped under the three 
headings of (1) natural gas, (2) petroleum, arid (3) asphalt, and 
will be found fully described under these titles. In the scriptures 
there are numerous references to bitumen, arnong which the 
following may be quoted: — In Genesis ix. 3, we are told that in 
the building of the tower of Babel " slime had they for mortar," 
and iii Genesis xiv. 10, that the vale of Siddim " was full of 
slime-pits," the word slime in the latter quotation from our 
version appearing as bitumen in the Vulgate. Herodotus alludes 
to the use of the bitumen brought down by the Is, a tributary 
of the Euphrates, as mortar in building the walls of Babylon; 
Diodorus, Curtius, 'Josephus, Bochart and others make similar 
mention of this use of bitumen, and Vitruvius tells us that it 
was employed inadmixture with clay. 

In its various forms, bitumen is one of the most widely dis- 
tributed of substances. It occurs, though sometimes only in 
small quantity, in aliriost every part of the globe, and 'through- 
out the whole range of geological strata, from the Laurentian 
rocks to the most recent members of the Quaternary period. 
Although the gaseous and liquid forms of bitumen may be' re- 
garded as having been formed in the strata in which, they are 
found or as having been received into such strata shortly after 
forrnation, the semi-solid and solid varieties may be considered 
to have been produced by the' oxidation and evaporation of 



liquid petroleum escaping from underlying or better preserved 
deposits into other strata, or into fissures where atmospheric 
action and loss of the more volatile constituents can take place. 
It should, however, be stated that there is some difference of 
opinion as to the precise manner of production of some of the 
solid forms of bitumen, and especially of ozokerite. (B. R.) 

BITURIGES, a Celtic people, according to Livy (v. 34) the 
most powerful in Gaul in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. At 
some period unknown they split up into two branches — Bituriges 
Cubi and Bituriges Vivisci. The name is supposed to mean 
either " rulers of the world " or " perpetual kings." 

The Bituriges Cubi, called simply Bituriges by Caesar, in 
whose time they acknowledged the supremacy of the Aedui, 
inhabited the modern diocese of Bourges, including the depart-' 
ments of Cher and Indre, and partly that of Allier. Their chief 
towns were Avaricum (Bourges), Argentomagus (Argenton-sur- 
Creuse), Neriomagus (Neris-les-Bains), Noviodunum (perhaps 
Villate). At the time of the rebellion of Vercingetorix (52 B.C.), 
Avaricum, after a desperate resistance, was taken by assault, 
and the inhabitants put to the sword. In the following year, 
the Bituriges submitted to Caesar, and under Augustus they 
were incorporated (in 28 B.C.) in Aquitania. Pliny (Nat. Hist. 
iv. iog) speaks of them as liberi, which points to their enjoying 
a certain amount of independence under Roman government. 
The district contained a number of iron works, and Caesar says 
they were skilled in driving galleries and mining operations, 

The Bituriges Vivisci occupied the strip of land between the 
sea and the left bank of the Garonne, comprising the greater 
part of the modern department of Gironde. Their capital was 
Burdigala (Bordeaux), even then a place of considerable import- 
ance and a wine-growing centre. Like the Cubi, they also are 
called liberi by Pliny. 

See A. Desjardiris, Geographie historique de la Gaule romaine,^ ii. 
(1876-1893) ; A. Longnon, Geographie de la Gaule au VI' siecle 
(1878); A. Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz; T. R. Holmesi 
Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899). 

BITZIUS, ALBRECHT (1797-1854), Swiss novelist, best known 
by his pen name of "Jeremias Gotthelf," was born on the 4th 
of October 1797 at Morat, where his father was pastor. In 1804 
the home was moved to Utzenstorf, a village in the Bernese 
Emmenthal. Here young Bitzius grew up, receiving his early 
education and consorting with the boys of the village, as well as 
helping his father to cultivate his glebe. In 181 2 he went to 
complete his education at Bern, and in 1820 was received as a 
pastor. In 1821 he visited the university of Gottingen, but 
returned home in 1822 to act as his father's assistant. On his 
father's death (1824) he went in the same capacity to Herzogen- 
buchsee, and later to Bern (1829). Early in 1831 he went as 
assistant to the aged pastor of the village of Liitzelfliih, in the 
Upper Emmenthal (between Langnau and Burgdorf), being soon 
elected his successor (1832) and marrying one of his grand- 
daughters (1833). He spent the rest of his life there, dying on 
the 22nd of October 1854, and leaving three children (the son was 
a pastor, the two daughters married pastors). His first work, 
the Bauernspiegel, appeared in 1837. It purported to be the life 
of Jeremias Gotthelf, narrated by himself, and this name was 
later adopted by the author as his pen name. It is a living 
picture of Bernese (or, strictly speaking, Emmenthal) village 
life, true to nature, and not attempting to gloss over its defects 
and failings. It is written (like the rest of his works) in the 
Bernese dialect of the Emmenthal, though it must be remembered 
that Bitzius was not (like Auerbach) a peasant by birth, but 
belonged to the educated classes, so that he reproduces what he 
had seen and learnt, and not what he had himself personally 
experienced. The book was a great success, as it was a picture 
of real life, and not of fancifully beribboned 18th-century 
villagers. Among his later tales are the Leiden und Freuden 
eines Schulmeisters (1838-1839), Uli der Knecht (1841), with its 
continuation, Uli der Pachter (1849), Anne Bdbi Jowiiger (1843- 
1844), Kathi die Grossmulter (1847), Die Kdserei in der Vehfreude 
(1850), and the Erlebnisse eines Schiddenbauers (1854). He 
published also several volumes of shorter tales. One slight 

drawback to some of his writings is the echo of local political 
controversies, for Bitzius was a Whig and strongly opposed U> 
the Radical party in the canton, which carried the day in 184& 

Lives by C. Manuel, in the Berlin edition of Bitzius's works 
(Berlin, 1861); and by J. Ammann in vol. i. (Bern, 1884) of the 
Sammlung Bernischer Biographien. His works were issued in 
24 vols, at Berlin, 1856-1861, while 10 vols., giving the original 
text of each story, were issued at Bern, 1898-1900 (edition not to be 
completed). (W. A. B. C.) 

BIVOUAC (a French word generally said to have been intro- 
duced during the Thirty Years' War, perhaps derived from 
Beiwacht, extra guard), originally, a night-watch by a whole 
army under arms to prevent surprise. In modern military par- 
lance the word is used to mean a temporary encampment in 
the open field without tents, as opposed to " billets " or " canton- 
ment " on the one hand and " camp " on the other. The use 
of bivouacs permits an army to remain closely concentrated 
for all emergencies, and avoids the necessity for numerous 
wagons carrying tents. Constant bivouacs, however, are trying 
to the health of men and horses, and this method of quartering 
is never employed except when the military situation demands 
concentration and readiness. Thus the outposts would often: 
have to bivouac while the main body of the army lay in billets. 

BIWA, a lake in the province of Omi, Japan. It measures 
36 m. in length by 12 m. in extreme breadth, has an area of 180 
sq. m., is about 330 ft. above sea-level, and has an extreme 
depth of some 300 ft. There are a few small islands in the lake, 
the principal being Chikubu-shima at the northern end. 

Tradition alleges that Lake Biwa and the mountain of Fuji 
were produced simultaneously by an earthquake in 286 B.C. 
On the west of the lake the mountains Hiei-zan and Hira-yama 
slope down almost to its margin, and on the east a wide plain 
extends towards the boundaries of the province of Mino. It is 
drained by a river flowing out of its southern end, and taking 
its course into the sea at Osaka. This river bears in succession 
the names Of Seta-gawa, Uji-gawa and Yodo-gawa. The lake 
abounds with fish, and the beauty of its scenery is remarkable. 
Small steamboats ply constantly to the points of chief interest, 
and around its shores are to be viewed the Omi-no-hakkei, or 
" eight landscapes of Omi "; namely, the lake 'silvering under 
an autumn moon as one looks down from Ishi-yama; the snow 
at eve on Hira-yama; the glow of sunset at Seta; the groves 
and classic temple of Mii-dera as, the evening bell sounds; boats 
sailing home from Yabase; cloudless peaks at Awazu; rain at 
nightfall over Karasaki; and wild geese sweeping down to 
Katata. The lake is connected with Kyoto by a canal constructed 
in 1890, and is thus brought into water communication with 
Osaka. ' 

BIXIO, NINO (1821-1873), Italian soldier, was born on the 
2nd of October 182 1. While still a boy he was compelled by 
his parents to embrace a maritime career. After numerous 
adventures he returned to Italy in 1846, joined the Giovine Italia, 
and, on 4th November 1847, made himself conspicuous at Genoa 
by seizing the bridle of Charles Albert's horse and crying, " Pass 
the Ticino, Sire, and we are all with you." He fought through 
the campaign of 1848, became captain under Garibaldi at Rome 
in 1849, taking prisoners an entire French battalion, and gaining 
the gold medal for military valour. In 1859 he commanded a 
Garibaldian battalion, and gained the military cross of Savoy. 
Joining the Marsala expedition in i860, he turned the day in 
favour of Garibaldi at Calatafimi, was wounded at Palermo, but 
recovered in time to besiege Reggio in Calabria (21st of August 
i860), and, though again wounded, took part in the battle of 
Volturno, where his leg was broken. Elected deputy in 1861, 
he endeavoured to reconcile Cavour and Garibaldi. In 1866, at 
the head of the seventh division, he covered the Italian retreat 
from Custozza, ignoring the Austrian summons to surrender. 
Created senator in February 1870, he was in the following 
September given command of a division during the movement 
against Rome, took Civita. Vecchia, and participated in the 
general attack upon Rome (20th September 1870). He died of 
cholera at Achin Bay in Sumatra en roule for Batavia, whither he 



had gone in command of a commercial expedition (16th December 

BIZERTA (properly pronounced Ben Zert; Fr. Bizerte), a 
seaport of Tunisia, in 37 17' N., o° 50' E. Pop. about 12,000. 
Next to Toulon, Bizerta is the most important naval port of 
France in the Mediterranean. It occupies a commanding 
strategical position in the narrowest part of the sea, being 714 m. 
E. of Gibraltar, 1168 m. W.N.W. of Port Said, 240 m. N.W. of 
Malta, and 420 m. S. by E. of Toulon. It is 60 m. by rail N.N.W. 
of Tunis. The town is built on the shores of the Mediterranean 
at the point where the. Lake of Bizerta enters the sea through a 
natural channel, the mouth of which has been canalized. The 
modern town lies almost entirely on the north side of the canal. 
A little farther north are the ancient citadel, the walled " Arab " 
town and the old harbour (disused). The present outer harbour 
covers about 300 acres and is formed by two converging jetties 
and a breakwater. The north jetty is 4000 ft. long, the east 
jetty 3300 ft., and the breakwater— which protects the port from 
the prevalent north-east winds — 2300 ft. long. The entrance to 
the canal is in the centre of the outer harbour. The canal is 
2600 ft. long and 787 ft. wide on the surface. Its banks are 
lined with quays, and ships drawing 26 ft. of water can moor 
alongside. At the end of the canal is a large commercial 
harbour, beyond which the channel opens into the lake— in 
reality an arm of the sea— roughly circular in form and covering 
about 50 sq. m., two-thirds of its waters having a depth of 30 
to 40 ft. The lake, which merchant vessels are not allowed 
to enter, contains the naval port and arsenal. There is a 
torpedo and submarine boat station on the north side of the 
channel at the entrance to the lake, but the principal naval 
works are at Sidi Abdallah at the south-west corner of the 
lake and 10 m. from the open sea. Here is an enclosed basin 
covering 123 acres with ample quayage, dry docks and every- 
thing necessary to the accommodation, repair, revictualling and 
coaling of a numerous fleet. Barracks, hospitals and water- 
works have been built, the military town, called Ferryville, 
being self-contained. 

Fortifications have been built for the protection of the port. 
They comprise (a) the older works surrounding the town; (b) a 
group of coast batteries on the high ground of Cape Bizerta or 
Guardia, 4 m. north-north-west of the town; these are grouped 
round a powerful fort called JebelKebir, and have a command 
of 300 to 800 ft. above sea-level; (c) another group of batteries 
on the narrow ground between the sea and the lake to the east 
of the town; the highest of these is the Jebel Tuila battery 
265 ft. above sea-level. 

The Lake of Bizerta, called Tinja by the Arabs, abounds in 
excellent fish, especially mullets, the, dried roe of which, called 
botargo, is largely exported, and the fishing industry employs a 
large proportion of the inhabitants. The western shore of the 
lake is low, and in many places is covered with olive trees to the 
water's edge. The south-eastern shores are hilly and wooded, 
and behind them rises a range of picturesque hills. A narrow 
and shallow channel leads from the western side of the lake into 
another sheet of water, the Lake of Ishkul, so called from Jebel 
Ishkul, a hill on its southern bank 1740 ft. high. The Lake of 
Ishkul is nearly as large as the first lake, but is very shallow. Its 
waters are generally sweet. 

Bizerta occupies the site of the ancient Tyrian colony, Hippo 
Zarytus or Diarrhytus, the harbour of which, by means of a 
spacious pier, protecting it from the north-east wind, was 
rendered one of the safest and finest on this coast. The town 
became a Roman colony, and was conquered by the Arabs in the 
7th century. The place thereafter was subject either to the 
rulers of Tunis or of Constantine, but the citizens were noted for 
their frequent revolts. They threw in their lot (c. 1 530) with the 
pirate Khair-ed-Din, and subsequently received a Turkish 
garrison. Bizerta was captured by the Spaniards in 153 s, but 
not long afterwards came under the Tunisian government. 
Centuries of neglect followed, and the ancient port was almost 
choked up, though the value of the fisheries saved the town from 
utter decay. Its strategical importance was one of. the causes 

which led. to the occupation of Tunisia by the French in 1881. 
In 1890 a concession for a new canal and harbour was granted 
to a company, and five years later the new port was formally 
opened. Since then the canal has been widened and deepened, 
and the naval port at Sidi Abdallah created. 

BIZET [Alexandre Cesar. Leopold] GEORGES (1838-1875), 
French musical composer, was born at Bougival, near Paris, on 
the 25th of October 1838, the son of a singing-master. He 
displayed musical ability at an early age, and was sent to the 
Paris Conservatoire, where he studied under Halevy and speedily 
distinguished himself, carrying off prizes for organ and fugue, 
and finally in 1857, after an ineffectual attempt in the previous 
year, the Grand Prix de Rome for a cantata called Cloris et 
Clotilde. A success of a different kind also befell him at this time. 
Offenbach, then manager of the Theatre des Bouffes-Parisiens, 
had organized a competition for an operetta, in which young 
Bizet was awarded the first prize in conjunction with Charles 
Leeocq, each of them writing an operetta called Docteur Miracle. 
After the three years spent in Rome, an obligation imposed by 
the French government on the winners of the first prize at the 
Conservatoire, Bizet returned to Paris, where he achieved a 
reputation as a pianist and accompanist. On the 23rd of 
September 1863 his first opera, Les Pecheurs de perles, was 
brought out at the Theatre Lyrique, but owing possibly to the' 
somewhat uninteresting nature of the story, the opera did not 
enjoy a very long run. The qualities displayed by the composer, 
however, were amply recognized, although the music was stated, 
by some critics, to exhibit traces of Wagnerian influence. 
Wagnerism at that period was a sort of spectre that haunted the 
imagination of many leading members of the musical press. It 
sufficed for a work to be at all out of the common for the epithet 
" Wagnerian "to be applied to it. The term, it may be said, 
was intended to be condemnatory, and it was applied with little 
understanding as to its real meaning. The score of the Pecheurs 
de perles contains several charming numbers; its dreamy 
melodies are well adapted to fit a story laid in Eastern climes, 
and the music reveals a decided dramatic temperament. Some 
of its dances are now usually introduced into the fourth act of 
Carmen. • 

On the 3rd of June 1865 Bizet married a daughter of his old 
master, Halevy. His second opera, La Jolie Fille de Perth, 
produced at the Theatre Lyrique on 26th December 1867, was 
scarcely a step in advance. The libretto was founded on Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, but the opera lacks unity of style, and its 
pages are marred by concessions to the vocalist. One number 
has survived, the characteristic Bohemian dance which has been 
interpolated into the fourth act of Carmen. In his third opera 
Bizet returned to an oriental subject. Djamileh, a one-act opera, 
given at the Opera Comique on the 22nd of May 1872, is certainly 
one of his most individual efforts. Again were accusations of 
Wagnerism hurled at the composer's head, and Djamileh did not 
achieve the success it undoubtedly deserved. The composer was 
more fortunate with the incidental music he wrote to Alphonse 
Daudet's drama, L' Arlesienne, produced in October 1872. 
Different numbers from this, arranged in the form of suites, 
have often been heard in the concert-room. Rarely have poetry 
and imagination been so well allied as in these exquisite pages,, 
which seem to reflect the sunny skies of Provence. 

Bizet's masterpiece, Carmen, was brought out at the Opera 
Comique on the 3rd of March 187 5. It was based on a version by 
Meilhac and Halevy of a study by Prosper Merimee— in which 
the dramatic element was obscured by much descriptive writing. 
The detection of the drama underlying this psychological 
narrative was in itself a brilliant discovery, and in reconstructing 
the story in dramatic form the authors produced one of the most 
famous libretti in the whole range of opera. Still more striking 
than the libretto was the music composed by Bizet, in which the 
peculiar use of the flute and of the lowest notes of the harp 
deserves particular attention. 

On the 3rd of June, three months after the production of 
Carmen in Paris, the genial composer expired after a few hours' 
illness from a heart affection. Before dying he had the satisfaction 


of knowing that Carmen had been accepted for production at 
Vienna. After the Austrian capital came Brussels, Berlin and, 
in 1878, London, when Carmen was brought out at Her Majesty's 
theatre with immense success. The influence exercised by 
Bizet on dramatic music has been very great, and may be 
discerned in the realistic works of the young Italian school, as 
well as in those of his own countrymen. 

BJORNEBORG (Finnish, Port), a district town of Finland, 
province of Abo-Bjorneborg, on the E. coast of the Gulf of 
Bothnia, at the mouth of the Kumo. Lat. 5 1° 8' N., long. 46° o' E. 
Pop. (1904) 16,053, mostly Swedes. Large vessels cannot enter 
its roadstead, and stop at Rafso. The town has shipbuilding 
wharves, machine works, and several tanneries and brick-works, 
and has a total trade of over 16,000,000 marks, the chief export 
being timber. 

BJORNSON, BJORNSTJERNE (1832-1010), Norwegian poet, 
novelist and dramatist, was born on the 8th of December 1832 
at the farmstead of Bjorgen, in Kvikne, in Osterdal, Norway. 
In 1837 his father, who had been pastor of Kvikne, was trans- 
ferred to the parish of Noesset, in Romsdal; in this romantic 
district the childhood of Bjornson was spent. After some 
teaching at the neighbouring town of Molde, he was sent at the 
age of seventeen to a well-known school in Christiania to study 
for the university; his instinct for poetry was already awakened, 
and indeed he had written verses from his eleventh year; He 
matriculated at the university of Christiania in 1852, and soon 
began to work as a journalist, especially as a dramatic critic. In 
1857 appeared Synnove Solbakken, the first of Bjornson's peasant- 
novels; in 1858 this was followed by Arne, in i860 by A Happy 
Boy, and in 1868 by The Fisher Maiden. These are the most 
important specimens of his bonde-fortaellinger or peasant-tales — 
a section of his literary work which has made a profound im- 
pression in his own country, and has made him popular through- 
out the world. Two of the tales, Arne and Synnove Solbakken, 
offer perhaps finer examples of the pure peasant-story than are 
to be found elsewhere in literature. 

Bjornson was anxious " to create a new saga in the light of the 
peasant," as he put it, and he thought this should be done, not 
merely in prose fiction, but in national dramas or folke-stykker . 
The earliest of these was a one-act piece the scene of which is laid 
in the 12th century, Between the Battles, written in 1855, but not 
produced until 1857. He was especially influenced at this time 
by the study of Baggesen and Oehlenschlager, during a visit to 
Copenhagen 1856-1857. Between the Battles was followed by 
Lame Hulda in 1858, and King Sverre in 1861. All these efforts, 
however, were far excelled by the splendid trilogy of Sigurd the 
Bastard, which Bjornson issued in 1862. This raised him to the 
front rank among the younger poets of Europe. His Sigurd the 
Crusader should be added to the category of these heroic plays, 
although it was not printed until 1872. 

At the close of 1857 Bjornson had been appointed director of 
the theatre at Bergen, a post which he held, with much journal- 
istic work, for two years, when he returned to the capital. From 
i860 to 1863 he travelled widely throughout Europe. Early in 
1865 he undertook the management of the Christiania theatre, 
and brought out his popular comedy of The Newly Married and 
his romantic tragedy of Mary Stuart in Scotland. Although 
Bjornson has introduced into his novels and plays songs of 
extraordinary beauty, he was never a very copious writer of 
verse; in 1870 he published his Poems and Songs and the epic 
cycle called Arnljot Gelline; the latter volume contains the 
magnificent ode called "Bergliot," Bjornson's finest contribution 
to lyrical poetry. Between 1864 and 1874, in the very prime of 
life, Bjornson displayed a slackening of the intellectual forces 
very remarkable in a man of his energy; he was indeed during 
these years mainly occupied with politics, and with his business 
as a theatrical manager. This was the period of Bjornson's most 
fiery propaganda as a radical agitator. In 18 71 he began to 
supplement his journalistic work in this direction by delivering 
lectures over the length and breadth of the northern countries. 
He possessed to a surprising degree the arts of the orator, com- 
bined with a magnificent physical prestige. From 1873 to 1876 

■ J 7 

Bjornson was ahsent from Norway, and in the peace of voluntary 
exile he recovered his imaginative powers. His new departure as 
a dramatic author began with A Bankruptcy 'and The Editor in 
1874, social dramas of an extremely modern and realistic cast. 

The poet now settled on his estate of Aulestad in Gausdal. 
In- 1877 he : published another ; novel, ' Magnhild — an imperfect 
production, in which his ideas on social questions were seen to be 
in a state of fermentation, and gave expression to his republican 
sentiments in the polemical play called The King, to a later 
edition of which he prefixed an essay on " Intellectual Freedom," 
in further explanation of his position. Captain Mansana, an 
episode of the war of Italian independence, belongs to 1878. 
Extremely anxious to obtain a full success on the stage, Bjornson 
concentrated his powers on a drama of social life, Leonardo 
(1879), which raised a violent controversy. A satirical play, The 
New System, was produced a few weeks later. Although these 
plays of Bjornson's second period were greatly discussed, none of 
them (except A Bankruptcy) pleased on the boards. When once 
more he produced a social drama, A .Gauntlet, in 1883, he was 
unable to persuade any manager to stage it, except in a modified 
form, though this play gives the full measure of his power as a 
dramatist. In the autumn of the same year, Bjornson published 
a mystical or symbolic drama Beyond our Powers, dealing with 
the abnormal features of religious excitement with extraordinary 
force; this was not acted until 1899, when it achieved a great 

Meanwhile, Bjornson's political attitude had brought upon 
him a charge of high treason, and he took refuge for a time in 
Germany, returning to Norway in 1882. Convinced that the 
theatre was practically closed to him, he turned back to the 
novel, and published in 1884, Flags are Flying in Town and Port, 
embodying his theories on heredity and education. In 1889 he 
printed another long and still more remarkable novel, In God's 
Way, which is chiefly concerned with the same problems. The 
same year saw the publication of a comedy, Geography and Love, 
which continues to be played with success. A number of short 
stories, of a more or less didactic character, dealing with startling 
points of emotional experience, were collected in 1894; among 
them those which produced the greatest sensation were Dust, 
Mother's Hands, and Absalom's Hair. Later plays were a 
political tragedy called Paul Lange and Tor a Parsberg (1898), a 
second part of Beyond our Powers (1895), Laboremus (1901), At 
Storhove (1902), and Daglannct (1904). In 1899, at the opening 
of the National theatre, Bjornson received an ovation, and his 
saga-drama of Sigurd the Crusader was performed. 

A subject which interested him greatly, and on which he 
occupied his indefatigable pen, was the question of the bonde- 
maal, the adopting of a national language for Norway distinct 
from the dansk-norsk (Dano-Norwegian), in which her literature 
has hitherto been written. Bjpmson's strong and sometimes 
rather narrow patriotism did not blind him to the fatal folly of 
such a proposal, and his lectures and pamphlets against the maal- 
straev in its extreme form did more than anything else to save the 
language in this dangerous moment. Bjornson was one of the 
original members of the Nobel committee, and was re-elected in 
1900. In 1903 he was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. 
Bjornson had done as much as any other man to rouse Norwegian 
national feeling, but in 1903, on the verge of the rupture between 
Norway and Sweden, he preached conciliation and moderation 
to the Norwegians. He was an eloquent advocate of Pan- 
Germanism, and, writing to the Figaro in 190S, he outlined a 
Pan-Germanic alliance of northern Europe and North America. 
He died on the 26th of April 1910. 

See Bjornson's Samlede Vaerker (Copenhagen, 1900-1902, 1 1 vols.) ; 
The Novels of Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1894, & c -)< edited by Edmund 
Gosse; G. Brandes, Critical Studies (1899); E. Tissot, Le drame 
norvegien (1893); C. D. 'af Wirsen, Kritiker (1901) ; Chr. Collin, 
Bjornstjerne Bjornson (2 vols., German ed., 1903), the most complete 
biography and criticism at present available; and B. Halvorsen, 
Norsk Formatter Lexikon (1885). (E.G.) 

British civil servant, eldest son of Sir Frederick Leman Rogers, 
7th Bart, (whom he succeeded in the baronetcy in 1851), was 


* BLACK, : A.~^BDACK^ J. 

born in London on the 31st of January 181 1. He was educated 
at Eton and Oriel College, Oxford, where he had a brilliant 
career, winning the Craven University scholarship, and taking 
a double first-class in classics and mathematics. He became 
a fellow of Oriel (1833), and won the Vinerian scholarship (1834), 
and fellowship (1840). He was called to the bar in 1837, but 
never practised. At school and at Oxford he was a contemporary 
of W. E. Gladstone, and at Oxford he began a lifelong friendship 
with J. H. Newman and R. W. Church; his classical and literary 
tastes, and his combination of liberalism in politics with High 
Church views in religion, together with his good social position 
and interesting character, made him an admired member of their 
circles. For two or three years (1841-1844) he wrote for The 
Times, and he helped to found The Guardian in 1846; he also 
did a good deal to assist the Tractarian movement. But he 
eventually settled down to the life of a government official. He 
began in 1844 as registrar of joint-stock companies, and in 1846 
became commissioner of lands and emigration. Between 1857 
and 1859 he was engaged in government missions abroad, con- 
nected with colonial questions, and in i860 he was appointed 
permanent under-secretary of state for the colonies. Sir Frederic 
Rogers was the guiding spirit of the colonial office under six 
successive secretaries of state, and on his retirement in 1871 
was raised to the peerage as Baron Blachford of Wisdome, a 
title taken from his place in Devonshire. He died on the 21st 
of November 1889. 

A volume of his letters, edited by G. E. Marindin (1896), contains 
an interesting Life, partly autobiographical. 

BLACK, ADAM (1784-1874), Scottish publisher, founder of 
the firm of A. & C. Black, the son of a builder, was born in 
Edinburgh on the 20th of February 1784. After serving his 
apprenticeship to the bookselling trade in Edinburgh and 
London, he began business for himself in Edinburgh in 1808. 
By 1826 he was recognized as one of the principal booksellers 
in the city; and a few years later he was joined in business by 
his nephew Charles. The two most important events connected 
with the history of the firm were the publication of the 7th, 8th 
and 9th editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the 
purchase of the stock and copyright of the Waverley Novels. 
The copyright of the Encyclopaedia passed into the hands of 
Adam Black and a few friends in 1827. Ini85i the firm bought 
the copyright of the Waverley Novels for £27,000; and in 1861 
they became the proprietors of De Quincey's works. Adam 
Black was twice lord provost of Edinburgh, and represented 
the city in parliament from 1856 to 1865. He retired from 
business in 1865, and died on the 24th of January 1874. He was 
succeeded by his sons, who removed their business in 1895 to 
London. There is a bronze statue of Adam Black in East 
Princes Street Gardens, Edinburgh. 

See Memoirs of Adam Black, edited by Alexander Nicholson 
(2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1885). 

BLACK, JEREMIAH SULLIVAN (1810-1883), American 
lawyer and statesman, was born in Stony Creek township, 
Somerset county, Pennsylvania, on the 10th of January 1810. 
He was largely self-educated, and before he was of age was 
admitted to the Pennsylvania bar. He gradually became one 
of the leading American lawyers, and in 1851-1857 was a member 
of the supreme court of Pennsylvania (chief-justice 1851-1854). 
In 1857 he entered President Buchanan's cabinet as attorney- 
general of the United States. In this capacity he successfully 
contested the validity of the " California land claims " — claims 
to about 19,000 sq. m. of land, fraudulently alleged to have 
been granted to land-grabbers and others by the Mexican govern- 
ment prior to the close of the Mexican War. From the 17 th of 
December i860 to the 4th of March 1861 he was secretary of 
state. Perhaps the most influential of President Buchanan's 
official advisers, he denied the constitutionality of secession, 
and urged that Fort Sumter be properly reinforced and defended. 
" For . . . the vigorous assertion at last in word and in deed 
that the United States is a nation," says James Ford Rhodes, 
" for pointing out the way in which the authority of the Federal 
government might be exercised without infringing on the rights _ 

of the states, the gratitude of the American people is due to 
Jeremiah S. Black." He became reporter to the Supreme Court 
of the United States in 1861, but after publishing the reports 
for the years 1861 and 1862 he resigned, and devoted himself 
almost exclusively to his private practice, appearing in such 
important cases before the Supreme Court as the one known as 
Ex-Parte Milligan, in which he ably defended the right of trial 
by jury, the McCardle case and the United States v. Blyew et 
al. After the Civil War he vigorously opposed the Congressional 
plan of reconstructing the late Confederate states, and himself 
drafted the message qi President Johnson, vetoing the Recon- 
struction Act of the 2nd of March 1867. Black was also for a 
short time counsel for President Andrew Johnson, in his trial 
on the article of impeachment, before the United States Senate, 
and for William W. Belknap (1829-1890), secretary of war from 
1869 to 1876, who in 1876 was impeached on a charge of cor- 
ruption; and with others he represented Samuel J. Tilden 
during the contest for the presidency between Tilden and 
Hayes (see Electoral Commission). He died at Brockie, Penn- 
sylvania, on the 19th of August 1883. 

See Essays and Speeches of Jeremiah S. Black, with a Biographical 
Sketch (New York, 1885), by his son, C. F. Black. 

BLACK, JOSEPH (1728-1799), Scottish chemist and physicist, 
was born in 1728 at Bordeaux, where his father — a native of 
Belfast but of Scottish descent — was engaged in the wine trade. 
At the age of twelve he was sent to a grammar school in Belfast, 
whence he removed in 1746 to study medicine in Glasgow. 
There he had William Cullen for his instructor in chemistry, and 
the relation between the two soon became that of professor and 
assistant rather than of master and pupil. The action of lithon- 
triptic medicines, especially lime-water, was one of the questions 
of the day, and through his investigations of this subject Black 
was led to the chemical discoveries associated with his name. 
The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as 
depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, 
"phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had 
taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or 
potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston 
was supposed to pass from it to them. Black showed that on 
the contrary causticization meant the loss of something, as 
proved by loss of weight; and this something he found to be an 
" air," which, because it was fixed in the substance before it was 
causticized, he spoke of as " fixed air." Taking magnesia alba, 
which he distinguished from limestone with which it had pre- 
viously been confused, he showed that on being heated it lost 
weight owing to the escape of this fixed air (named carbonic acid 
by Lavoisier in 1 781), and that the weight was regained when 
the calcined product was made to reabsorb the fixed air with 
which it had parted. These investigations, by which Black not 
only gave a great impetus to the chemistry of gases by clearly 
indicating the existence of a gas distinct from common air, but 
also anticipated Lavoisier and modern chemistry by his appeal 
to the balance, were described in the thesis De humore acido a 
cibis orto, et magnesia alba, which he presented for his doctor's 
degree in 1754; and a fuller account of them was read before 
the Medical Society of Edinburgh in June 1755, and published 
in the following year as Experiments upon magnesia, quicklime 
and some other alkaline substances. 

It is curious that Black left to others the detailed study of this 
" fixed air " he had discovered. Probably the explanation is 
pressure of other work. In 1756 he succeeded Cullen as lecturer 
in chemistry at Glasgow, and was also appointed professor of 
anatomy, though that post he was glad to exchange for the chair 
of medicine. The preparation of lectures thus took up much of 
his time, and he was also gaining an extensive practice as a 
physician. Moreover, his attention was engaged on studies which 
ultimately led to his doctrine of latent heat. He noticed that 
when ice melts it takes up a quantity of heat without undergoing 
any change of temperature, and he argued that this heat, which 
as was usual in his time he looked upon as a subtle fluid, must 
have combined with the particles of ice and thus become latent 
in its substance. This hypothesis he verified quantitatively 



by experiments, performed at the end of 176 1. In 1764, with the 
aid of his assistant, William Irvine (1743-1787), he further 
measured the latent heat of steam, though not very accurately. 
This doctrine of latent heat he taught in his lectures from 1761 
onwards, and in April 1762 he described his work to a literary 
society in Glasgow. But he never published any detailed account 
of it, so that others, such as J. A. Deluc, were able to claim the 
credit of his results. In the course. of his inquiries he also noticed 
that different bodies in equal masses require different amounts 
of heat to raise them to the same temperature, and so founded 
the doctrine of specific heats; he also showed that equal additions 
or abstractions of heat produced equal variations of bulk in the 
liquid of his thermometers. In 1766 he succeeded Cullen in the 
chair of chemistry in Edinburgh, where he devoted practically 
all his time to the preparation of his lectures. Never very 
robust, his health gradually became weaker and ultimately he 
was reduced to the condition of a valetudinarian. In 1795 he 
received the aid of a coadjutor in his professorship, and two years 
later he lectured for the last time. He died in Edinburgh on the 
6th of December 1799 (not on the 26th of November as stated 
in Robison's life). 

As a scientific investigator, Black was conspicuous for the 
carefulness of his work and his caution in drawing conclusions. 
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science — 
his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" — he had 
an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything 
that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system. This mental 
attitude, combined with a certain lack of initiative and the 
weakness of his health, probably prevented him from doing full 
justice to his splendid powers of experimental research. Apart 
from the work already mentioned he published only two papers 
during his life-time — "The supposed effect of boiling on water, 
in disposing it to freeze more readily " {Phil. Trans., 1775), and 
" An analysis of the waters of the hot springs in Iceland " 
{Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed., 1794). 

After his death his lectures were written out from his own notes, 
supplemented by those of some of his pupils, and published with a 
biographical preface by his friend and colleague, Professor John 
Robison (1 739-1805), in 1803, as Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry ; 
delivered in the University of Edinburgh. 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1841-1898), British novelist, was born 
at Glasgow on the 9th of November 1841. His early ambition 
was to be a painter, but he made no way, and soon had recourse 
to journalism for a living. He was at first employed in newspaper 
offices in Glasgow, but obtained a post on the Morning Star in 
London, and at once proved himself a descriptive writer of 
exceptional vivacity. During the war between Prussia and- 
Austria in 1866 he represented the Morning Star at the front, 
and was taken prisoner. This paper shortly afterwards failed, 
and Black joined the editorial staff of the Daily News. He also 
edited the Examiner, at a time when that periodical was already 
moribund. After his first success in fiction, he gave up journal- 
ism, and devoted himself entirely to the production of novels. 
For nearly thirty years he was successful in retaining the popular 
favour. He died at Brighton on the 10th of December 1898, 
without having experienced any of that reaction of the public 
taste which so often follows upon conspicuous successes in fiction. 
Black's first novel, James Merle, published in 1864, was a com- 
plete failure; his second, Love or Marriage (1868), attracted 
but very slight attention. In Silk Attire (1869) and Kilmeny 
(1870) marked a great advance on his first work, but in 1871 A 
Daughter of Heth suddenly raised him to the height of popularity, 
and he followed up this success by a string of favourites. Among 
the best of his books are The Strange Adventures of a Phaeton 
(1872); A Princess of Thule (1874); Madcap Violet (1876); 
Macleod of Dare (1878); White Wings (1880); Sunrise (1880); 
Shandon Bells (1883); Judith Shakespeare (1884); White Heather 
(1885) ; Donald Ross of Heimra (1891) ; Highland Cousins (1894) ; 
and Wild Eelin (1898). Black was a thoroughgoing sportsman, 
particularly fond of fishing and yachting, and his best stories 
are those which are laid amid the breezy mountains of his native 
land, or upon the deck of a yacht at sea off its wild coast. His 

descriptions of such scenery are simple and picturesque* He 
was a word-painter rather than a student of human nature. 
His women are stronger than his men, and among them 
are many wayward and lovable creatures; but subtlety of 
intuition plays no part in his characterization. Black also 
contributed a life of Oliver Goldsmith to the English Men of 
Letters series. 

BLACK APE, a sooty, black, short-tailed, and long-faced 
representative of the macaques, inhabiting the island of Celebes, 
and generally regarded as forming a genus by itself, under the 
name of Cynopithecus niger, but sometimes relegated to the rank 
of a subgenus of Macacus. The nostrils open obliquely at some 
distance from the end of the snout, and the head carries a crest 
of long hair. There are several local races, one of which was 
long regarded as a separate species under the name of the Moor 
macaque, Macacus maurus. (See Primates.) 

BLACKBALL, a token used for voting by ballot against the 
election of a candidate for membership of a club or other 
association. Formerly white and black balls about the size of 
pigeons' eggs were used respectively to represent votes for and 
against a candidate for such election; and although this method 
is now generally obsolete, the term " blackball " survives both 
as noun and verb. The rules of most clubs provide that a stated 
proportion of "blackballs " shall exclude candidates proposed 
for election, and the candidates so excluded are said to have been 
" blackballed "; but the ballot {q.v.) is now usually conducted 
by a method in which the favourable and adverse votes are not 
distinguished by different coloured balls at all. Either voting 
papers are employed, or balls — of which the colour has no 
significance — are cast into different compartments of a ballot- 
box according as they are favourable or adverse to the candidate. 

BLACKBERRY, or Bramble, known botanically as Rubus 
fruticosus (natural order Rosaceae), a native of the north tem- 
perate region of the Old World, and abundant in the British 
Isles as a copse and hedge-plant. It is characterized by its 
prickly stem, leaves with usually three or five ovate, coarsely 
toothed stalked leaflets, many of which persist through the 
winter, white or pink flowers in terminal clusters, and black or 
red-purple fruits, each consisting of numerous succulent drupels 
crowded on a dry conical receptacle. It is a most variable 
plant, exhibiting many more or less distinct forms which are 
regarded by different authorities as sub-species or species 
In America several forms of the native blackberry, Rubus 
nigrobaccus (formerly known as R. villosus), are widely cultivated; 
it is described as one of the most important and profitable of 

For details see F. W. Card in L. H. Bailey's Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture (1900). 

BLACKBIRD {Turdus merula), the name commonly given to 
a well-known British bird of the Turdidae family, for which the 
ancient name was ousel {q.v.), Anglo-Saxon osle, equivalent of 
the German Amsel, a form of the word found in several old 
English books. The plumage of the male is of a uniform black 
colour, that of the female various shades of brown, while the bill 
of the male, especially during the breeding season, is of a bright 
gamboge yellow. The blackbird is of a shy and restless dis- 
position, courting concealment, and rarely seen in flocks, or 
otherwise than singly or in pairs, and taking flight when startled 
with a sharp shrill cry. It builds its nest in March, or early in 
April, in thick bushes or in ivy-clad trees, and usually rears at 
least two broods each season. The nest is a neat structure of 
coarse grass and moss, mixed with earth, and plastered internally 
with mud, and here the female lays from four to six eggs of a 
blue colour speckled with brown. The blackbird feeds chiefly 
on fruits, worms, the larvae of insects and snails, extracting 
the last from their shells by dexterously chipping them on 
stones; and though it is generally regarded as an enemy of the 
garden, it is probable that the amount of damage by it to the 
fruit is largely compensated for by its undoubted services as 
a vermin-killer. The notes of the blackbird are rich and full, 
but monotonous as compared with those of the song-thrush. 
Like many other singing birds it is, in the wild state, a 



mocking-bird, having been heard to imitate the song of the 
nightingale, the crowing of a cock, and even the cackling of a 
hen. In confinement it can be taught to whistle a variety of 
tunes, and even to imitate the human voice. 

The blackbird is found in every country of Europe, even 
breeding — although rarely— beyond the arctic circle, and in 
eastern Asia as well as in North Africa and the Atlantic islands. 
In most parts of its range it is migratory, and in Britain 
every autumn its numbers receive considerable accession from 
passing visitors. Allied species inhabit most parts of the world, 
excepting Africa south of the Sahara, New Zealand and Australia 
proper, and North America. In some of these the legs as well as 
the bill are yellow or orange; and in a few both sexes are glossy 
black. The ring-ousel, Turdus torquatus, has a dark bill and 
conspicuous white gorget, whence its name. It is rarer and 
more local than the common blackbird, and occurs in England 
only as a temporary spring and autumn visitor. 

BLACK BUCK (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Antelope, the 
sole species of its genus. This antelope, widely distributed in 
India, with the exception of Ceylon and the region east of the 
Bay of Bengal, stands about 32 in. high at the shoulder; the 
general hue is brown deepening with age to black; chest, belly 
and inner sides of limbs pure white, as are the muzzle and chin, 
and an area round the eyes. The horns are long, ringed, and 
form spirals with from three to five turns. The doe is smaller 
in size, yellowish-fawn above, and this hue obtains also in young 
males. These antelopes frequent grassy districts and are usually 
found in herds. Coursing black-buck with the cheeta (q.v.) is 
a favourite Indian sport. 

British judge, was born in Selkirkshire in 1813, and educated at 
Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, taking high mathe- 
matical honours in 1835. He was called to the bar in 1838, and 
went the northern circuit. His progress was at first slow, and he 
employed himself in reporting and editing, with T. F. Ellis, eight 
volumes of the highly-esteemed Ellis and Blackburn reports. 
His deficiency in all the more brilliant qualities of the advocate 
almost confined his practice to commercial cases, in which he 
obtained considerable employment in his circuit; but he con- 
tinued to belong to the outside bar, and was so little known to 
the legal world that his promotion to a puisne judgeship in the 
court of queen's bench in 1859 was at first ascribed to Lord 
Campbell's partiality for his countrymen, but Lord Lyndhurst, 
Lord Wensleydale and Lord Cranworth came forward to defend 
the appointment. Blackburn himself is said to have thought 
that a county court judgeship was about to be offered him, 
which he had resolved to decline. He soon proved himself one 
of the soundest lawyers on the bench, and when he was promoted 
to the court of appeal in 1876 was considered the highest 
authority on common law. In 1876 he was made a lord of appeal 
and a life peer. Both in this capacity and as judge of the queen's 
bench he delivered many judgments of the highest importance, 
and no decisions have been received with greater respect. In 
1886 he was appointed a member of the commission charged 
to prepare a digest of the criminal law, but retired on account 
of indisposition in the following year. He died at his country 
residence, Doonholm in Ayrshire, on the 8th of January 1896. 
He was the author of a valuable work on the Law of Sales. 

See The Times, 10th of January 1896; E. Manson, Builders 0} our 
Law (1904). 

BLACKBURN, JONATHAN (c. 1700-e. 1765), American 
portrait painter, was born in Connecticut. He seems to have 
been the son of a painter, and to have had a studio in Boston in 
1 7 50-1 765; among his patrons were many important early 
American families, including the Apthorps, Amorys, Bulfinches, 
Lowells, Ewings, Saltonstalls, Winthrops, Winslows and Otises 
of Boston. Some of his portraits are in the possession of the 
public library of Lexington, Massachusetts, and of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, but most of them are privately 
owned and are scattered over the country, the majority being in 
Boston. John Singleton Copley was his pupil, and it is said 
that he finally left his studio in Boston, through jealousy of 

Copley's superior success. He was a good portrait painter, and 
some of his pictures were long attributed to Copley. 

BLACKBURN, a municipal, county aiid parliamentary 
borough of Lancashire, England, 210 m. N.W. by N. from 
London, and 24J N.NW. from Manchester, served by the 
Lancashire & Yorkshire and the London & North Western 
railways, with several lines from all parts of the county. Pop. 
(1891) 120,064; (1901) 127,626. It lies in the valley of a stream 
called in early times the Blackeburn, but now known as the 
Brook. The hills in the vicinity rise to some 900 ft., and among 
English manufacturing towns Blackburn ranks high in beauty of 
situation. Besides numerous churches and chapels the public 
buildings comprise a large town hall (1856), market house, 
exchange, county courts municipal offices, chamber of commerce, 
free library, and, outside the town, an infirmary. There are an 
Elizabethan grammar school, in modern buildings (1884) and 
an excellent technical school. The Corporation Park and Queen's 
Park are well laid out, and contain ornamental waters. There is 
an efficient tramway service, connecting the town with Darwen, 
5 m. south. The cotton industry employs thousands of operatives , 
the iron trade is also very considerable, and many are engaged 
in the making of machines; but a former woollen manufacture 
is almost extinct. Blackburn's speciality in the cotton industry 
is weaving. Coal, lime and building stone are abundant in the 
neighbourhood. Blackburn received a charter of incorporation 
in 1851, and is governed by a mayor, 14 aldermen and 42 
councillors. The county borough was created in 1888. The 
parliamentary borough, which returns two members, is co- 
extensive with the municipal, and lies between the Accrington 
and Darwen divisions of the county. Area, 7432 acres. 

Blackburn is of considerable antiquity; indeed, the 6th 
century is allocated to the original foundation of a church on the 
site of the present parish church. Of another church on this site 
Cranmer was rector after the Reformation. Blackburn was for 
some time the chief town of a district called Blackburnshire, and 
as early as the reign of Elizabeth ranked as a flourishing market 
town. About the middle of the 17th century it became famous 
for its " checks," which were afterwards superseded by a similar 
linen-and-cotton fabric known as " Blackburn greys." In the,, 
1 8th century the ability of certain natives of the town greatly 
fostered its cotton industry; thus James Hargreaves here 
probably invented his spinning jenny about 1764, though the 
operatives, fearing a reduction of labour, would have none of it, 
and forced him to quit the town for Nottingham. He was in the 
employment of Robert Peel, grandfather of the prime minister 
of that name, who here instituted the factory system, and as the 
director of a large business carefully fostered the improvement 
of methods. 

See W. A. Abram, History of Blackburn (Blackburn, 1897). 

BLACKBURNE, FRANCIS (1782-1867), lord chancellor of 
Ireland, was born at Great Footstown, Co. Meath, Ireland, oil 
the nth of November 1782. Educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, he was called to the English bar in 1805, and practised 
with great success on the home circuit. Called to the Irish bar 
in 1822, he vigorously administered the Insurrection Act in 
Limerick for two years, effectually restoring order in the district. 
In 1826 he became a serjeant-at-law, and in 1830, and again, 
in 1841, was attorney-general for Ireland. In 1842 he became 
master of the rolls in Ireland, in 1846 chief-justice of the queen's 
bench, and in 1852 (and again in 1866) lord chancellor of Ireland. 
In 1856 he was made a lord justice of appeal in Ireland. He is 
remembered as having prosecuted O'Connell and presided at 
the trial of Smith O'Brien. He died on the 17th of September 

BLACKCOCK (Tetrao tetrix), the English name given to a bird 
of the family Tetraonidae or grouse, the female of which is known 
as the grey hen and the young as poults. In size and plumage 
the two sexes offer a striking contrast, the male weighing about 
4 lb, its plumage for the most part of a rich glossy black shot 
with blue and purple, the lateral tail feathers curved outwards so 
as to form, when raised,- a fan-like crescent, and the eyebrows 
destitute of feathers and of a bright vermilion red. The female, 



on the other hand, weighs only 2 lb, its plumage is of a russet 
brown colour irregularly barred with black, and its tail feathers 
are but slightly forked. The males are polygamous, and during 
autumn and winter associate together, feeding in flocks apart 
from the females; but with the approach of spring they separate, 
each selecting a locality for itself, from which it drives off all 
intruders, and where morning and evening it seeks to attract the 
other sex by a display of its beautiful plumage, which at this 
season attains its greatest perfection, and by a peculiar cry, 
which Selby describes as " a crowing note, and another similar 
to the noise made by the whetting of a scythe." The nest, 
composed of a few stalks of grass, is built on the ground, usually 


beneath the shadow of a low bush or a tuft of tall grass, and here 
the female lays from six to -ten eggs of a dirty-yellow colour 
speckled with dark brown. The blackcock then rejoins his male 
associates, and the female is left to perform the labours of 
hatching and rearing her young brood. The plumage of both 
sexes is at first like that of the female, but after moulting the 
young males gradually assume the more brilliant plumage of 
their sex. There are also many cases on record, and specimens 
may be seen in the principal museums, of old female birds 
assuming, to a greater or less extent, the plumage of the male. 
The blackcock is very generally distributed over the highland 
districts of northern and central Europe, and in some parts of 
Asia. It is found on the principal heaths in the south of England, 
but is specially abundant in the Highlands of Scotland. 

BLACK COUNTRY, THE, a name commonly applied to a 
district lying principally in S. Staffordshire, but extending into 
Worcestershire and Warwickshire, England. This is one of the 
chief manufacturing centres in the United Kingdom, and the 
name arises from the effect of numerous collieries and furnaces, 
which darken the face of the district, the buildings and the 
atmosphere. Coal, ironstone and clay are mined in close 
proximity, and every sort of iron and steel goods is produced. 
The district extends 15 m. N. W. from Birmingham, and includes 
Smethwick, West Bromwich, Dudley, Oldbury, Sedgley, Tipton, 
Bilston, Wednesbury, Wolverhampton and Walsall as its most 
important centres. The ceaseless activity of the Black Country 
is most readily realized when it is traversed, or viewed from such 
an elevation as Dudley Castle Hill, at night, when the glare of 
furnaces appears in every direction. The district is served by 
numerous branches of the Great Western, London & North 
Western, and Midland railways, and is intersected by canals, 
which carry a heavy traffic, and in some places are made to 
surmount physical obstacles with remarkable engineering skill, 
as in the case of the Castle Hill tunnels at Dudley. Among the 
numerous branches of industry there are several characteristic 
of certain individual centres. Thus, locks are a specialty at 

Wolverhampton and Willenhall, and keys at Wednesfield; 
horses' bits, harness-fittings and saddlery at Walsall and Blox- 
wich, anchors and cables at Tipton, glass at Smethwick, and 
nails and chains at Cradley. 

BLACK DROP, in astronomy, an apparent distortion of the 
planet Mercury or Venus at the time of internal contact with the 
limb of the sun at the beginning or end of a transit. It has been 
in the past a source of much perplexity to observers of transits, 
but is now understood to be a result of irradiation, produced by 
the atmosphere or by the aberration of the telescope. 

BLACKFOOT (Siksika), a tribe and confederacy of North 
American Indians of Algonquian stock. The name is explained 
as an allusion to their leggings being observed by the whites to 
have become blackened by marching over the freshly burned 
prairie. Their range was around the headwaters of the Missouri, 
from the Yellowstone northward to the North Saskatchewan and 
westward to the Rockies. The confederacy consisted of three 
tribes, the Blackfoot or Siksika proper, the Kaina and the 
Piegan. During the early years of the 19th century the Black- 
foots were one of the strongest Indian confederacies of the north- 
west, numbering some 40,000. At the beginning of the 20th 
century there were about 5000, some in Montana and some in 

See Jean L'Heureux, Customs and Religious Ideas of Blackfoot 
Indians in J. A. I., vol. xv. (1886) ; G. B. Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales (1892); G. Catlin, North American Indians (1876); Handbook 
of American Indians (Washington, 1907), under " Siksika." 

BLACK FOREST (Ger. Schwarzwald; the Silva Marciana and 
Abnoba of the Romans), a mountainous district of south-west 
Germany, having an area of 1844 sq. m., of which about two- 
thirds lie in the grand duchy of Baden and the remaining third 
in the kingdom of Wiirttemberg. Bounded on the south and 
west by the valley of the Rhine, to which its declivities abruptly 
descend, and running parallel to, and forming the counterpart of 
the Vosges beyond, it slopes more gently down to the valley of 
the Neckar in the north and to that of the Nagold (a tributary of 
the Neckar) on the north-east. Its total length is 100 m., and its 
breadth varies from 36 m. in the south to 21 in the centre and 13 
in the north. The deep valley of the Kinzig divides it laterally 
into halves, of which the southern, with an average elevation of 
3000 ft., is the wilder and contains the loftiest peaks, which again 
mostly lie towards the western side. Among them are the Feld- 
berg (4898 ft.), the Herzogenhorn (4600), the Blossling (4260) and 
the Blauen (3820). The northern half has an average height of 
2000 ft. On the east side are several lakes, and here the majority 
of the streams take their rise. The configuration of the hills is 
mainly conical and the geological formation consists of gneiss, 
granite (in the south) and red sandstone. The district is poor in 
minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but 
there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig 
debouches on the plain. The climate in the higher districts is 
raw and the produce is mostly confined to hardy cereals, such as 
oats. But the valleys, especially those on the western side, are 
warm and healthy, enclose good pasture land and furnish fruits 
and wine in rich profusion. They are clothed up to a height of 
about 2000 ft. with luxuriant woods of oak and beech, and above 
these again and up to an elevation of 4000 ft., surrounding the 
hills with a dense dark belt, are the forests of fir which have given 
the name to the district. The summits of the highest peaks are 
bare, but even on them snow seldom lies throughout the summer. 

The Black Forest produces excellent timber, which is partly 
sawn in the valleys and partly exported down the Rhine in logs. 
Among other industries are the manufactures of watches, clocks, 
toys and musical instruments. There are numerous mineral 
springs, and among the watering places Baden-Baden and 
Wildbad are famous. The towns of Freiburg, Rastatt, Offenburg 
and Lahr, which lie under the western declivities, are the chief 
centres for the productions of the interior. 

The Black Forest is a favourite tourist resort and is opened up 
by numerous railways. In addition to the main lines in the 
valleys of the Rhine and Neckar, which are connected with the 
towns lying on its fringe, the district is intersected by the 

2 2 


Schwarzwaldbahn from Offenburg to Singen, from which various 
small local lines ramify. 

BLACK HAWK [Ma'katawimesheka'ka, " Black Sparrow 
Hawk"], (i 767-1838, American Indian warrior of the Sauk and 
Fox tribes, was born at the Sauk village on Rock river, near the 
Mississippi, in 1767. He was a member of the Thunder gens of 
the Sauk tribej and, though neither an hereditary nor an elected 
chief, was for some time the recognized war leader of the Sauk 
and Foxes. From his youth he was intensely bloodthirsty and 
hostile to the Americans. Immediately after the acquisition of 
" Louisiana," the Federal government took steps for the removal 
of the Sauk and Foxes, who had always been a disturbing element 
among the north-western Indians, to the west bank of the 
Mississippi river. As early as 1804, by a treaty signed at St 
Louis on the 3rd of November, they agreed to the removal in 
return for an annuity of $1000. British influences were still 
strong in the upper Mississippi valley and undoubtedly led Black 
Hawk and the chiefs of the Sauk and Fox confederacy to repudi- 
ate this agreement of 1804, and subsequently to enter into the 
conspiracy of Tecumseh and take part with the British in the war 
of 18 1 2. The treaties of 1815 at Portage des Sioux (with the 
Foxes) and of 1816 at St Louis (with the Sauk) substantially 
renewed that of 1804. That of 1816 was signed by Black Hawk 
himself, who declared, however, when in 1823 Chief Keokuk and 
a majority of the two nations crossed the river, that the consent 
of the chiefs had been obtained by fraud. In 1830 a final treaty 
was signed at Prairie du Chien, by which all title to the lands of 
the Sauk and Foxes east of the Mississippi was ceded to the 
government, and provision was made for the immediate opening 
of the tract to settlers. Black Hawk, leading the party in opposi- 
tion to Keokuk, at once refused to accede to this cession and 
threatened to retaliate if his lands Were invaded. This pre- 
cipitated what is known as the Black Hawk War. Settlers began 
pouring into the new region in the early spring of 1831, and Black 
Hawk in June attacked several villages near the Illinois- Wisconsin 
line. After massacring several isolated families, he was driven 
off by a force of Illinois militia. He renewed his attack in the 
following year (1832), but after several minor engagements, in 
most of which he was successful, he was defeated (21st of July) 
at Wisconsin Heights on the Wisconsin river, opposite Prairie du 
Sac, by Michigan volunteers under Colonels Henry Dodge and 
James D. Henry, and fleeing westward was again decisively 
defeated on the Mississippi at the mouth of the Bad Axe river (on 
the 1st and 2nd of August) by General Henry Atkinson. His 
band was completely dispersed, and he himself was captured by 
a party of Winnebagoes. At Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, on 
the 21st of September, a treaty was signed, by which a large tract 
of the Sauk and Fox territory was ceded to the United States; 
and the United States granted to them a reservation of 400 sq. m., 
the payment of $20,006 a year for thirty years, and the settlement 
of certain traders' claims against the tribe. With several 
warriors Black Hawk was sent to Fortress Monroe, Virginia, 
where he was confined for a few weeks; afterwards he was 
taken by the government through the principal Eastern cities. 
On his release he settled in 1837 on the Sauk and Fox reservation 
on the Des Moines river, in Iowa, where he died on the 3rd of 
October 1838. 

See Frank E. Stevens, The Black Hawk War (Chicago, 1903) ; 
R. G. Thwaites, " The Story of the Black Hawk War " in vol. xii. 
of the Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin ; J. B. 
Patterson, Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak or Black Hawk (Boston, . 
1834), purporting to be Black Hawk's story as told by himself; 1 
and Benjamin Drake, Life of Black Hawk (Cincinnati, 1846). 

BLACKHEATH, an open common in the south-east of London, 
England, mainly in the metropolitan borough of Lewisham. 
This high-lying tract was crossed by the Roman Watling Street 
from Kent, on a line approximating to that of the modern 
Shooter's Hill; and was a rallying ground of Wat Tyler (1381), 
of Jack Cade (1450), and of Audley, leader of the Cornish rebels, 
defeated and captured here by the troops of Henry VII. in 1497. 
It also witnessed the acclamations of the citizens of London on 
the return of Henry V. from the victory of Agincourt, the formal 
meeting between Henry VIII. and Anne of Cleves, and that 

between the army of the restoration and Charles II. The 
introduction into England of the game of golf is traditionally 
placed here in 1608, and attributed to King James I. and his 
Scottish followers. The common, the area of which is 267 acres, 
is still used for this and other pastimes. For the residential 
district to which Blackheath gives name, see Lewisham. 

BLACK HILLS, an isolated group of mountains, covering an 
area of about 6000 sq. m. in the adjoining corners of South 
Dakota and Wyoming, U.S.A. They rise on an average some 
2000 ft. above their base, the highest peak, Harney, having an 
altitude above the sea of 7216 ft. They are drained and in large 
part enclosed by the North (or Belle Fourche) and South forks of 
the Cheyenne river (at whose junction a fur-trading post was 
established about 1830); and are surrounded by semi-arid, 
alkaline plains lying 3000 to 3500 ft. above the sea. The mass 
has an elliptical shape, its long axis, which extends nearly 
N.N.W.-S.S.E., being about 120 m. and its shorter axis about 
40 m. long. The hills are formed by a short, broad, anticlinal 
fold, which is flat or nearly so on its summit. From this fold 
the stratified beds have in large part been removed, the more 
recent having been almost entirely eroded from the elevated 
mass. The edges of these are now found encircling the mountains 
and forming a series of fairly continuous rims of hogbacks. 
The carboniferous and older stratified beds still cover the west 
half of the hills, while from the east half they have been removed, 
exposing the granite. Scientific exploration began in 1849, and 
systematic geological investigation about 1875. Rich gold 
placers had already been discovered, and in 1875 the Sioux 
Indians within whose territory the hills had until then been 
included, were removed, and the lands were open to white 
settlers. Subsequently low-grade quartz mines were found and 
developed, and have furnished a notable part of the gold supply 
of the country (about $100,000,000 from 1875 to 1901). The 
output is to-day relatively small in comparison with that of 
many other fields, but there are one or two permanent gold mines 
of great value working low-grade ore. The silver product from 
1879 to 1901 was about $4,154,000. Deposits of copper, tin, 
iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of Other 
mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, 
&c). In sharp contrast to the surrounding plains the climate is 
subhumid, especially in the higher Harney region. There is an 
abundance of fertile soil and magnificent grazing land. A third 
of the total area is covered with forests of pine and other trees, 
which have for the most part been made a forest-reserve by the 
national government. Jagged crags, : sudden abysses, magnificent 
canyons, forests with open parks, undulating hills, mountain 
prairies, freaks of weathering and erosion, and the enclosing lines 
of the successive hog-backs afford scenery of remarkable variety 
and wild beauty. There are several interesting limestone caverns, 
and Sylvan Lake, in the high mountain district, is an important 

See the publications of the United States Geological Survey 
(especially Professional Paper No. 26, Economic Resources of the 
Northern Black Hills, 1904), and of the South Dakota School of 
Mines (Bulletin No. 4, containing a history and bibliography of 
Black Hills investigations) ; also R. L. Dodge, The Black Hills: 
A Minute Description . . . (New York, 1876). 

BLACKIE, JOHN STUART (1809-1895), Scottish scholar and 
man of letters, was born in Glasgow on the 28th of July 1809. 
He was educated at the New Academy and afterwards at the 
Marischal College, in Aberdeen, where his father was manager 
of the Commerical Bank. After attending classes at Edinburgh 
University (1825-1826), Blackie spent three years at Aberdeen 
as a student of theology. In 1829 he went to Germany, and after 
studying at Gottingen and Berlin (where he came under the 
influence of Heeren, Ottfried Miiller, Schleiermacher, Neander 
and Bockh) he accompanied Bunsen to Italy and Rome. The 
years spent abroad extinguished his former wish to enter the 
Church, and at his father's desire he gave himself up to the study 
of law. He had already, in 1824, been placed in a lawyer's office, 
but only remained there six months. By the time he was 
admitted a member of the Faculty of Advocates (1834) he had 
acquired a strong love of the classics and a taste for letters in 



general. A translation of Faust, which he published in 1834, 
met with considerable success. After a year or two of desultory 
literary work he was (May 1839) appointed to the newly- 
instituted chair of Humanity (Latin) in the Marischal College. 
Difficulties arose in the way of his installation, owing to the action 
of the Presbytery on his refusing to sign unreservedly the Con- 
fession of Faith; but these were eventually overcome, and he 
took up his duties as professor in November 1841. In the 
following year he married. • From the first his professorial 
lectures were conspicuous for the unconventional enthusiasm 
with which he endeavoured to revivify the study of the classics; 
and his growing reputation, added to the attention excited by a 
translation of Aeschylus which he published in 1850, led to his 
appointment in 1852 to the professorship of Greek at Edinburgh 
University, in succession to George Dunbar, a post which he con- 
tinued to hold for thirty years. He was somewhat erratic in his 
methods, but his lectures were a triumph of influential person- 
ality. A journey to Greece in 1853 prompted his essay On the 
Living Language of the Greeks, a favourite theme of his, especially 
in his later years; he adopted for himself a modern Greek 
pronunciation, and before his death he endowed a travelling 
scholarship to enable students to learn Greek at Athens. Scottish 
nationality was another source of enthusiasm with him; and in 
this connexion he displayed real sympathy with Highland home 
life and the grievances of the crofters. The foundation of the 
Celtic chair at Edinburgh University was mainly due to his 
efforts. In- spite of the many calls upon his time be produced 
a considerable amount of literary work, usually on classical 
or Scottish subjects, including some poems and songs of no mean 
order. He died in Edinburgh on the 2nd of March 1895. Blackie 
was a Radical and Scottish nationalist in politics, but of a 
fearlessly independent type; he was one of the " characters " 
of the Edinburgh of the day, and was a well-known figure as he 
went about in his plaid, worn shepherd-wise, wearing a broad- 
brimmed hat, and carrying a big stick. His published works 
include (besides several volumes of verse) Homer and the Iliad 
(1866), maintaining the unity of the poems; Four Phases of 
Morals: Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilitarianism (1871); 
Essay on Self-Culture (1874); Horae Hellenicae (1874); The 
Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands (1876); The 
Natural History of Atheism (1877); The Wise Men of Greece 
(1877); Lay Sermons (1881); Altavona (1882); The Wisdom 
of Goethe (1883); The Scottish Highlanders and the Land Laws 
(1885); Life of Burns (1888); Scottish Song (1889); Essays on 
Subjects of Moral and Social Interest (1890); Christianity and 
the Ideal of Humanity (1893). Amongst his political writings 
may be mentioned a pamphlet On Democracy (1867), On Forms 
of Government (1867), and Political Tracts (1868). 

See Anna M. Stoddart, John Stuart Blackie (1895) ; A. Stodart- 
Walker, Selected Poems of J. S. Blackie, with an appreciation (1896) ; 
Howard Angus Kennedy, Professor Blackie (1895). 

BLACK ISLE, The, a district in the east of the county of 
Ross and Cromarty, Scotland, bounded N. by Cromarty Firth, 
E. by Moray Firth, S. by Inner Moray Firth (or Firth of Inverness) 
and Beauly Firth, and W. by the river Conon and the parish of 
Urray. It is a diamond-shaped peninsula jutting out from the 
mainland in a north-easterly direction, the longer axis, from 
Muir of Ord station to the South Sutor at the entrance to Cromarty 
Firth, measuring 20 m., and the shorter, from Ferryton Point 
to CraigtonPoint, due north and south, 12 m., and it has a coast- 
line of 52 m. Originally called Ardmeanach (Gaelic ard, height; 
manaich, monk, " the monk's height," from an old religious house 
on the finely-wooded ridge of Mulbuie), it derived its customary 
name from the fact that, since snow does not lie in winter, the 
promontory looks black while the surrounding country is white. 
Within its limits are comprised the parishes of Urquhart and Logie 
Wester, Killearnan, Knockbain (Gaelic cnoc, hill; bdn, white), 
Avoch (pron. Auch), Rosemarkie, Resolis (Gaelic rudha or ros 
soluis, " cape of the light ") or Kirkmichael and Cromarty. The 
Black Isle branch of the Highland railway runs from Muir of Ord 
to Fortrose; steamers connect Cromarty with Invergordon and 
Inverness, and Fortrose with Inverness; and there are ferries, 

on the southern coast, at North Kessock (for Inverness) and 
Chanonry (for Fort George), and, on the northern coast, at 
Alcaig (for Dingwall), Newhallpoint (for Invergordon), and 
Cromarty (for Nigg). The principal towns are Cromarty and 
Fortrose. Rosehaugh, near Avoch, belonged to Sir George 
Mackenzie, founder of the Advocates' library in Edinburgh, 
who earned the sobriquet of " Bloody " from his persecution of 
the Covenanters. Redcastle, on the shore, near Killearnan 
church, dates from n 79 and is said to have been the earliest 
inhabited house in the north of Scotland. On the forfeiture of 
the earldom of Ross it became a royal castle (being visited by 
Queen Mary), and afterwards passed for a period into the hands 
of the Mackenzies of Gairloch. The chief industries are agri- 
culture — high farming flourishes owing to the great fertility of 
the peninsula — sandstone-quarrying and fisheries (mainly from 
Avoch) . The whole district, though lacking water, is picturesque 
and was once forested. The Mulbuie ridge, the highest point 
of which is 838 ft. above the sea, occupies the centre and is the 
only elevated ground. Antiquarian remains are somewhat 
numerous, such as forts and cairns in Cromarty parish, and 
stone circles in Urquhart and Logie Wester and Knockbain 
parishes, the latter also containing a hut circle and rock 

BLACKLOCK, THOMAS (1721-1791), Scottish poet, the 
son of a bricklayer, was born at Annan, in Dumfriesshire, in 
1721. When not quite six months old he lost his sight by small- 
pox, and his career is largely interesting as that of one who 
achieved what he did in spite of blindness. Shortly after his 
father's death in 1740, some of Blacklock's poems began to be 
handed about among his acquaintances and friends, who arranged 
for his education at the grammar-school, and subsequently at 
the university of Edinburgh, where he was a student of divinity. 
His first volume of Poems was published in 1746. In 1754 he 
became deputy librarian for the Faculty of Advocates, by the 
kindness of Hume. He was eventually estranged from Hume, 
and defended James Beattie's attack on that philosopher. Black- 
lock was among the first friends of Burns in Edinburgh, being 
one of the earliest to recognize his genius. He was in 1762 
ordained minister of the church of Kirkcudbright, a position which 
he soon resigned; in 1767 the degree of doctor in divinity was 
conferred on him by Marischal College, Aberdeen. He died on 
the 7th of July 1791. 

An edition of his poems in 1793 contains a life by Henry Mackenzie. 

BLACKMAIL, a term, in English law, used in three special 
meanings, at different times. The usual derivation of the 
second half of the word is from Norman Fr. maille (medalia; cf. 
"medal"), small copper coin; the New English Dictionary 
derives from " mail " (q.v.), meaning rent or tribute. (1) The 
primary meaning of " blackmail " was rent paid in labour, grain 
or baser metal (i.e. money other than sterling money), called 
reditus nigri, in contradistinction to rent paid in silver or white 
money (mailles blanches). (2) In the northern counties of Eng- 
land (Northumberland, Westmorland and the bishopric of 
Durham) it signified a tribute in money, corn, cattle or other 
consideration exacted from farmers and small owners by free- 
booters in return for immunity from robbers or moss-troopers. 
By a statute of 1601 it was made a felony without benefit 
of clergy to receive or pay such tribute, but the practice 
lingered until the union of England and Scotland in 1707. 
(3) The word now signifies extortion of money or property by 
threats of libel, presecution, exposure, &c. See such headings 
as Coercion, Conspiracy, Extortion, and authorities quoted 
under Criminal Law. 

BLACKMORE, SIR RICHARD (c. 1650-1729), English phy- 
sician and writer, was born at "Corsham, in Wiltshire, about 
1650. He was educated at Westminster school and St Edmund 
Hall, Oxford. He was for some time a schoolmaster, but finally, 
after graduating in medicine at Padua, he settled in practice 
as a physician in London. He supported the principles of the 
Revolution, and was accordingly knighted in 1697. He held 
the office of physician in ordinary both to William III. and 
Anne, and died on the 9th of October 1729. Blackmore had a 



passion for writing epics. Prince Arthur, an Heroick Poem in 
X Books appeared in 1695, and was followed by six other long 
poems before 1723. Of these Creation . . . (1712), a philo- 
sophic poem intended to refute the atheism of Vanini, Hobbes 
and Spinoza, and to unfold the intellectual philosophy of Locke, 
was the most favourably received. Dr Johnson anticipated that 
this poem would transmit the author to posterity " among the 
first favourites of the English muse," while John Dennis went 
so far as to describe it. as " a philosophical poem, which has 
equalled that of Lucretius in the beauty of its versification, and 
infinitely surpassed it in the solidity and strength of its reason- 
ing." These opinions have not been justified, for the poem, 
like everything else that Blackmore wrote, is dull and tedious. 
His Creation appears in Johnson's and Anderson's collections 
of the British poets. He left also works on medicine and on 
theological subjects. 

novelist, was born on the 7th of June 1825 at Longworth, Berk- 
shire, of which village his father was curate in charge. He was 
educated at Blundell's school, Tiverton, and Exeter College, 
Oxford, where he obtained a scholarship. In 1847 he took a 
second class in classics. Two years later he entered as a student 
at the Middle Temple, and was called to the bar in 1852. His 
first publication was a volume of Poems by Melanter (1854), which 
showed no particular promise, nor did the succeeding volume, 
Epullia (1855), suggest that Blackmore had the makings of a poet. 
He was nevertheless enthusiastic in his pursuit of literature; 
and when, a few years later, the complete breakdown of his health 
rendered it clear that he must remove from London, he deter- 
mined to combine a literary life in the country with a business 
career as a market-gardener. He acquired land at Teddington, 
and set earnestly to work, the literary fruits of his new surround- 
ings being a translation of the Georgics, published in 1862. In 
1864 he published his first novel, Clara Vaughan, the merits 
of which were promptly recognized. Cradock Nowell (1866) 
followed, but it was in 1869 that he suddenly sprang into fame 
with Lorna Doone. This fine story was a pioneer in the romantic 
revival; and appearing at a jaded hour, it was presently recog- 
nized as a work of singular charm, vigour and imagination. Its 
success could scarcely be repeated, and though Blackmore wrote 
many other capital stories, of which the best known are The 
Maid of Sker (1872), Chrislowell (1880), Perlycross (1894), Tales 
from the Telling House (1896) and Dariel (1897), he will always 
be remembered almost exclusively as the author of Lorna Doone. 
He continued his quiet country life to the last, and died at 
Teddington on the 20th of January 1900, in his seventy-fifth 
year. Lorna Doone has the true out-of-door atmosphere, is shot 
through and through with adventurous spirit, and in its dramatic 
moments shows both vigour and intensity. The heroine, though 
she is invested with qualities of faery which are scarcely human, 
is an idyllic and haunting figure; and John Ridd, the bluff 
hero, is, both in purpose and achievement, a veritable giant of 
romance. The story is a classic of the West country, and the 
many pilgrimages that are made annually to the Doone Valley 
(the actual characteristics of which differ materially from the 
descriptions given in the novel) are entirely inspired by the 
buoyant imagination of Richard Blackmore. A memorial 
window and tablet to his memory were erected in Exeter 
cathedral in 1904. 

BLACK MOUNTAIN, a mountain range and district on the 
Hazara border of the North-West Frontier Province of India. 
It is inhabited by Yusafzai Pathans. The Black Mountain itself 
has a total length of 25 to 50 m., and an average height of 8000ft. 
above the sea. It rises from the Indus basin near the village of 
Kiara, up to its watershed by Bruddur; thence it runs north- 
west by north to the point on the crest known as Chittabut. 
From Chittabut the range runs due north, finally descending by 
two large spurs to the Indus again. The tribes which inhabit 
the western face of the Black Mountain are the Hassanzais (2300 
fighting men), the Akazais ( 1165 fighting men ) and the Chagar- 
zais (4890 fighting men), all sub-sections of the Yusafzai Pathans. 
It was in this district that the Hindostani Fanatics had their 

stronghold, and they were responsible for much of the unrest 
on this part of the border. 

The Black Mountain is chiefly notable for four British 
expeditions : — 

1. Under Lieut.-Colonel F. Mackeson, in 1852-53, against 
the Hassanzais. The occasion was the murder of two British 
customs officers. A force of 3800 British troops traversed their 
country, destroying their villages and grain, &c. 

2. Under Major-General A. T. Wilde, in 1868. The occasion 
was an attack on a British police post at Oghi in the Agror Valley 
by all three tribes. A force of 12,500 British troops entered the 
country and the tribes made submission. 

3. The First Hazara Expedition in 1888. The cause was the 
constant raids made by the tribes on villages in British territory, 
culminating in an attack on a small British detachment, in which 
two English officers were killed. A force of 1 2,500 British troops 
traversed the country of the tribes, and severely punished them. 
Punishment was also inflicted on the Hindostani Fanatics of 

4. The Second Hazara Expedition of 1891. The Black 
Mountain tribes fired on a force within British limits. A force 
of 7300 British troops traversed the country. The tribesmen 
made their submission and entered into an agreement with 
government to preserve the peace of the border. 

The Black Mountain tribes took no part in the general frontier 
rising of 1897, and after the disappearance of the Hindostani 
Fanatics they sank into comparative unimportance . . 

BLACKPOOL, a municipal and county borough and seaside 
resort in the Blackpool parliamentary division of Lancashire, 
England, 46 m. N. of Liverpool, served by the Lancashire & 
Yorkshire, and London & North Western railways. Pop. (1891) 
23,846; (1901) 47,346. The town, which is quite modern, 
contains many churches and chapels of all denominations, a 
town hall, public libraries, the Victoria hospital, three piers, 
theatres, ball-rooms, and other places of public amusement, 
including a lofty tower, resembling the Eiffel Tower of Paris. 
The municipality maintains an electric tram service. There are 
handsome promenades along the sea front, which command fine 
views. Extensive works upon these, affording a sea front 
unsurpassed by that of any English watering-place, were com- 
pleted in 1905. The beach is sandy and the bathing good. The 
borough was created in 1876 (county borough, 1904), and is 
governed by a mayor, 12 aldermen and 36 councillors. Area, 
exclusive of foreshore, 3496 acres; including foreshore, 4244 

BLACK ROD (more fully, " Gentleman Usher of the Black 
Rod "), an official of the House of Lords, instituted in 1350. His 
appointment is by royal letters patent, and his title is due to his 
staff of office, an ebony stick surmounted with a gold lion. He is 
a personal attendant of the sovereign in the Upper House, and 
is also usher of the order of the Garter, being doorkeeper at 
the meetings of the knights' chapter. He is responsible for the 
maintenance of order in the House of Lords, and on him falls the 
duty of arresting any peer guilty of breach of privilege or other 
offence of which the House takes cognizance. But the duty 
which brings him most into prominence is that of summoning the 
Commons and their speaker to the Upper House to hear a speech 
from the throne or the royal assent given to bills. If the 
sovereign is present in parliament, Black Rod commands the 
attendance of the gentlemen of the Commons, but when lords 
commissioners represent the king, he only desires such attendance. 
Black Rod is on such occasions the central figure of a curious 
ceremony of much historic significance. As soon as the attend- 
ants of the House of Commons are aware of his approach, they 
close the doors in his face. Black Rod then strikes three times 
with his staff, and on being asked " Who is there? " replies 
" Black Rod." Being then admitted he advances to the bar of 
the House, makes three obeisances and says, " Mr Speaker, the 
king commands this honourable House to attend his majesty 
immediately in the House of Lords." This formality originated 
in the famous attempt of Charles I. to arrest the five members, 
Hampden, Pym, Holies, Hesilrige and Strode, in 1642. Indignant 



at this breach of privilege, the House of Commons has ever since 
maintained its right of freedom of speech and uninterrupted 
debate by the closing of the doors on the king's representative. 

BLACK SEA (or Euxine; anc. Pontus Euxinus ), 1 a body of 
water lying almost entirely between the latitudes 41 and 45 N., 
but extending to about 47 N. near Odessa. It is bounded N. by 
the southern coast of Russia; W. by Rumania, Turkey and 
Bulgaria; S. and E. by Asia Minor. The northern boundary is 
broken at Kertch by a strait entering into the Sea of Azov, and 
at the junction of the western and southern boundary is the 
Bosporus, which unites the Black Sea with the Mediterranean 
through the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles. The 100 
fathom line is about 10 to 20 m. from the shore except in the 
north-west corner between Varna and Sevastopol, where it 
extends 140 m. seawards. The greatest depth is 1030 fathoms 
(1227 Russian fathoms) near the centre, there being only one 
basin. The steepest incline outside 100 fathoms is to the south- 
east of the Crimea and at Amastra; the incline to the greater 
depths is also steep off the Caucasus and between Trebizond and 
Ba.tum. The conditions that prevail in the Black Sea are very 
different from those of the Mediterranean or any other sea. The 
existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below 100 
fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium car- 
bonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of 
deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it 
along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediter- 
ranean proper. 

The depths of the Black Sea are lifeless, higher organic life not 
being known to exist below 100 fathoms. Fossiliferous remains 
of Dreissena, Cardium and other molluscs have, however, been 
dredged up, which help to show that conditions formerly existed 
in the Black Sea similar to those that exist at the present day in 
the Caspian Sea. According to N. Andrusov, when the union of 
the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took 
place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus 
and killed the fauna of the less saline waters. This gave rise to 
a production of sulphuretted hydrogen which is found in the 
deposits, as well as in the deeper waters. 

Observations in temperature and salinity have only been 
taken during summer. During summer the surface salinity of 
the Black Sea is from 1 ■ 70 to 2 -oo % down to 50 fathoms, whereas 
in the greater depths it attains a salinity of 2-25%. The 
temperature is rather remarkable, there being an intermediate 
cold layer between 25 and 50 fathoms. This is due to the 
sinking of the cold surface water (which in winter reaches 
freezing-point) on to the top of the denser more saline water of 
the greater depths. There is thus a minimum circulation in the 
greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an 
absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than 
diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from 
the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the 
open ocean. The temperature down to 25 fathoms is from 78-3° 
to 46-2° F., and in the cold layer, between 25 and 50 fathoms, is 
from 46-2° to 43-5° F., rising again in greater depths to 48- 2°F. 

The Sea of Marmora may be looked upon as an arm of the 
Aegean Sea and thus part of the Mediterranean proper. Its 
salinity is comparable to that of the eastern basin of the Mediter- 
ranean, which is greater than that of the Black Sea, viz. 4%. 
Similar currents exist in the Bosporus to those of the Strait of 
Gibraltar. Water of less salinity flows outwards from the Black 
Sea as an upper current, and water of greater salinity from the 
Sea of Marmora flows into the Black Sea as an under-current. 
This under-current flows towards Cape Tarhangut, where it divides 
into a left and right branch. The left branch is appreciably 
noticed near Odessa and the north-west corner; the right branch 
sweeps past the Crimea, strikes the Caucasian shore (where it 
comes to the surface running across, but not into, the south-east 
corner of the Black Sea), and finally disperses flowing westwards 
along the northern coast of Asia Minor between Cape Jason and 

1 The early Greek navigators gave it the epithet of axenus, i.e. 
unfriendly to' strangers, but as Greek colonies sprang up on the 
shores this was changed to euxinus, friendly to strangers. 

Sinope. This current causes a warmer climate where it strikes. 
So marked is this current that it has to be taken into account in 
the navigation of the Black Sea. 

The Sea of Azov is exceedingly shallow, being only about 6 
fathoms in its deepest part, and it is largely influenced by the 
river Don. Its water is considerably fresher than the Black Sea, 
varying from 1-55 to o-68%. It freezes more readily and is not 
affected by the Mediterranean current. 

See N. Andrusov, " Physical Exploration of the Black Sea," in 
Geographical Journal, vol. i. p. 49. 

BLACK SEA (Russ. Chcrnomorskaya) , a military district ef 
the province of Kuban, formerly an independent province Of 
Transcaucasia, Russia; it includes the narrow strip of land 
along the N.E. coast of the Black Sea from Novorossiysk to 
the vicinity of Pitsunda, between the sea and the crest of the 
main range of the Caucasus. Area, 2836 sq. m. Pop. (1897) 
54,228; (1906, estimate) 71,900. It is penetrated by numerous 
spurs of this range, which strike the sea abruptly at right angles 
to the coast, and in many cases plunge down into it sheer. Owing 
to its southern exposure, its sheltered position, and a copious 
rainfall, vegetation, in part of a sub-tropical character, grows 
in great profusion. In consequence, however, of the moun- 
tainous character of the region, it is divided into a large number 
of more or less isolated districts, and there is little intercourse 
with the country north of the Caucasus, the passes over the range 
being few and difficult (see Caucasus). But since the Russians 
became masters of this region, its former inhabitants (Circassian 
tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now 
only thinly inhabited. It is divided into three districts- 
Novorossiysk, with the town (pop. in 1897, 16,208) of the same 
name, which acts as the capital of the Black Sea district; 
Velyaminovsk; and Sochi. Novorossiysk is connected by rail, 
at the west end of the Caucasus, with the Rostov- Vladikavkaz 
line, and a mountain road leadsirom Velyaminovsk (or Tuapse) 
to Maikop in the province of Kuban. 

BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM (1723-1780), English jurist, 
was born in London, on the 10th of July 1723. His parents' 
having died when he was young, his early education, under the 
care of his uncle, Dr Thomas Bigg, was obtained at the Charter- 
house, from which, at the age of fifteen, he was sent to Pembroke 
College, Oxford. He was entered in the Middle Temple in 174 1. 
In 1 744 he was elected a fellow of All Souls' College. From this 
period he divided his time between the university and the 
Temple, where he took chambers in order to attend the law 
courts. In 1746 he was called to the bar. Though but little 
known or distinguished as a pleader, he was actively 'employed* 
during his occasional residences at the university, in taking part 
in the internal management of his college. In May 1749, as a 
small reward for his services, and to give him further oppor- 
tunities of advancing the interests of the college, Blackstone was 
appointed steward of its manors. In the same year, on the 
resignation of his uncle, Seymour Richmond, he was elected 
recorder of the borough of Wallingford in Berkshire. In 1750 he 
became doctor of civil law. In 1753 he decided to retire from 
London work to his fellowship and an academical life, still con- 
tinuing the practice of his profession as a provincial counsel. 

His lectures on the laws of England appear to have been an 
early and favourite idea; for in the Michaelmas term immedi- 
ately after he abandoned London, he entered on the duty of 
reading them at Oxford; and we are told by the author of his 
Life, that even at their commencement, the high expectations 
formed from the acknowledged abilities of the lecturer attracted 
to these lectures a very crowded class of young men of the first 
families, characters and hopes. Bentham, however, declares 
that he was a " formal, precise and affected lecturer — just what 
you would expect from the character of his writings — cold, 
reserved and wary, exhibiting a frigid pride." It was not till the 
year 1758 that the lectures in the form they now bear were read 
in the university. Blackstone, having been unanimously elected 
to the newly-founded Vinerian professorship, on the 25th of 
October read his first introductory lecture, afterwards prefixed 
to the first volume of his celebrated Commentaries. It is doubtful 



whether the Commentaries were originally intended for the 
press; but many imperfect and incorrect copies having got into 
circulation, and a pirated edition of them being either published 
or preparing for publication in Ireland, the author thought 
proper to print a correct edition himself, and in November 1765 
published the first volume, under the title of Commentaries 011 
the Laws of England. The remaining parts of the work were 
given to the world in the course of the four succeeding years. 
It may be remarked that before this period the reputation which 
his lectures had deservedly acquired for him had induced him 
to resume practice in London; and, contrary to the general order 
of the profession, he who had quitted the bar for an academic life 
was sent back from the college to the bar with a considerable 
increase of business. He was likewise elected to . parliament, 
first for Hindon, and afterwards for Westbury in Wilts; but in 
neither of these departments did he equal the expectations which 
his writings had raised. The part he took in the Middlesex 
election drew upon him many attacks as well as a severe anim- 
adversion from the caustic pen of " Junius." This circumstance 
probably strengthened the aversion he professed to parliamentary 
attendance, " where," he said, " amidst the rage of contending 
parties, a man of moderation must expect to meet with no 
quarter from any side." In 17 70 he declined the place of solicitor- 
general; but shortly afterwards, on the promotion of Sir Joseph 
Yates to a seat, in the court of common pleas, he accepted a seat 
on the bench, and on the death of Sir Joseph succeeded him 
there also. He died on the 14th of February 1780. 

The design of the Commentaries is exhibited in his first Vinerian 
lecture printed in the introduction to them. The author there 
dwells on the importance of noblemen, gentlemen and educated 
persons generally being well acquainted with the laws of the 
country; and his treatise, accordingly, is as far as possible a 
popular exposition of the laws of England. Falling into the 
common error of identifying the various meanings of the word 
law, he advances from the law of nature (being either the revealed 
or the inferred will of God) to municipal law, which he defines to 
be a rule of civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power in a 
state commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong. 
On this definition he founds the division observed in the Com- 
mentaries. The objects of law are rights and wrongs. Rights are 
either rights of persons or rights of things. Wrongs are either 
public or private. These four headings form respectively the 
subjects of the four books, of the Commentaries. 

Blackstone was by no means what would now be called a 
scientific jurist. He has only the vaguest possible grasp of the 
elementary conceptions of law. He evidently regards the law 
of gravitation, the law of nature, and the law of England, as 
different examples of the same principle — as rules of action or 
conduct imposed by a superior power on its subjects. He 
propounds in terms the doctrine that municipal or positive laws 
derive their validity from their conformity to the so-called law 
of nature or law of God. " No human laws," he says, " are of 
any validity if contrary to this." His distinction between rights 
of persons and rights of things, implying, as it would appear, 
that things as well as persons have rights, is attributable to a 
misunderstanding of the technical terms of the Roman law. 
In distinguishing between private and public wrongs (civil 
injuries and crimes) he fails to seize the true principle of the 
division. Austin, who accused him of following slavishly the 
method of Hale's Analysis of the Law, declares that he " blindly 
adopts the mistakes of his rude and compendious model; missing 
invariably, with a nice and surprising infelicity, the pregnant 
but obscure suggestions which it proffered to his attention, and 
which would have guided a discerning and inventive writer to 
an arrangement comparatively just." By the want of precise 
and closely-defined terms, and his tendency to substitute loose 
literary phrases, he falls occasionally into irreconcilable contra- 
dictions. Even in discussing a subject of such immense import- 
ance as equity, he hardly takes pains to discriminate between 
the legal and popular senses of the word, and, from the small 
place which equity jurisprudence occupies in his arrangement, 
he would scarcely seem to have realized its true position in the 

law of England. Subject, however, to these strictures the 
completeness of the treatise, its serviceable if not scientific order, 
and the power of lucid exposition possessed by the author 
demand emphatic recognition. Blackstone's defects as a jurist 
are more conspicuous in his treatment of the underlying principles 
and fundamental divisions of the law than in his account of its 
substantive principles. 

Blackstone by no means confines himself to the work of a 
legal commentator. It is his business, especially when he touches 
on the framework of society, to find a basis in history and reason 
for all the most characteristic English institutions. There is not 
much either of philosophy or fairness in this part of his work. 
Whether through the natural conservatism of a lawyer, or 
through his own timidity and subserviency as a man and a 
politician, he is always found to be a specious defender of the 
existing order of things. Bentham accuses him of being the 
enemy of all reform, and the unscrupulous champion of every 
form of professional chicanery. Austin says that he truckled 
to the sinister interests and mischievous prejudices of power, 
and that he flattered the overweening conceit of the English in 
their own institutions. He displays much ingenuity in giving a 
plausible form to common prejudices and fallacies; but it is by 
no means clear that he was not imposed upon himself. More 
undeniable than the political fairness of the treatise is its merits 
as a work of literature. It is written in a most graceful and 
attractive style, and although no opportunity of embellishment 
has been lost, the language is always simple and clear. Whether 
it is owing to its literary graces, or to its success in flattering the 
prejudices of the public to which it was addressed, the influence 
of the book in England has been extraordinary. Not lawyers 
only, and lawyers perhaps even less than others, accepted it as 
an authoritative revelation of the law. It performed for educated 
society in England much the same service as was rendered to 
the people of Rome by the publication of their previously 
unknown laws. It is more correct to regard it as a handbook of 
the law for laymen than as a legal treatise; and as the first and 
only book of the kind in England it has been received with some- 
what indiscriminating reverence. It is certain that a vast 
amount of the constitutional sentiment of the country has been 
inspired by its pages. To this day Blackstone's criticism of the 
English constitution would probably express the most profound 
political convictions of the majority of the English people. 
Long after it has ceased to be of much practical value as an 
authority in the courts, it remains the arbiter of all public dis- 
cussions on the law or the constitution. On such occasions the 
Commentaries are apt to be construed as strictly as if they were 
a code. It is curious to observe how much importance is attached 
to the ipsissima verba of a writer who aimed more at presenting 
a picture intelligible to laymen than at recording the principles 
of the law with technical accuracy of detail. 

See also the article English Law. 

BLACK VEIL, in the Roman Catholic Church, the symbol of 
the most complete renunciation of the world and adoption of 
a nun's life. On the appointed day the nun goes through 
all the ritual of the marriage ceremony, after a solemn mass at 
which all the inmates of the convent assist. She is dressed in 
bridal white with wreath and veil, and receives a wedding-ring, 
as spouse of the Church. Afterwards she presides at a wedding- 
breakfast, at which a bride-cake is cut. She thus bids adieu 
to all her friends, and having previously taken the white veil, 
the betrothal, she now assumes the black, and for ever forswears 
the world and its pleasures. Her hair is cut short, and her bridal 
robes are exchanged for the sombre religious habit. Her Wedding- 
ring, however, she continues to wear, and it is buried with her. 

BLACKWATER, the name of a number of rivers and streams 
in England, Scotland and Ireland. The Blackwater in Essex, 
which rises near Saffron Walden, has a course of about 40 m. to 
the North Sea. The most important river of the name is in 
southern Ireland, rising in the hills on the borders of the counties 
Cork and Kerry, and flowing nearly due east for the greater part 
of its course, as far as Cappoquin, where it turns abruptly south- 
ward, and discharges through an estuary into Youghal Bay. 



The length of its valley (excluding the lesser windings of the 
river) is about 90 m., and the drainage area about 1300 sq. m. 
It is navigable only for a few miles above the mouth, but its 
salmon fisheries are both attractive to sportsmen and of consider- 
able commercial value. The scenery of its banks is at many 
points very beautiful. 

BLACKWATER FEVER, a disease occurring in tropical 
countries and elsewhere, which is often classed with malaria 
(q.v.). It is characterized by irregular febrile paroxysms, accom- 
panied by rigors, bilious vomiting, jaundice and haemoglobinuria 
(Sambon). It has a wide geographical distribution, including 
tropical Africa, parts of Asia, the West Indies, the southern 
United States, and — in Europe — Greece, Sicily and Sardinia; 
but its range is not coextensive with malaria. Malarial 
parasites have occasionally been found in the blood. Some 
authorities believe it to be caused by the excessive use of 
quinine, taken to combat malaria. This theory has had the 
support of Koch, but it is not generally accepted. If it were 
correct, one would expect blackwater fever to be regularly 
prevalent in malarial countries and to be more or less coextensive 
with the use of quinine, which is not at all the case. It often 
resembles yellow fever, but the characteristic black vomit of 
yellow fever rarely occurs in blackwater fever, while the black 
urine from which the latter derives its name is equally rare in 
the former. According to the modern school of tropical para- 
sitology, blackwater fever is neither a form of malaria nor 
produced by quinine, but a specific disease due to a protozoal 
parasite akin to that which causes the red water fever of cattle. 

BLACKWELL, THOMAS (1701-1757), Scottish classical 
scholar, was born at Aberdeen on the 4th of August 1701. He 
took the degree of M.A. at the Marischal College in 17 18. He 
was appointed professor of Greek in 1723, and was principal 
of the institution from 1 748 until his death on the 8th of March 
1757. In 1735 his first work, An Inquiry into the Life and 
Writings of Homer, was published anonymously. It was re- 
printed in 1736, and followed (in 1747) by Proofs of the Enquiry 
into Homer's Life and Writings, a translation of the copious 
notes in foreign languages which had previously appeared. This 
work, intended to explain the causes of the superiority of Homer 
to all the poets who preceded or followed him, shows considerable 
research, and contains many curious and interesting details; 
but its want of method made Bentley say that, when he had gone 
through half of it, he had forgotten the beginning, and, when 
he had finished the reading of it, he had forgotten the whole. 
Blackwell's next work (also published anonymously in 1748) 
was Letters Concerning Mythology. In 1752 he took the degree 
of doctor of laws, and in the following year published the first 
volume of Memoirs of the Court of Augustus; the second volume 
appeared in 1755, the third in 1764 (prepared for the press, after 
Blackwell's death, by John Mills) . This work shows considerable 
originality and erudition, but is even more unmethodical than 
his earlier writings and full of unnecessary digressions. Black- 
well has been called the restorer of Greek literature in the north 
of Scotland; but his good qualities were somewhat spoiled by 
pomposity and affectation, which exposed him to ridicule. ' 

BLACKWOOD, WILLIAM (1776-1834), Scottish publisher, 
founder of the firm of William Blackwood & Sons, was born of 
humble parents at Edinburgh on the 20th of November 1776. 
At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a firm of booksellers 
in Edinburgh, and he followed his calling also in Glasgow and 
London for several years. Returning to Edinburgh in 1804, he 
opened a shop in South Bridge Street for the sale of old, rare 
and curious books. He undertook the Scottish agency for John 
Murray and other London publishers, and gradually drifted into 
publishing on his own account, removing in 18 16 to Princes 
Street. On the 1st of April 1817 was issued the first number of 
the Edinburgh Monthly Magazine, which on its seventh number, 
bore the name of Blackwood's as the leading part of the title. 
" Maga," as this magazine soon came to be called, was the organ 
of the Scottish Tory party, and round it gathered a host of 
able writers. William Blackwood died on the 16th of September 
1834, and was succeeded by his two sons, Alexander and Robert, 

who added a London branch to the firm. In 1845 Alexander 
Blackwood died, and shortly afterwards Robert. 

A younger brother, John Blackwood (1818-1879), succeeded 
to the business; four years later he was joined by Major William 
Blackwood, who continued in the firm until his death in 1861. 
In 1862 the major's elder son, William Blackwood (b. 1836), 
was taken into partnership. John Blackwood, was a man of 
strong personality and great business discernment; it was in the 
pages of his magazine that George Eliot's first stories, Scenes 
of Clerical Life, appeared. He also inaugurated the " Ancient 
Classics for English readers " series. On his death Mr William 
Blackwood was left in sole control of the business. With him 
were associated his nephews, George William and J. H. Black- 
wood, sons of Major George Blackwood, who was killed at 
Maiwand in 1880. 

See Annals of a Publishing House; William Blackwood and his 
Sons . . . (1897-1898), the first two volumes of which were Written 
by Mrs Oliphant; the third, dealing with John Blackwood, by his 
daughter, Mrs Gerald Porter. 

BLADDER (from A.S. blaeddre, connected with blawan, 
to blow, cf. Ger. blase), the membranous sac in animals which 
receives the urine secreted from the kidneys. The word is also 
used for any similar sac, such as the gall-bladder, the swim- 
bladder in fishes, or the small vesicle in various seaweeds. 

bladder in man (for the anatomy see Urinary System), being 
the temporary reservoir of the renal secretion, and, as such, 
containing the urine for longer or shorter periods, is liable to 
various important affections. These are dealt with in the first 
part of this article. The diseases of the prostate are so intimately 
allied that they are best considered, as in the subsequent section, 
as part of the same subject. 

Diseases of the Bladder. 

Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, which may be acute 
or chronic, is due to the invasion of the mucous lining by micro- 
organisms, which gain access either from the urethra, 
the kidneys or the blood-stream. It is easy to see how c y stu,s - 
the diplococci of gonorrhoea may infect the bladder-membrane by 
direct extension of the inflammation, and how the bacilli which 
are swarming in the neighbouring bowel may find access to the 
urethra or bladder when the intervening tissues have been 
rendered penetrable by a wound or by inflammation. Sometimes, 
however, especially in the female, the germs from the large 
intestine enter the bladder by way of the vulva and the urethra. 

Any condition leading to disturbance of the function of the 
bladder, such as enlargement of the prostate, stricture of the 
urethra, stone, or injury, may cause cystitis by preparing the 
way for bacillary invasion. The bacilli of tuberculosis and of 
typhoid fever may set up cystitis by coming down into the 
bladder from the kidneys with the urine, or they reach it by 
the blood-stream, or invade it by the urethra. Another way of 
cystitis being set up is by the introduction of the germs of 
suppuration by a catheter or bougie sweeping them in from the 
urethra; or the instrument itself may be unsterilized and dirty 
and so may introduce them. It used formerly to be thought that 
wet or cold was enough to cause inflammation of the bladder, but 
the probability is that this acts only by lowering the resistance 
of the lining membrane of the bladder, and preparing it for the 
invasion of the germs which were merely waiting for an oppor- 
tunity. In the same way, gout or injury may lead to the lurking 
bacilli being enabled to effect their attack. But in every case 
disease-germs are the cause of the trouble, and they may be found 
in the urine. The first effect of inflammation is to render the 
bladder irritable, so that as soon as a few drops of urine have 
collected, the individual has intense or uncontrollable desire to 
micturate. The effort may be very painful and may be accom- 
panied by bleeding from the overloaded blood-vessels of the 
inflamed membrane. In addition to blood, pus is likely to be 
found in the urine, which by this time is alkaline and ammoniacal, 
and teeming with micro-organisms. As regards treatment, the 
patient should be at once sent to bed in a warm room, and should 



sit several times a day in a very hot hip-bath. When he has got 
back to bed, a fomentation under oil-silk, or some other water- 
proof material, should be placed over the lower part of the 
abdomen. The diet should be milk (diluted with hot or cold 
water), barley-water, and bread and butter; no alcoholic drink 
should be allowed. If the urine is acid, bicarbonate of soda may 
be given, or citrate of soda; if alkaline, urotropine — a derivative 
of formic aldehyde — may prove a useful urinary disinfectant. If 
the straining and distress are great, a suppository of \ or \ a grain 
of morphia may be introduced into the rectum every two or three 
hours. The bowels must be kept freely open. If the urine is foul, 
the bladder should be frequently washed out by a soft catheter 
and two or three feet of india-rubber tubing with a funnel at the 
other end, weak and abundant hot lotions of Sanitas or Condy's 
fluid being used. 

Chronic cystitis is the condition left when the acute symptoms 
have passed away, but it is liable at any moment to resume the 
acute condition. If the cystitis is very intractable, refusing to 
yield to hot irrigations, and to washings with nitrate of silver 
lotion, it may be advisable to open the bladder from the front, 
and to explore, treat, drain and rest it. 

In tuberculous cystitis there is added to the symptoms the 
discovery of the bacilli of tuberculosis in the urine, and cysto- 
scopic examination may reveal the presence of tubercles of the 
mucous membrane or even of ulceration. The patient is probably 
losing weight, and he may present foci of tuberculosis at the back 
of the testicle, the lung or kidney, or in a joint or bone, or in a 
lymphatic gland. Treatment is rebellious and unpromising. 
Washings and lotions give but temporary relief, and if the 
bladder is opened for rest, and for a more direct treatment, the 
germs of suppuration may enter, and, working in conjunction 
with the bacilli, may cause great havoc. Koch's tuberculin 
treatment should certainly be given a trial. This consists of the 
injection into the body of an emulsion of dead tubercle bacilli 
which have been sterilized by heat. As a result of this injection 
the blood sets to work to form an " opsonin " — a protective 
material which so modifies the disease-germs as to render them 
attractive to the white corpuscles of the patient's blood (phago- 
cytes), which then seize upon and destroy them. Sir A. E. 
Wright has devised a delicate method of examination of the blood 
(the calculation of the opsonic index) which tells when the 
tuberculin injections should be resorted to and when withheld 
(see Blood). 

Calculi and Gravel. — Uric acid is deposited from the urine either 
as small crystals resembling cayenne pepper, or else, in combina- 
tion with soda and ammonia, as an amorphous " brick- 
Stone. ( j ust „ ^ epos j tj w hich, on cooling, leaves a red stain on 
the bottom of the vessel, soluble in hot water. These substances 
are derived from the disintegration of nitrogenized food taken in 
excess of demand, and from the breaking down of the human 
tissues. They occur therefore in fevers, in wasting diseases, and 
in the normal subject after excessive muscular exercises, especially 
if these exercises have been accompanied with so much perspira- 
tion that the excess of water from the blood has escaped by the 
skin rather than by the kidneys. The abundance of this deposit 
is in accordance with the amount of heat developed and work 
done in the body, and corresponds with the dust and ashes raked 
out of the fire-box of the locomotive after a long run. But 
supposing that the uric acid debris continues to be excessive, the 
risk of the formation of renal qx vesical calculi becomes consider- 
able, and it may be advisable to place the patient on a restricted 
nitrogenized diet, to induce him to drink large quantities of water, 
and to keep his bowels so loose with watery laxatives, such as 
Epsom salts or sulphate of soda, that the waste products of his 
body are made to escape by the bowels rather than by the kidneys. 
In addition to the salts just mentioned, an occasional dose of blue 
pill will prove helpful. A course of treatment at Contrex6ville 
or Carlsbad may be taken with advantage. 

Alkaline urine is unable to hold the phosphates of ammonia and 
magnesia in solution, so they are deposited in abundance either in 
the kidney or bladder. If the voided urine is allowed to stand in a 
tall glass they sink to the bottom with pus and mucus in a cloudy 

deposit. To remedy this condition it is necessary to treat the 
cystitis with which the bacterial decomposition of the urine is 
associated. It may be that a calculus of acid urine, such as one 
of uric acid or oxalate of lime, has been resting in the bladder and 
keeping up incessant irritation, and that the micro-organisms of 
decomposition or suppuration have found their way to the mucous 
lining of the bladder from either the bowel, the urethra or the 
blood-stream; undergoing cultivation there they break up the 
urea into carbonate of ammonia and so render the urine alkaline. 
This alkaline urine deposits its phosphates, which light upon the 
calculus and encrust it with a mortary shell, which may go on 
increasing in size until it may even fill the bladder. Sometimes 
the nucleus of a calculus is a chip of bone or a blood-clot, or some 
foreign substance which has been introduced into the bladder. 
Sooner or later the urine becomes alkaline and the calculus is 
encrusted with lime salts. . 

When urine contains a larger amount of chemical constituents 
than it can conveniently hold in solution, a certain quantity crys- 
tallizes out, and may be deposited in the kidney or in the bladder. 
If the crystals run together in the kidney the resulting concretion 
may either remain in that organ or may find its way into the 
bladder, where it may remain to form the nucleus of a larger 
vesical calculus, or, especially in the case of females, it may, 
while still small, escape from the bladder during micturition. 

In children, in whom there is a rapid disintegration of nitro- 
genized tissues, a uric acid calculus in escaping from the bladder 
may block the urethra and give rise to sudden retention of urine. 
On introducing a metal "sound," the surgeon may strike the 
stone, and if it happens to be near the bladder he may push it 
back and subsequently remove it by crushing. But if it has made 
its way some distance along the urethra, so that he can feel it 
from the outside, he should remove it by a clean incision. 

A stone in the bladder worries the nerves of the mucous 
membrane, and, giving them the impression that the bladder 
contains much water, causes the desire and need for micturition 
to be constant. The irritation causes an excessive secretion of 
mucus, just as a piece of grit under the eyelid causes a constant 
running from the eye. So the urine, if allowed to stand, gives 
a copious deposit. During micturition the contracting bladder 
bruises its congested blood-vessels against the stone, so that 
towards the end of micturition blood appears in the urine. 
Lastly, cystitis occurs, and the urine contains fetid pus. A 
stone in the bladder gives rise to pain at the end of the penis, 
and it is apt suddenly to stop the flow of urine during micturition. 

The association of any of these symptoms leads the surgeon 
to suspect the presence of a stone in the bladder, and he confirms 
his suspicions by introducing a slender steel rod, a " sound," 
by which he strikes and feels the stone. Further confirmation 
may be obtained by the help of the X-rays, or, in the adult, by 
using a cystoscope. In a child the stone may often be felt 
by a finger in the rectum, the front of the bladder being 
pressed by a hand on the lower part of the abdomen. The 
cystoscope is a straight, hollow metal tube about the size 
of a long cedar pencil, which the surgeon introduces into the 
adult bladder, which has already been filled with warm boracic 
lotion. Down the tube run two fine wires which control a minute 
electric lamp at the bladder end of the instrument. At that end 
also is a small glass window which prevents the fluid escaping 
by the tube, and also a prism; at the other end of the tube is 
an eye-piece. By the use of this slender speculum the practised 
surgeon can recognize the presence of tubercle or tuberculous 
ulceration of the bladder, stone, or other foreign material, and 
innocent or malignant growths. He can also watch the urine 
entering the bladder by the openings of the ureters, and deter- 
mine from which kidney blood or pus is coming. 

The treatment of stone in the bladder is governed by various 
conditions. Speaking generally, the surgeon prefers to introduce 
a lithotrite and crush the stone into small fragments, and then 
to flush out the fragments by using a full-sized, hollow metal 
catheter and an india-rubber wash-bottle. Even in children 
this operation may generally be adopted with success, the stone 
being crushed to atoms and the fragments being washed out to 



the last small chip. But if the stone is a very hard one (as are 
some of the oxalate of lime calculi), or if it is very large, or if 
the bladder or the prostate gland is in a state of advanced 
disease, or if the urethra is not roomy enough to admit instru- 
ments of adequate calibre, the crushing operation (lilholrity) 
must be deemed unsuitable, and the stone must be removed by 
a cutting operation {lithotomy) . 

Lithotomy. — Cutting for stone has been long practised; but 
up to the beginning of the 19th century it was performed only 
by a few men, who, bolder than their contemporaries, had 
specially worked at that operation and had attained celebrity 
as skilful lithotomists. Patients went long distances to be 
operated on by them, and certain of the older surgeons, as 
William Cheselden, performed a large number of operations 
with most excellent results. The operation was by an incision 
from the perineum, and is ordinarily spoken of as lateral litho- 
tomy. It was splendidly designed, and gave good results, 
especially in children. But it is now a thing of the past, having 
almost entirely given place to the high or supra-pubic operation. 
In the high operation the patient, being duly prepared, is placed 
upon his back and the bladder is washed out with hot boracic 
lotion, and when the lotion returns quite clean a final injection 
is made until the bladder is felt rising above the pubes. Then 
the india-rubber tube is removed from the silver catheter by 
which the injection has been made, and the end of the catheter 
is plugged by a spigot. An incision is then made in the middle 
line of the abdomen over the bladder region. The incision must 
be kept as low as possible, so that the bladder may be reached 
below the peritoneum, which, higher up, gives it an external, 
serous coat. As the bladder is approached, a good many veins 
are seen to be in the way, some of which have to be wounded. 
The bladder-wall is recognized by its coarse network of pale 
muscular fibres, through which, on each side of the middle line, a 
strong suture is passed, so that when the bladder is opened and 
the lotion comes rushing out, the opening which has been made 
into the bladder may not sink into the depths of the pelvis. A 
finger introduced into the bladder makes out the exact size and 
position of the stone, or stones, and the removal is effected 
by special forceps. Bleeding having ceased, the bladder-wound 
;ls partly or entirely closed by sutures an'd allowed to fall into 
the pelvis, the catheter having been removed. It is advisable 
to leave a drainage tube in the abdominal wound for a while, 
so that if urine leaks from the bladder-wound it may find a 
ready escape to the dressings. 

Litholapaxy. — Lithotrity consists of two parts — the crushing 
of the stone, and the removal of the detritus. The two stages 
are now carried out at one " sitting," without an interval being 
allowed between them, as was formerly the practice, and the 
term " litholapaxy " designates this method. The patient 
having been anaesthetized, 10 oz. of hot boracic lotion are in- 
jected, and the crushing instrument, the lithotrite, is then passed 
into the bladder. The lithotrite has two blades, a " male " and 
a " female," the latter fenestrated, the former solid with its sur- 
face notched. When the stone is fixed between the blades the 
screw is used, and great pressure is applied evenly, gradually 
and continuously to the stone. The lithotrite is made of very 
tough steel, so that hard stones may be crushed without danger 
of the instrument breaking or bending. Care must be taken not 
to catch the bladder-wall with the lithotrite. This danger is 
avoided by raising the point of the lithotrite immediately after 
grasping the stone and before crushing. The stone breaks into 
two or more pieces, and these fragments must be crushed, one 
by one, until they are powdered fine enough to escape by the 
large evacuating catheter. If the stone be large and hard, half 
an hour or longer may be required to crush it sufficiently fine. 
When the surgeon fails to catch any more large pieces, the pre- 
sumption is that the stone has been thoroughly broken up. 
The lithotrite is then withdrawn and the detritus is washed out 
by an " aspirator," which consists of a stiff elastic ball which is 
connected with a trap, into which fragments of stone fall so as not 
to pass out on the instrument being used at later periods in the 
operation. A large catheter, with the eye very near the end of 

the short curve, is passed into the bladder; the aspirator, full 
of boracic lotion, is attached to the catheter, and a few ounces 
of the fluid are expressed from the aspirator into the bladder by 
squeezing the rubber ball. When the pressure is taken off the 
ball, it dilates and draws the fluid out of the bladder, and with 
it some of the detritus, which falls into the trap. This is re- 
peated until all the fragments have been removed. After the 
operation the patient sometimes suffers from discomfort. His 
urine should be drawn off by a soft catheter at regular intervals 
for a few days. If the pain be severe, it can generally be relieved 
by fomentations. The patient must be kept in bed after the 
operation, and in cases where the stone has been large and the 
bladder irritable, the surgeon should insist on his remaining 
there for at least a week; in those cases which go on favourably 
the patients are soon able to perform their ordinary duties. 
Fatal terminations, however, do now and again occur from sup- 
pression of urine, the result of the old-standing kidney disease 
which so often complicates these cases. 

To Brigade-Surgeon Lieutenant-Colonel Dennis Francis 
Keegan, of the Indian Medical Service, is due the fact that the 
operation of crushing and promptly removing all fragments of 
a vesical calculus is as well suited for boys as for men. In entire 
opposition to long-standing European prejudices, Keegan's 
operation is now firmly and permanently established. The old 
operation (Cheselden's) of cutting a stone out through the 
bottom of a boy's bladder is now seldom resorted to, and if a 
stone in a boy is found too large or too hard to lend itself to 
the crushing operation, it is removed by a vertical incision 
through the lower part of the anterior wall of the abdomen, as 
described above. For a successful performance of the crushing 
operation in a boy a small lithotrite has, of course, to be used, 
and it must be of the very best English make. The operation 
has to be done with the utmost gentleness and thoroughness, 
not a particle of the crushed stone being left in the bladder, 
since otherwise the piece left becomes the nucleus of a fresh stone 
and the trouble recurs. 

The treatment of vesical calculi by other means than operative 
surgery is of little value. Attempts have been made to dissolve 
them by internal remedies, or by the injection of chemical 
agents into the bladder; but, although such methods have for 
a time been apparently successful, they have invariably been 
found worthless for removing calculi once actually formed/ 
Nevertheless, much can be done towards preventing the formation 
of calculi in those who have a tendency to their formation, by 
attention to diet, by taking proper exercise, and by the internal 
administration of drugs. 

Rupture of the bladder may be caused by a kick or blow over the 
upper part of the abdomen, or by a wheel passing over it; or it 
may be a complication of fracture of the pelvis. If the rupture is in 
that part of the bladder which is uncovered by the peritoneum, the 
extravasated urine may be cut down upon and let out with good 
prospect of success; but if the rupture is in the upper or hinder part 
of the bladder the urine is let loose into the general peritoneal cavity 
and sets up peritonitis, which is more than likely to prove fatal. 
If the surgeon knows that the bladder is ruptured he should operate 
at once in order to provide escape for the urine, and also to sew up 
the rent. If the possibility of the bladder being ruptured be even 
suspected, the surgeon should pass a catheter. Perhaps he draws 
off an ounce or two of blood-stained urine. This makes him doubly 
suspicious, so he injects into the bladder five, eight or ten ounces 
of warm boracic lotion, and, leaving it there for a few minutes, he 
measures the amount which he is able afterwards to withdraw; if 
he finds that a certain amount is lost he is assured that a leakage 
has taken place and he at once proceeds to operate. If only the 
diagnosis is made promptly, and the operation is at once undertaken, 
the outlook is not unfavourable. A generation or so back nearly all 
the cases of rupture of bladder ended fatally. 

Villous disease of the bladder is innocent; that is to say, it does 
not spread to the neighbouring structures or implicate the lymphatic 
glands. The villi are slender, branched, filamentous processes which, 
springing from the floor of the bladder, float in the urine like seaweed. 
They are freely supplied with blood-vessels, so that when a piece, 
of a villus is broken off there is likely to be blood in the urine. Indeed, 
painless haemorrhage is one of the characteristic features of the 
disease, and when fragments of the " seaweed " are found in the 
urine the diagnosis is clear. If the bladder is opened from the front, 
as already described, the villi may be nipped off by special forceps 
and the disease permanently cured. 

3 o 


Malignant disease of the bladder is almost always the warty form 
of cancer known as epithelioma. It springs as a sessile growth 
from the mucous membrane of the floor near the opening of one of 
the ureters, and, worrying the sensory nerves, causes irritability of 
the bladder and incontinence of urine. In due course septic germs 
reach the bladder, either from the urethra, the bowel, the kidneys 
or the blood-stream, and cystitis sets in. When ulceration has taken 
place, blood occurs in the urine, and the patient — generally beyond 
middle age — suffers dull or lancinating pains. Eventually the 
rectum may also be involved and the distress becomes extreme. 
The presence of the growth may be determined by sounding the 
bladder, by the cystoscope, and by the finger in the rectum. If 
the growth invades the outlet, retention of urine may occur, and the 
surgeon may be compelled to open the bladder from the front of the 
abdomen. In cases where operation is out of the question, washing 
the bladder with hot boracic lotion may give great relief. The 
treatment of cancer of the bladder by operation is, as a rule, un- 
satisfactory, because of the close proximity of the growth to the 
ureters and to the rectum. If, however, the disease were recognized 
early and had not invaded the neighbouring structures, and if it 
were upon the upper or the anterior part of the bladder, its removal 
might be hopefully undertaken. 

Hypertrophy and Dilatation. — When there is long-continued 
obstruction to the flow of urine, as in stricture of the urethra, or 
enlargement of the prostate, the bladder-wall becomes much 
thickened, the muscular fibres increasing both in size and number; 
the condition is known as " hypertrophy." Hypertrophy may be 
accompanied by dilatation of the bladder, a condition which the 
bladder may assume when the voiding of its contents is interfered 
with for a length of time. 

Paralysis of the bladder is a want of contractile power in the 
muscular fibres of the bladder-wall. It may result from injuries 
whereby the spinal cord is lacerated or pressed upon, so that the 
micturition centre, which is situated in the lumbar region, is thrown 
out of working order. The result may be either retention or in- 
continence of urine ; sometimes there is at first retention, which 
later is followed by incontinence. Paralysis is also met with in 
certain nervous diseases, as in locomotor ataxia, and in various 
cerebral lesions, as in apoplexy. 

Atony of the bladder is a paresis or partial paralysis. It is due 
to a want of tone in the muscular fibres, and is frequently the result 
of over-distension of the bladder, such as may occur in cases of 
enlargement of the prostate. The patient is unable to empty the 
bladder, and the condition of atony gets increasingly worse. 

In both paralysis and atony the indication is carefully to 
prevent over-distension by the urine being retained too long, and 
at the same time to treat by appropriate means the cause which 
has produced or is keeping up the condition. 

Incontinence of urine may occur in the adult or in the child, but 
is due to widely different causes in the two cases. In the child it 
may be simply a bad habit, the child not having been properly 
trained; but more frequently there is a want of control in the 
micturition-centre, so that the child passes its water unwittingly, 
especially during the night. In adults it is not so much a condition 
of incontinence in the sense of water being passed against the will, 
but is a suggestion that the bladder is already full, the water which 
passes being the overflow from a too full reservoir. It is usually 
caused by an obstruction external to the bladder, e.g. enlarged pro- 
state or stricture of the urethra; a calculus may produce the con- 
dition. In the child an attempt mustbe made to improve the tone 
of the micturition-centre by the use of belladonna or strychnine 
internally, and of a blister or faradism externally over the lumbar 
region, and every effort should be made to train the child to pass 
water at stated times and regular intervals. In the adult the cause 
which produces the over-distension must be removed if possible; 
but, as a rule, the patient has to be provided with a catheter, which 
he can pass before the bladder has filled to overflowing. A soft 
flexible catheter should be given in preference to a rigid or semi- 
rigid one. The best form is the red-rubber catheter, and he should 
be taught the need of keeping it absolutely clean. In the case of 
children incontinence of urine means irritability; in adults it means 

The condition termed by Sir James Paget stammering micturition 
is analogous to speech stammering, and occurs in those who are 
nervous and easily put out. It would seem to be due to the sphincter 
of the bladder not relaxing synchronously with the contraction of the 
detrusor, and is sometimes caused by external irritation, such as 
preputial adhesions. Occasionally not a drop of urine can be passed, 
or a little passes and then a sudden stoppage occurs; the more the 
patient strains the worse he becomes, until at last there is complete 
retention of urine. The trouble can sometimes be cured by the 
removal of irritating causes, and in these cases, as well as in those in 
which no such cause can be discovered, care should be taken to avoid 
those difficulties which have given rise to the patient's worst failures. 
If at any time he should fail to perform the act of micturition, he 
ought not to strain, but should quietly wait for a little before making 
any further effort. Regularity in the times of making water is also 
of much importance. 

Retention of urine may occur in paralysis of the bladder, or in 
conditions where the patient is suffering from an illness which blunts 

the nervous sensibility, such as apoplexy, concussion of the brain, 
or typhoid fever. It is, however, more commonly due to obstruc- 
tion anterior to the bladder, as in stricture of the urethra or enlarge- 
ment of the prostate. The distended bladder can be felt as a rounded 
swelling above the pubes, and perhaps reaching to the level of the 
navel. Percussion over it gives a dull note. When the bladder is 
distended, it is necessary to evacuate it as soon as possible. If 
there is no obstruction to the flow of urine, the retention being due 
to atony or paralysis, a soft catheter is passed and the water drawn 
off. But when there is an obstruction which cannot be overcome, 
aspiration has to be resorted to, the needle of the aspirator being 
pushed through the abdominal wall into the bladder. The point of 
puncture in the abdominal wall is in the middle line a few inches 
above the symphysis pubis. The bladder may be emptied in this 
way very many times in the same person with only good result. 

Diseases of Prostate Gland. 

The prostate gland may become acutely inflamed as the result 
of the backward extension of gonorrhoeal inflammation of the 
urethra; it may also be attacked by the germs of ordinary 
suppuration as well as by the bacilli of tuberculosis. A sudden 
enlargement of a large gland lying against the outlets of the 
bladder and the bowel renders micturition difficult, painful or 
impossible, and interferes with defaecation. Pressure of the 
seat of the chair upon the perineum also causes distress, so the 
man sits sideways and on the edge of the seat. If abscess forms, 
it should be incised from the perineum; if allowed to run its 
course it may burst into the bladder, the urethra or the rectum, 
and set up serious complication. The treatment of prostatitis 
(inflammation of the prostate) consists in rest in bed, sitz-baths 
and fomentations. If retention of urine takes place a soft 
catheter must be passed. In the early stage of an acute attack a 
dozen leeches upon the perineum may do good. The bowels 
must be kept freely open, and from time to time, as the pain 
demands, a morphia suppository may be introduced into the 

Chronic prostatitis is a legacy from a recent or long-past attack of 
gonorrhoea. The enlargement gives rise to a feeling of weight and 
fulness in the perineum, irritability of the bladder, and a gleety 
urethral discharge. Manual examination reveals the presence of a 
large, hard mass in front of the bladder, and in the mass there can 
often be felt softish or tender areas which seem to threaten abscess. 
On urine being passed into a glass, a cloudiness is seen, and material 
like pieces of vermicelli or broken threads may be noticed. These 
are the castings from the long tubular glands, and are characteristic 
of chronic inflammation of the prostate. The occasional passage of 
a large metal bougie, the use of weak lotions of nitrate of silver, the 
administration of quinine and iron, and the application of blisters 
to the perineum, may be tried as circumstances direct. The patient 
should lead a quiet life, free from sexual excitement. Horse-exercise, 
cycle-riding, rough games and alcohol should be avoided. 

Enlargement of the prostate exists in a considerable proportion 
of men of about sixty years of age and onward. It consists of an 
uncontrolled growth of the normal muscular and glandular 
tissue of the prostate, interfering with, or absolutely stopping, 
the outflow of the urine. Gently pushing the bladder upwards 
and backwards, it increases the length of the urethra, so that 
in order to draw off retained urine the catheter must be longer 
than ordinary, but inasmuch as there is no actual narrowing of 
the passage it may be of full calibre. The beak should be well 
turned up so that it may ride in front of, and surmount, the 
median enlargement. Because of the thick, ring-like mass of 
new tissue around the outlet of the bladder, there is difficulty in 
micturition, and because the muscular bladder wall is now 
unable to contract upon all its contents a certain amount of 
urine is retained. As the enlarged prostate bulges up in the 
floor of the bladder, a pouch or hollow forms behind it, from 
which the muscular wall is unable to dislodge the stagnant urine. 
This keeps up constant irritation, and if by chance the germs of 
decomposition find their way thither, cystitis sets in and the 
patient's condition becomes serious, not only because of the risk 
to which his tired and irritated kidneys are submitted, but 
because of the possibility of a phosphatic stone being formed in 
the bladder. The seriousness of enlargement of the prostate 
does not depend upon the size of the growth so much as upon the 
inability of the patient to empty his bladder completely. 

The surgeon forms his estimate of the size of the prostate by rectal 
examination. But sometimes a patient has retention of urine from 



enlarged prostate, when by this method of manual examination the 
amount of increase appears quite unimportant. The explanation is 
that the enlargement is chiefly confined to a small piece of the gland 
which protrudes like a tongue into the water-way. Robert M°Gill of 
Leeds was the first surgeon to remove by a supra-pubic operation 
this tongue-like process of new prostatic growth. Attempts had 
sometimes been made to get rid of it by instrumentation through the 
urethra, but they had not met with much success. 

When the surgeon has made out the existence of an enlargement 
of the prostate, the next thing is to find to what extent this interferes 
with the bladder being emptied. To do this, he asks the patient to 
pass. as much water as he is able, and then with due precautions 
introduces a soft catheter and measures the amount of urine which he 
thus draws off — half an ounce, an ounce, two ounces, however much 
it may be. It is this " residual urine " which causes the annoyance 
and the danger of enlarged prostate, and unless arrangements can 
be made for its regular withdrawal serious trouble is almost certain 
to ensue. The passing of a large catheter may have the effect of so 
opening up the water-way that, at any rate for a time, the irritability 
of the bladder may cease, in which case the patient may be instructed 
in the art of passing a catheter for himself. Or the surgeon may find 
that in addition to the regular passing of a large catheteran occasional 
washing-out of the bladder with hot boracic lotion is all that is 
needed in the way of active treatment. At the same time, howeverj 
the patient is placed upon a plain and wholesome diet with little or 
no alcohol, and he is instructed to lead in every respect a regular 
and quiet life. To many men with enlarged prostate the passing of 
an instrument night and morning is no great hardship, while to 
others the idea of leading what is called a " catheter life " appears 
intolerable, or, having for a time been patiently carried out, is found 
not only severely trying but greatly disappointing. 

In some people the very first passing of a catheter sets up a local 
and constitutional disturbance, the bladder being rendered irritable 
and intolerant, the temperature going up, and shiverings and 
perspirations manifesting themselves. This condition was formerly 
called " catheter fever," and was looked upon as something mys- 
terious and peculiar. It is now generally understood to be the 
result of septic inoculation of the interior of the bladder. 

Lastly, in other persons the passing of the catheter is attended 
with so much difficulty, distress or bleeding, that something more 
helpful and effectual is urgently called for. 

Operative Treatment.— It has long been known that large 
tumours of the uterus sometimes dwindle if the ovaries are 
removed by operation, and Professor William White of Phila- 
delphia thought that prostatic growths might be similarly 
influenced by the removal of the testicles. Beyond question 
considerable improvement has followed this operation in cases 
of enlargement of the prostate, especially where the enlargement 
seetaed to be general, soft and vascular. A similar though 
perhaps a slower effect is produced when the duct of the testis, 
the vas deferens, is divided on each side of the body. If there 
is no great urgency about the case this treatment may well be 
tried, the bladder being all the while duly emptied by catheter 
and washed by irrigation. But if the case is urgent, there being 
difficulty or bleeding with the passing of the catheter, the 
bladder being excessively irritable and the urine foul, a more 
radical measure is needed. The best operation is that upon the 
lines laid down by Robert M°Gill, who opened the bladder 
through the anterior abdominal wall and removed that part of 
the prostate gland which was blocking the water-way. M e GiU's 
operation was improved upon by Eugene Fuller of New York, 
who, in 1895, published a full account of his procedure. 1 Having 
opened the bladder from the front (as in supra-pubic lithotomy), 
he introduced his left index finger into the rectum and thrust the 
prostate gland towards the right index finger, which was then in 
the bladder. With the nail of that finger, or with the end of a 
pair of scissors, he made a rent in the mucous membrane of the 
bladder and the capsule of the gland, and then shelled out the 
mass of new tissue which had caused the prostatic enlargement. 
This operation is called " prostatectomy," which means the 
removal of the prostate gland. The prostate gland, however, is 
not removed, but only a muscular and glandular mass (adenoma), 
which, growing within the prostatic capsule, encircles the 
urethra and squeezes the original gland tissue out of existence. 
Following on the lines of M c Gill and Fuller, P. J. Freyer has done 
excellent work in England towards placing this operation upon 
a sound basis. 

Subsequently to the operation the bladder enjoys complete 

1 Diseases of the Genito-urinary System, by Eugene Fuller, M.D. 
(London and New York, 1900). 

and needful rest, and the kidneys, which previously were in a 
condition of perpetual disturbance, improve in working power. 
The wound in the bladder and in the abdominal wall gradually 
closes; the function of the bladder returns, and the patient is 
soon able to go back to his usual occupation in greatly improved 
health and vigour. The operation is, necessarily, a serious one, 
and the age of the patient, the condition of his bladder, of his 
kidneys, and of his blood-vessels, require to- be taken into con- 
sideration; still, the operation gives an excellent account of 
itself in statistics, and if a practical surgeon advises a patient to 
accept its risks his counsel may well be followed. 

Malignant disease of the prostate is distinguished from senile 
glandular enlargement by the rapidity of its growth, by the freeneSs 
of the bleeding which is associated with the introduction of a catheter, 
and by the marked wasting which the individual undergoes. Un- 
fortunately, by the time that the cancerous nature of the disease is 
definitely recognized, the prospect of relief being afforded by opera- 
tion is small. (E. O.*) 

BLADDER-WORT, the name given to a submerged water 
plant, Utricidariq vulgaris, with finely divided leaves upon which 
are borne small bladders provided with trap-door entrances 
which open only inwards. Small crustaceans and other aquatic 
animals push their way into the bladders and are unable to 
escape. The products of the decay of the organisms thus 

A, Bladder of .Utricularia neglecta (after Darwin), enlarged. 
B, stellate hairs from interior of bladder of U. vulgaris. 

captured are absorbed into the plant by star-shaped hairs which 
line the interior of the bladder. In this way the plant is supplied 
with nitrogenous food from the animal kingdom. Bladder-wort 
bears small, yellow, two-lipped flowers on a stem which rises above 
the surface of the water. It is found in pools and ditches in the 
British Isles, and is widely distributed in the north temperate 
zone. The genus contains about two hundred species in tropical 
and temperate regions. 

BLADES, WILLIAM (1824-1890), English printer and biblio- 
grapher, was born at Clapham, London, on the 5th of December 
1824. In 1840 he was apprenticed to his' father's printing 
business in London, being subsequently taken into partnership. 
The firm was afterwards known as Blades, East & Blades. 
His interest in printing led him to make a study of the volumes 
produced by Caxton's press, and of the early history of printing 
in England. His Life and Typography of William Caxton, 
England's First Printer, was published in 1861-1863, and the 
conclusions which he set forth were arrived at by a careful 
examination of types in the early books, each class of type being 
traced from its first use to the time when, spoilt by wear, it 
passed out of Caxton's hands. Some 450 volumes from the 
Caxton Press were thus carefully compared and classified in 
chronological order. In 1877 Blades took an active part in 
organizing the Caxton celebration, and strongly supported the 
foundation of the Library Association. He was a keen collector 
of old books, prints and medals. His publications relate chiefly 
to the early history of printing, the Enemies of Books, his most 
popular work, being produced in 1881. He died at Sutton in 
Surrey on the 27th of April 1890. 

BLAENAVON, or Blaenafon, an urban district in the northern 
parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, 15 m. N. by 
W. of Newport, on the Great Western, London & North Western 
and Rhymney railways. Pop. (igoi) 10,869. It lies in the upper- 
most part of the Afon Lwyd valley, at an elevation exceeding 
1000 ft, in a wild and mountainous district, on the eastern 



edge of the great coal and iron mining region of Glamorganshire 
and Monmouthshire. There are very extensive iron and steel 
works, with blast furnaces and rolling mills in the district, which 
employ the large industrial population. 

BLAGOVYESHCHENSK, a town of East Siberia, chief town of 
the Amur government, on the left bank of the Amur, near its 
confluence with the Zeya in 50 15' N. lat. and 127 38' E. long., 
610 m. by river above Khabarovsk. Founded in 1856, the town 
had, in 1900, 37,368 inhabitants, and is the seat of the bishop of 
Amur and Kamchatka. There are steam flour-mills and iron- 
works. It is a centre for tea exported to Russia, cattle brought 
from Transbaikalia and Mongolia for the Amur, and for grain. 

BLAIKIE, WILLIAM GARDEN (1820-1899), Scottish divine, 
was born on the 5th of February 1820, at Aberdeen, where his 
father had been the first provost of the reformed corporation. 
After studying at the Marischal College, where Alexander Bain 
and David Masson were among his contemporaries, he went in 
1839 to Edinburgh to complete his theological course under 
Thomas Chalmers. In 1842 he was presented to the living of 
Drumblade by Lord Kintore, with whose family he was con- 
nected. The Disruption controversy reached its climax immedi- 
ately afterwards, and Blaikie, whose sympathies were entirely 
with Chalmers, was one of the 474 ministers who signed the deed 
of demission and gave up their livings. He was Free Church 
minister at Pilrig, between Edinburgh and Leith, from 1844 to 
1868. Keenly interested in questions of social reform, his first 
publication was a pamphlet, which was afterwards enlarged into 
a book called Belter Days for Working People. It received public 
commendation from Lord Brougham, and 60,000 copies were 
sold. He formed an association for providing better homes for 
working people, and the Pilrig Model Buildings were erected. 
He also undertook the editorship of the Free Church Magazine, 
and then that of the North British Review, which he carried on 
until 1863. In 1864 he was asked to undertake the Scottish 
editorship of the Sunday Magazine, and for this magazine much 
of his most characteristic literary work was done, especially in 
the editorial notes, then a new feature in magazine literature. 

In 1868 Blaikie was called to the chair of apologetics and 
pastoral theology at New College, Edinburgh. In dealing with 
the latter subject he was seen at his very best. He had 
wide experience, a comprehensive grasp of facts, abundant 
sympathy, an extensive knowledge of men, and a great capacity 
for teaching. In 1870 he was one of two representatives chosen 
from the Free Church of Scotland to attend the united general 
assembly of the Presbyterian churches of the United States. 
He prolonged his visit to make a thorough acquaintance with 
American Presbyterianism, and this, followed by a similar tour 
in Europe, fitted him to become the real founder of the Presby- 
terian Alliance. Much of his strength in the later years of life 
was given to this work. In 1892 he was elected to the chairman- 
ship of the general assembly, the last of the moderators who had 
entered the church before the disruption. In 1897 he resigned 
his professorship, and died on the 1 ith of June 1899. 

Blaikie was an ardent philanthropist, and an active and 
intelligent temperance reformer, in days when this was far from 
easy. He raised £14,000 for the relief of the Waldensian churches. 
Although he took an active part in the affairs of his denomination, 
he was not a mere ecclesiastic. He had a keen eye for the 
evidences of spiritual growth or decline, and emphasized the need 
of maintaining a high level of spiritual life. He welcomed 
Moody to Scotland, and the evangelist made his headquarters 
with him during his first visit. His best books are The Work 
of the Ministry — A Manual of Homiletic and Pastoral Theology 
(1873); The Books of Samuel in the Expositors' Bible Series 
(2 vols.); The Personal Life of David Livingstone (1880); After 
Fifty Years (1893), an account of the Disruption Movement 
in the form of letters of a grandfather; Thomas Chalmers 
(1896). ' (D. Mn.) 

BLAINE, JAMES GILLESPIE (1830-1893), American states- 
man, was born in West Brownsville, Pennsylvania, on the 31st of 
January 1830, of sturdy Scottish-Irish stock on the side of his 
father. He was the great-grandson of Colonel Ephraim Blaine 

(1 741-1804), who during the War of Independence served in 
the American army, from 1778 to 1782 as commissary-general 
of the Northern Department. With many early evidences of 
literary capacity and political aptitude, J. G. Blaine graduated 
at Washington College in Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1847, 
and subsequently taught successively in the Military Institute, 
Georgetown, Kentucky, and in the Institution for the Blind at 
Philadelphia. During this period, also, he studied law. Settling 
in Augusta, Maine, in 1854, he became editor of the Kennebec 
Journal, and subsequently of the Portland Advertiser. But his 
editorial work was soon abandoned for a more active public 
career. He was elected to the lower house of the state legislature 
in 1858, and served four years, the last two as speaker. He also 
became chairman of the Republican state committee in 1859, and 
for more than twenty years personally directed every campaign of 
his party. 

In 1862 he was elected to Congress, serving in the House 
thirteen years (December 1863 to December 1876), followed by a 
little over four years in the Senate. He was chosen speaker of the 
House in 1869 and served three terms. The House was the fit 
arena for his political and parliamentary ability. He was a ready 
and powerful debater, full of resource, and dexterous in con- 
troversy. The tempestuous politics of the war and reconstruction 
period suited his aggressive nature and constructive talent. The 
measures for the rehabilitation of the states that had seceded 
from the Union occupied the chief attention of Congress for 
several years, and Blaine bore a leading part in framing and 
discussing them. The primary question related to the basis of 
representation upon which they should be restored to their full 
rank in the political system. A powerful section contended that 
the basis should be the body of legal voters, on the ground that 
the South could not then secure an increment of political power: 
on account of the emancipated blacks unless these blacks were 
admitted to political rights. Blaine, on the other hand, con- 
tended that representation should be based on population instead 
of voters, as being fairer to the North, where the ratio of voters 
varied widely, and he insisted that it should be safeguarded by 
security for impartial suffrage. This view prevailed, and the 
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was substantially 
Blaine's proposition. In the same spirit he opposed a scheme of 
military governments for the southern states, unless associated 
with a plan by which, upon the acceptance of prescribed con- 
ditions, they could release themselves from military rule and 
resume civil government. He was the first in Congress to oppose 
the claim, which gained momentary and widespread favour in 
1867, that the public debt, pledged in coin, should be paid in 
greenbacks. The protection of naturalized citizens who, on 
return to their native land, were subject to prosecution on 
charges of disloyalty, enlisted his active interest and support, and 
the agitation, in which he was conspicuous, led to the treaty of 
1870 between the United States and Great Britain, which placed 
adopted and native citizens on the same footing. 

As the presidential election of 1876 approached, Blaine was 
clearly the popular favourite of his party. His chance for 
securing the nomination, however, was materially lessened by 
persistent charges which were brought against him by the 
Democrats that as a member of Congress he had been guilty of 
corruption in his relations with the Little Rock & Fort Smith and 
the Northern Pacific railways. 1 By the majority of Republicans, 
at least, he was considered to have cleared himself completely, 
and in the Republican national convention he missed by only 
twenty-eight votes the nomination for president, being finally 
beaten by a combination of the supporters of all the other 
candidates. Thereupon he entered the Senate, where his activity 
was unabated. Currency legislation was especially prominent. 
Blaine, who had previously opposed greenback inflation now 
resisted depreciated silver coinage. He was the earnest champion 
of the advancement of American shipping, and advocated 
liberal subsidies, insisting that the policy of protection should be 
applied on sea as well as on land. The Republican national 

1 This attack led to a dramatic scene in the House, in which Blaine 
fervidly asseverated his denial. 



convention of 1880, divided between the two nearly equal forces 
of Blaine and General U. S. Grant — John Sherman of Ohio also 
having a considerable following— struggled through thirty-six 
ballots, when the friends of Blaine, combining with those of 
Sherman, succeeded in nominating General James A. Garfield. 
In the new administration Blaine became secretary of state, but, 
owing to the assassination of President Garfield and the re- 
organization of the cabinet by President Chester A. Arthur, he 
held the office only until December 1881. His brief service was 
distinguished by several notable steps. In order to promote the 
friendly understanding and co-operation of the nations on the 
American continents he projected a Pan-American congress, 
which, after being arranged for, was frustrated by his retirement. 
He also sought to secure a modification of the Clayton-Bulwer 
treaty, and in an extended correspondence with the British 
government strongly asserted the policy of an exclusive American 
control of any isthmian canal which might be built to connect the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 

With undiminished hold on the imagination and devotion of 
his followers he was nominated for president in 1884. After a 
heated canvass, in which he made a series of brilliant speeches, 
he was beaten by a narrow margin in New York. By many, 
including Blaine himself, the defeat was attributed to the effect 
of a phrase, " Rum, Romanism and Rebellion," used by a 
clergyman, Rev. Samuel D. Burchard (1812-1891), on the 29th 
of October 1884, in Blaine's presence, to characterize what, in his 
opinion, the Democratic party stood for. The phrase was not 
Blaine's, but his opponents made use of it to misrepresent his 
attitude toward the Roman Catholics, large numbers of whom 
are supposed, in consequence, to have withdrawn their support. 
Refusing to be a presidential candidate in 1888, he became 
secretary of state under President Harrison, and resumed his 
work which had been interrupted nearly eight years before. The 
Pan-American congress, then projected, now met in Washington, 
and Blaine, as its master spirit, presided over and guided its 
deliberation through its session of five months. Its most im- 
portant conclusions were for reciprocity in trade, a continental 
railway and compulsory arbitration in international complications. 
Shaping the tariff legislation for this policy, Blaine negotiated a 
large number of reciprocity treaties which augmented the com- 
merce of his country. He upheld American rights in Samoa, 
pursued a vigorous diplomacy with Italy over the lynching of 
eleven Italians, all except three of them American naturalized 
citizens, in New Orleans on the 14th of May 1891, held a firm 
attitude during the strained relations between the United States 
and Chile (growing largely out of the killing and wounding of 
American sailors of the U.S. ship " Baltimore " by Chileans in 
Valparaiso on the 16th of October 1891), and carried on with 
Great Britain a resolute controversy over the seal fisheries of 
Bering Sea, — a difference afterwards settled by arbitration. He 
resigned on the 4th of June 1892, on the eve of the meeting of the 
Republican national convention, wherein his name was ineffectu- 
ally used, and he died at Washington, D.C., on the 27th of 
January 1893. 

During his later years of leisure he wrote Twenty Years of 
Congress (1884-1886), a brilliant historical work in two volumes. 
Of singularly alert faculties, with a remarkable knowledge of the 
men and history of his country, and an extraordinary memory, 
his masterful talent for politics and state-craft, together with 
his captivating manner and engaging personality, gave him, for 
nearly two decades, an unrivalled hold upon the fealty and 
affection of his party. 

See the Biography of James G. Blaine (Norwich, Conn., 1895) by 
Mary Abigail Dodge ("Gail Hamilton"), and, in the "American 
Statesmen Series," James G. Blaine (Boston, 1905) by C. E. Stan- 
wood; also Mrs Blaine's Letters (1908). (C. E. S.) 

French naturalist, was born at Arques, near Dieppe, on the 
12th of September 1777. About 1796 he went to Paris to study 
painting, but he ultimately devoted himself to natural history, 
and attracted the attention of Baron Cuvier, for whom he 
occasionally lectured at the College de France and at the 
iv. 2 

Athenaeum. In 181 2 he was aided by Cuvier to obtain the chaii 
of anatomy and zoology in the Faculty of Sciences at Paris, but 
subsequently an estrangement grew up between the two men 
and ended in open enmity. In 1825 Blainville was admitted 
a member of the Academy of Sciences; and in 1830 he was 
appointed to succeed J. B. Lamarck in the chair of natural 
history at the museum. Two years later, on the death of Cuvier, 
he obtained the chair of comparative anatomy, which he con- 
tinued to occupy for the space of eighteen years, proving him- 
self no unworthy successor to his great teacher. He died at 
Paris on the 1st of May 1850. Besides many separate memoirs, 
he was the author of Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution mitho- 
dique du regne animal (181 6); Osteographie ou description 
iconographique comparSe du squelelte, &c. (1839-1864); Faune 
francaise (1821-1830); Cours de physiologie ginirale et comparee 
(1833); Manuel de malacologie et de conchyliologie (1825-1827); 
Histoire des sciences de Forganisme (1845). 

BLAIR, FRANCIS PRESTON (1791-1876), American journa- 
list and politician, was born at Abingdon, Virginia, on the 12th 
of April 1 791. He removed to Kentucky, graduated at Transyl- 
vania University in 181 1, took to journalism, and was a 
contributor to Amos Kendall's paper, the Argus, at Frank- 
fort, In 1830, having become an ardent follower of Andrew 
Jackson, he was made editor of the Washington Globe, the 
recognized organ of the Jackson party. In this capacity, and 
as a member of Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet," he long exerted 
a powerful influence; the Globe was the administration organ 
until 1841, and the chief Democratic organ until 1845; Blair 
ceased to be its editor in 1849. In 1848 he actively supported 
Martin Van Buren, the Free Soil candidate, for the presidency, 
and in 1852 he supported Franklin Pierce, but soon afterwards 
helped to organize the new Republican party, and presided 
at its preliminary convention at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 
February 1856. He was influential in securing the nomination 
of John C. Fremont at the June convention (1856), and of 
Abraham Lincoln in i860. After Lincoln's re-election in 1864 
Blair thought that his former close personal relations with the 
Confederate leaders might aid in bringing about a cessation of 
hostilities, and with Lincoln's consent went unofficially to 
Richmond and induced President Jefferson Davis to appoint com- 
missioners to confer with representatives of the United States. 
This resulted in the futile " Hampton Roads Conference " of the 
3rd of February 1865 (see Lincoln, Abraham). After the Civil 
War Blair became a supporter of President Johnson's recon- 
struction policy, and eventually rejoined the Democratic party. 
He died at Silver Spring, Maryland, on the 18th of October 1876. 

His son, Montgomery Blair (1813-1883), politician and 
lawyer, was born in Franklin county, Kentucky, on the 10th of 
May 1813. He graduated at West Point in 1835, but, after a 
year's service in the Seminole War, left the army, studied law, 
and began practice at St Louis, Missouri. After serving as 
United States district attorney (1839-1843), as mayor of St 
Louis (1842-1843), and as judge of the court of common pleas 
(1843-1849), he removed to Maryland (1852), and devoted 
himself to law practice principally in the Federal supreme coui t. 
He was United States solicitor in the court of claims from 1855 
until 1858, and was associated with George T. Curtis as counsel 
for the plaintiff in the Dred Scott case in 1857. In i860 he took 
an active part in the presidential campaign in behalf of Lincoln, 
in whose cabinet he was postmaster-general from 1861 until 
September 1864, when he resigned as a result of the hostility 
of the Radical Republican faction, who stipulated that Blair's 
retirement should follow the withdrawal of Fremont's name as 
a candidate for the presidential nomination in that year. Under 
his administration such reforms and improvements as the 
establishment of free city delivery, the adoption of a money 
order system, and the use of railway mail cars were instituted 
— the last having been suggested by George B. Armstrong 
(d. 1871), of Chicago, who from 1869 until his death was general 
superintendent of the United States railway mail service. 
Differing from the Republican party on the reconstruction policy, 
Blair gave his adherence to the Democratic party after the Civil 



War. He died at Silver Spring, Maryland, on the 27 th of July 

1883. ; 

Another son, Francis Preston Blair, jun. (1821-1875'), 
soldier and political leader, was born at Lexington, Kentucky, 
on the 19th of February 1821. After graduating at Princeton 
in 1841 he practised law in St Louis, and later served in the 
Mexican War. He was ardently opposed to the extension of 
slavery and supported Martin Van Buren, the Free Soil can- 
didate for the presidency in 1848. He served from 1852 to 1856 
in the Missouri legislature as a Free Soil Democrat, in 1856 
joined the Republican party, and in 1857-1860 and 1861-1862 
was a member of Congress, where he proved an able debater. 
Immediately after South Carolina's secession, Blair, believing 
that the southern leaders were planning to carry Missouri into 
the movement, began active efforts to prevent it and personally 
[organized and equipped a secret body of 1000 men to be ready 
for the emergency. When hostilities became inevitable, acting 
in conjunction with Captain (later General) Nathaniel Lyon, 
he suddenly transferred the arms in the Federal arsenal at 
St Louis to Alton, Illinois, and a few days later (May 10, 1861) 
surrounded and captured a force of state guards which ha!d 
been stationed at Camp Jackson in the suburbs of St Louis with 
the intention of seizing the arsenal. This action gave the Federal 
cause a decisive initial advantage in Missouri. Blair was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers in August 1862 and a 
major-general in November 1862. In Congress as chairman of 
the important military affairs committee his services were of 
ihe greatest value. He commanded a division in the Vicksburg 
campaign and in the fighting about Chattanooga, and was one of 
Sherman's corps commanders in the final campaigns in Georgia 
and the Carolinas. In 1866 like his father and brother he 
opposed the Congressional reconstruction policy, and on that 
issue left the Republican party. In 1868 he was the Demo- 
cratic candidate for -vice-president on the ticket with Horatio 
Seymour. In 1871-1873 he was a United States senator from 
Missouri. He died in St Louis, on the 8th of July 1875. 

BLAIR, HUGH (1718-1800), Scottish Presbyterian divine, 
was born on the 7th of April 1718, at Edinburgh, where his 
father was a merchant. Entering the university in 1730 he 
graduated M.A. in 1739; his thesis, De Fundamentis et Obliga- 
tione Legis Naturae, contains an outline of the moral principles 
afterwards unfolded in his sermons. He was licensed to preach 
in 1 741, and a few months later the earl of Leven, hearing of his 
eloquence, presented him to the parish of Collessie in Fife. In 
1743 he was elected to the second charge of the Canongate church, 
Edinburgh, where he ministered until removed to Lady Yester's, 
one of the city churches, in 1754. In 1757 the university of 
St Andrews conferred on him the degree of D.D., and in the 
following year he was promoted to the High Church, Edinburgh, 
the most important charge in Scotland. In 1759 he began, 
under the patronage of Lord Kames, to deliver a course of 
lectures on composition, the success of which led to the foundation 
of a chair of rhetoric and belles lettres in the Edinburgh University. 
To this chair he was appointed in 1762, with a salary of £70 a 
year. Having long taken interest in the Celtic poetry of the 
Highlands, he published in 1763 a laudatory Dissertation on 
Macpherson's Ossian, the authenticity of which he maintained. 
In 1777 the first volume of his Sermons appeared. It was 
succeeded by four other volumes, all of which met with the 
greatest success. Samuel Johnson praised them warmly, and 
they were translated into almost every language of Europe. 
In 1780 George III. conferred upon Blair a pension of £200 a 
year. In 1783 he retired from his professorship and published 
his Lectures on Rhetoric, which have been frequently reprinted. 
He died on the 27 th of December 1800. Blair belonged to the 
" moderate " or latitudinarian party, and his Sermons have 
been criticized as wanting in doctrinal definiteness. His works 
display little originality, but are written in a flowing and 
elaborate style. He is remembered chiefly by the place he fills 
in the literature of his time. Blair's Sermons is a typical religious 
book of the period that preceded the Anglican revival. 

See J. Hall, Account of Life and Writings of Hugh Blair (1807). 

BLAIR, JAMES (1656-1743), American divine and educa- 
tionalist, was born in Scotland, probably at Edinburgh, in 1656. 
He graduated M.A. at Edinburgh University in 1673, was 
beneficed in the Episcopal Church in Scotland, and for a time 
was rector of Cranston Parish in the diocese of Edinburgh. In 
1682 he left Scotland for England, and three years later was sent 
by the bishop of London, Henry Compton, as a missionary to 
Virginia. He soon gained great influence over the colonists both 
in ecclesiastical and in civil affairs, and, according to Prof. Moses 
Coit Tyler, " probably no other man in the colonial time did so 
much for the intellectual life of Virginia." He was the minister 
of Henrico parish from 1685 until 1694, of the Jamestown church 
from 1694 until 1710, and of Bruton church at Williamsburg 
from 1710 until his death. From 1689 until his death he was the 
commissary of the bishop of London for Virginia, the highest 
ecclesiastical position in the colony, his duties consisting ■" in 
visiting the parishes, correcting the lives of the clergy, and 
keeping them orderly." In 1693, by the appointment of King 
William III., he became a member of the council of Virginia, 
of which he was for many years the president. Largely because 
of charges brought against them by Blair, Governor Sir Edmund 
Andros, Lieutenant-governor Francis Nicholson, and Lieutenant- 
governor Alexander Spotswood were removed in 1698, 1705 and 
1722 respectively. Blair's greatest service to the colony was 
rendered as the founder, and the president from 1693 until his 
death, of the College of William and Mary, for which he himself 
secured a charter in England. " Thus, James Blair may be 
called," says Tyler, " the creator of the healthiest and most 
extensive intellectual influence that was felt in the Southern 
group of colonies before the Revolution." He died on the 18th 
of April 1743, and was buried at Jamestown, Va. He published 
a collection of 117 discourses under the title Our Saviour's 
Divine Sermon on the Mount (4 vols., 1722; second edition, 1732), 
and, in collaboration with Henry Hartwell and Edward Chilton, 
a work entitled The Present State of Virginia and the College 
(1727; written in 1693), probably the best account of the 
Virginia of that time. 

See Daniel E. Motley's Life of Commissary James Blair (Baltimore, 
1901 ; series xix. No. 10, of the Johns Hopkins University Studies 
in Historical and Political Science), and, for a short sketch and an 
estimate, M. C. Tyler's A History of American Literature, 1607-1765 
(New York, 1878). 

BLAIR, ROBERT (1 699-1 746), Scottish poet, eldest son of 
the Rev. Robert Blair, one of the king's chaplains, was born at 
Edinburgh in 1699. He was educated at Edinburgh University 
and in Holland, and in 1731 was appointed to the living of 
Athelstaneford in East Lothian. He married in 1738 Isabella, 
daughter of Professor William Law. The possession of a small 
fortune gave him leisure for his favourite pursuits, gardening 
and the study of English poets. He died at Athelstaneford on 
the 4th of February 1746. His only considerable work, The 
Grave (1743), is a poem written in blank verse of great vigour 
and freshness, and is much less conventional than its gloomy 
subject might lead one to expect. Its religious subject no doubt 
contributed to its great popularity, especially in Scotland; but 
the vogue it attained was justified by its picturesque imagery 
and occasional felicity of expression. It inspired William Blake 
to undertake a series of twelve illustrative designs, which were 
engraved by Louis Schiavonetti, and published in 1808. 

See the biographical introduction prefixed to his Poetical Works, 
by Dr Robert Anderson, in his Poets of Great Britain, vol. viii. 

BLAIR ATHOLL (Gaelic blair, " a plain "), a village and 
parish of Perthshire, Scotland, 35! m. N.W. of Perth by the 
Highland railway. Pop. (1901) 367; of parish, 1722. It is 
situated at the confluence of the Tilt and the Garry. The oldest 
part of Blair Castle, a seat of the duke of Atholl, dates from 
1269; as restored and enlarged in 1869-1872 from the plans of 
David Bryce, R.S.A., it is a magnificent example of the Scottish 
baronial style. It was occupied by the marquess of Montrose 
prior to the battle of Tippermuir in 1644, stormed by the Crom- 
wellians in 1653, and garrisoned on behalf of James II. in 1689. 
The Young Pretender stayed in it in 174s, and the duke of 



Cumberland in 1746. The body of Viscount Dundee, conveyed 
hither from the battlefield of Killiecrankie, was buried in the 
church of Old Blair, in which a monument was erected to his 
memory in 1889 by the 7th duke of Atholl. The grounds 
surrounding the castle are among the most beautiful in the 
Highlands. A golf course has been laid down south-east of the 
village, between the railway and the Garry, and every September 
a great display of Highland games is held. Ben-y-gloe (3671 ft. 
high), the scene of the hunt given in 1529 by the earl of Atholl 
in honour of James V. and the queen dowager, may be climbed 
by way of Fender Burn, a left-hand tributary of the Tilt. The 
falls of Fender, near the old bridge' of Tilt, are eclipsed by the 
falls of Bruar, 4 m. west of Blair Atholl, formed by the Bruar, 
which, rising in Ben Dearg (3304 ft.), flows into the Garry after 
an impetuous course of 10 m. 

BLAIRGOWRIE, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, 
situated on the Ericht. Pop. (1901) 3378. It is the terminus 
of a branch line of the Caledonian railway from Coupar Angus, 
from which it is 4J m. distant, and is 16 m. N. by E. of Perth by 
road. The town is entirely modern, and owes its progress to the 
water-power supplied by the Ericht for linen and jute factories. 
There are also sawmills, breweries and a large factory for bee 
appliances. Strawberries, raspberries and other fruits are 
largely grown in the neighbourhood. A park was presented to 
the town in 1892. On the left bank of the Ericht, opposite 
Blairgowrie, with which it is connected by a four-arched bridge, 
stands the town and police burgh of Rattray (pop. 2019), where 
there are flax and jute mills. Donald Cargill the Covenanter, 
who was executed at Edinburgh, was a native of the parish. 
Four miles west of Blairgowrie, on the coach road to Dunkeld, lies 
Loch Clunie, of some interest historically. On a crannog in the 
lake are the ruins of a small castle which belonged to James 
(" the Admirable ") Crichton, and the large mound near the loch 
was the site of the castle in which Edward I. lodged on one of his 
Scottish expeditions. 

BLAKE, EDWARD (1833- ), Irish-Canadian statesman, 
eldest son of William Hume Blake of Cashel Grove, Co. Galway, 
who settled in Canada in 1832, and there became a distinguished 
lawyer and chancellor of Ontario, was born on the 13th of 
October 1833 at Adelaide in Middlesex county, Ontario. Edu- 
cated at Upper Canada College and the university of Toronto, 
Blake was called to the bar in 1856 and quickly obtained a good 
practice, becoming Q.C. in 1864. In 1867 he was elected member 
for West Durham in the Dominion parliament, and for South 
Bruce in the provincial legislature, in which he became leader 
of the Liberal opposition two years later. On the defeat of John 
Sandfield Macdonald's government in 1871 Blake became prime 
minister of Ontario, but resigned this office the same year in 
consequence of the abolition of dual representation. He declined 
the leadership of the Liberal party in the Dominion parliament, 
but, having taken an active part in bringing about the overthrow 
of Sir John Macdonald's ministry in 1873, joined the Liberal 
cabinet of Alexander Mackenzie, though without portfolio or 
salary. Impaired health soon compelled him to resign, and to 
take the voyage to Europe; on his return in 1875 he rejoined 
the cabinet as minister of justice, in which office it fell to him to 
take the chief part in framing the constitution of the supreme 
court of Canada. Continued ill-health compelled him in 1877 
again to seek rest in Europe, having first exchanged the portfolio 
of justice for the less exacting office of president of the council. 
During his absence the Liberal government was driven from 
power by the elections of 1878; and Blake himself, having 
failed to secure re-election, was for a short time without a seat 
in parliament. From 1880 to 1887 he was leader of the opposition, 
being succeeded on his resignation of the position in the latter 
year by Mr (afterwards Sir) Wilfrid Laurier. In 1892 he became 
a member of the British House of Commons as an Irish Nationalist, 
being elected for South Longford. But he did not fulfil the 
expectations which had been formed on the strength of his 
colonial reputation; he took no very prominent part in debate, 
and gave little evidence of his undoubted oratorical gifts. In 
1907 he retired from public life. In 1858 he had married 

Margaret, daughter of Benjamin Cronyn, first bishop of 

See John Charles Dent, The Last Forty Years: Canada Since the 
Union of 184.1 (2 vols., Toronto, 1881) ; J. S. Willison, Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier and the Liberal Party (2 vols., London, 1904). 

BLAKE, ROBERT (1599-1657), English parliamentarian and 
admiral, was born at Bridgwater in Somersetshire. The day of 
his birth is not known, but he was baptized oh the 27th of 
September 1599. Blake was the eldest son of a well-to-do 
merchant, and received his early education at the grammar 
school of Bridgwater. In 1615 he was sent to Oxford, entering 
at first St Alban's Hall, but removing afterwards to Wadham 
College, then recently founded. He remained at the university 
till 1625, but failed to obtain any college preferment. Nothing is 
known of his life with certainty for the next fifteen years. An 
anonymous Dutch writer, in the Hollandische Mercurius (1652), 
represents him as saying that he had lived in Schiedam " for five 
or six years " in his youth. He doubtless engaged in trade, and 
apparently with success. When, after eleven years of kingship 
without parliaments, a parliament was summoned to meet in 
April 1640, Blake was elected to represent his native borough, 
This parliament, named "the Short," was dissolved in three 
weeks, and the career of Blake as a politician was suspended. 
Two years later the inevitable conflict began. Blake declared 
for the Parliament, and served under Sir John Horner. In 1643 
he was entrusted with the command of one of the forts of Bristol, 
This he stoutly held during the siege of the town by Prince 
Rupert, and earned the approval of parliament by refusing to 
surrender his post till duly informed of the capitulation. In 
1644 he gained high distinction by the resolute defence of Lyme 
in Dorsetshire. The siege was raised on the 23rd of May, and on 
the 8th of July Blake took Taunton by surprise, and notwith- 
standing its imperfect defences and inadequate supplies, held the 
town for the Parliament against two sieges by the Royalists 
until July 1645, when it was relieved by Fairfax. In 1645 he 
re-entered parliament as member for Taunton, when the Royalist 
Colonel Windham was expelled. 

He adhered to the Parliamentary party after the king's death, 
and within a month (February 1649) was appointed, with 
Colonels Dean and Popham, to the command of the fleet, under 
the title of General of the Sea. In April he was sent in pursuit 
of Prince Rupert, who with the Royalist fleet had entered the 
harbour of Kinsale in Ireland. There he blockaded the prince 
for six months; and when the latter, in want of provisions, and 
hopeless of relief, succeeded in making his escape with the flee! 
and in reaching the Tagus, Blake followed him thither, and again 
blockaded him for some months. The king of Portugal refusing 
permission for Blake to attack his enemy, the latter made re- 
prisals by falling on the Portuguese fleet, richly laden, returning 
from Brazil. He captured seventeen ships and burnt three, 
bringing his prizes home without molestation. After revictual- 
ling his fleet, he sailed again, captured a French man-of-war, and 
then pursued Prince Rupert, who had been asked to go away 
by the Portuguese and had entered the Mediterranean. In 
November 1650 Blake destroyed the bulk of the Royalist 
squadron near Cartagena. The thanks of parliament were voted 
to Blake, and he received a grant of /iooo. He was continued 
in his office of admiral and general of the sea; and in May 
following he took, in conjunction with Ayscue, the Scilly Islands. 
For this service the thanks of parliament were again awarded 
him, and he was soon after made a member of the council of 

In 1652 war broke out with the Dutch, who had made great 
preparations for the conflict. In March the command of the 
fleet was given to Blake for nine months; and in the middle of 
May the Dutch fleet of forty-five ships, led by their great admiral 
Tromp, appeared in the Downs. Blake, who had only twenty 
ships, sailed to meet them, and the battle took place off Dover 
on the 19th of May. The Dutch were defeated in an engagement 
of four or five hours, lost two ships, and withdrew under cover 
of darkness. Attempts at accommodation were made by the 
states, but they failed. Early in July war was formally declared, 



and in the same month Blake captured a large part of the Dutch 
fishery-fleet and the twelve men-of-war that formed their convoy. 
On the 28th of September Blake and Penn again encountered the 
Dutch fleet, now commanded by De Ruyter and De Witt, off 
the Kentish Knock, defeated it, and chased it for two days. 
The Dutch took refuge in Goree. A third battle was fought 
near the end of November. By this time the ships under Blake's 
command had been reduced in number to forty, and nearly the 
half of these were useless for want of seamen. Tromp, who 
had been reinstated in command, appeared in the Downs, with 
a fleet of eighty ships besides ten fireships. Blake, nevertheless, 
risked a battle off Dungeness, but was defeated, and withdrew 
into the Thames. The English fleet having been refitted, put 
to sea again in February 1653; and on the 18th Blake, at the 
head of eighty ships, encountered Tromp in the Channel. The 
Dutch force, according to Clarendon, numbered 100 ships of 
war, but according to the official reports of the Dutch, only 
seventy. The battle was severe, and continued through three 
days, the Dutch, however, retreating, and taking refuge in the 
shallow waters off the French coast. In this action Blake was 
severely wounded. The three English admirals put to sea again 
in May; and on the 3rd and 4th of June another battle was 
fought near the North Foreland. On the first day Dean and 
Monk were repulsed by Tromp; but on the second day the scales 
were turned by the arrival of Blake, and the Dutch retreated to 
the Texel. 

Ill-health now compelled Blake to retire from the service for 
a time, and he did not appear again on the seas for about eighteen 
months; meanwhile he sat as a member of the Little Parliament 
(Barebones's). In November 1654 he was selected by Cromwell 
to conduct a fleet to the Mediterranean to exact compensation 
from the duke of Tuscany, the knights of Malta, and the piratical 
states of North Africa, for wrongs done to English merchants. 
This mission he executed with his accustomed spirit and with 
complete success. Tunis alone dared to resist his demands, and 
Tunis paid the penalty of the destruction of its two fortresses 
by English guns. In the winter of 1655-1656, war being declared 
against Spain, Blake was sent to cruise off Cadiz and the neigh- 
bouring coasts, to intercept the Spanish shipping. One of his 
captains captured a part of the Plate fleet in September 1656. 
In April 1657 Blake, then in very ill health, suffering from 
dropsy and scurvy, and anxious to have assistance in his arduous 
duties, heard that the Plate fleet lay at anchor in the bay of 
Santa Cruz, in the island of Teneriffe. The position was a very 
strong one, defended by a castle and several forts with guns. 
Under the shelter of these lay a fleet of sixteen ships drawn up 
in crescent order. Captain Stayner was ordered to enter the bay 
and fall on the fleet. This he did. Blake followed him. Broad- 
sides were poured into the castle and the forts at the same time; 
and soon nothing was left but ruined walls and charred fragments 
of burnt ships. The wind was blowing hard into the bay; but 
suddenly, and fortunately for the heroic Blake, it shifted, and 
carried him safely out to sea. " The whole action," says Clar- 
endon, " was so incredible that all men who knew the place 
wondered that any sober man, with what courage soever en- 
dowed, would ever have undertaken it; and they could hardly 
persuade themselves to believe what they had done; while 
the Spaniards comforted themselves with the belief that they 
were devils and not men who had destroyed them in such a 
manner." The English lost one ship and 200 men killed and 
wounded. The thanks of parliament were voted to officers and 
men; and a very costly jewel (diamond ring) was presented to 
Blake, " as a testimony," says Cromwell in his letter of 10th 
June, " of our own and the parliament's good acceptance of 
your carriage in this action." " This was the last action of the 
brave Blake." 

After again cruising for a time off Cadiz, his health failing 
more and more, he was compelled to make homewards before 
the summer was over. He died at sea, but within sight of Ply- 
mouth, on the 17th of August 1657. His body was brought to 
London and embalmed, and after lying in state at Greenwich 
House was interred with great pomp and solemnity in Westminster 

Abbey. , In 1661 Charles II. ordered the exhumation of Blake's 
body, with those of the mother and daughter of Cromwell and 
several others. They were cast out of the abbey, and were 
reburied in the churchyard of St Margaret's. "But that regard," 
says Johnson, " which was denied his body has been paid to his 
better remains, his name and hjs memory. Nor has any writer 
dared to deny him the praise of intrepidity, honesty, contempt 
of wealth, and love of his country." Clarendon bears the follow- 
ing testimony to his excellence as a commander: — " He was the 
first man that declined the old track, and made it apparent that 
the science might be attained in less time than was imagined. 
He was the first man that brought ships to contemn castles on the 
shore, which had ever been thought very formidable, but were 
discovered by him to make a noise only, and to fright those who 
could be rarely hurt by them." 

A life of Blake is included in the work entitled Lives, English and 
Foreign. Dr Johnson wrote a short life of him, and in 1852 appeared 
Hepworth Dixon's fuller narrative, Robert Blake, Admiral and 
General at Sea. Much new matter for the biography of Blake will 
be fourid in the Letters and Papers Relating to the First Dutch War, 
edited by S. R. Gardiner for the Navy Records Society (1898-1899.) 

BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-1827), English poet and painter, 
was born in London, on the 28th of November 1757. His father, 
James Blake, kept a hosier's shop in Broad Street, Golden Square; 
and from the scanty education which the young artist received, 
it may be judged that the circumstances of the family were not 
very prosperous. For the facts of William Blake's early life 
the world is indebted to a little book, called A Father's 
Memoirs on a Child, written by Dr Malkin in 1806. Here we 
learn that young Blake quickly developed a taste for design, 
which his father appears to have had sufficient intelligence to 
recognize and assist by every means in his power. At the age of 
ten the boy was sent to a drawing school kept by Henry Pars 
in the Strand, and at the same time he was already cultivating 
his own taste by constant attendance at the different art sale 
rooms, where he was known as the " little connoisseur " Here 
he began to collect prints after Michelangelo, and Raphael, 
Diirer and Heemskerk, while at the school in the Strand he 
had the opportunity of drawing from the antique. After four 
years of this preliminary instruction Blake entered upon another 
branch of art study. In 1777 he was apprenticed to James 
Basire, an engraver of repute, and with him he remained seven 
years. His apprenticeship had an important bearing on Blake's 
artistic education, and marks the department of art in which 
he was made technically proficient. In 1778, at the end of his 
apprenticeship, he proceeded to the school of the Royal Academy, 
where he continued his early study from the antique, and had 
for the first time an opportunity of drawing from the living model. 

This is in brief all that is known of Blake's artistic education. 
That he ever, at the academy or elsewhere, systematically 
studied painting we do not know; but that he had already 
begun the practice of water colour for himself is ascertained. 
So far, however, the course of his training in art schools, and 
under Basire, was calculated to render him proficient only as a 
draughtsman and an engraver. He had learned how to draw, 
and he had mastered besides the practical difficulties of engraving, 
and with these qualifications he entered upon his career. In 1780 
he exhibited a picture in the Royal Academy Exhibition, con- 
jectured to have been executed in water colours, and he continued 
to contribute to the annual exhibitions up to the year 1808. 
In 1782 he married Catherine Boucher, the daughter of a market- 
gardener at Battersea, with whom he lived always on affectionate 
terms, and the young couple after -their marriage established 
themselves in Green Street, Leicester Fields. Blake had already 
become acquainted with some of the rising artists of his time, 
amongst them Stothard, Flaxman and Fuseli, and he now began 
to see something of literary society. At the house of the Rev. 
Henry Mathew, in Rathbone Place, he used to recite and some- 
times to sing poems of his own composition, and it was through 
the influence of this gentleman, combined with that of Flaxman, 
that Blake's first volume of poetry was printed and published in 
1783. From this time forward the artist came before the 
world in a double capacity. By education as well as native 



talent, he was pledged to the life of a painter, and these Poetical 
Sketches, though they are often no more than the utterances of 
a boy, are no less decisive in marking Blake as a future 

For a while the two gifts are exhibited in association. To 
the close of his life Blake continued to print and publish, after a 
manner of his own, the inventions of his verse illustrated by 
original designs, but there is a certain period in his career when 
the union of the two gifts is peculiarly close, and when their 
service to one another is unquestionable. In 1784 Blake, moving 
from Green Street, set up in company with a fellow-pupil, Parker, 
as print-seller and engraver next to his father's house in Broad 
Street, Golden Square, but in 1787 this partnership was severed, 
and he established an independent business in Poland Street. 
It was from this house, and in 1787, that the Songs of Innocence 
were published, a work that must always be remarkable for 
beauty both of verse and of design, as well as for the singular 
method by which the two were combined and expressed by the 
artist. Blake became in fact Jais own printer and publisher. 
He engraved upon copper, by a process devised by himself, both 
the text of his poems and the surrounding decorative design, 
and to the pages printed from the copper plates an appropriate 
colouring was afterwards added by hand. The poetic genius 
already discernible in the first volume of Poetical Sketches is 
here more decisively expressed, and some of the songs in this 
volume deserve to take rank with the best things of their kind in 
our literature. In an age of enfeebled poetic style, when Words- 
worth, with more weighty apparatus, had as yet scarcely begun 
his reform of English versification, Blake, unaided by any con- 
temporary influence, produced a work of fresh and living beauty; 
and if the Songs of Innocence established Blake's claim to the 
title of poet, the setting in which they were given to the world 
proved that he was also something more. For the full develop- 
ment of his artistic powers we have to wait till a later date, 
but here at least he exhibits a just and original understanding of 
the sources of decorative beauty. Each page of these poems 
is a study of design, full of invention, and often wrought with 
the utmost delicacy of workmanship. The artist retained to 
the end this feeling for decorative effect; but as time went on, 
he considerably enlarged the imaginative scope of his work, 
and decoration then became the condition rather than the aim 
of his labour. 

Notwithstanding the distinct and precious qualities of this 
volume, it attracted but slight attention, a fact perhaps not very 
wonderful, when the system of publication is taken into account. 
Blake, however, proceeded with other work of the same kind. 
The same year he published The Book of Thel, more decidedly 
mystic in its poetry, but scarcely less beautiful as a piece of 
illumination; The Marriage of Heaven and Hell followed in 
1790; and in 1793 there are added The Gates of Paradise, The 
Vision of the Daughters of Albion, and some other " Prophetic 
Books." It becomes abundantly clear on reaching this point 
in his career that Blake's utterances cannot be judged by ordinary 
rules. The Songs of Experience, put forth in 1 794 as a companion 
to the earlier Songs of Innocence, are for the most part intelligible 
and coherent, but in these intervening works of prophecy, as 
they were called by the author, we get the first public expression 
of that phase of his character and of his genius upon which a 
charge of insanity has been founded. The question whether 
Blake was or was not mad seems likely to remain in dispute, 
but there can be no doubt whatever that he was at different 
periods of his life under the influence of illusions for which 
there are no outward facts to account, and that much of what 
he wrote is so far wanting in the quality of sanity as to be without 
a logical coherence. On the other hand, it is equally clear that 
no madness imputed to Blake could equal that which would be 
involved in the rejection of his work on this ground. The greatness 
of Blake's mind is even better established than its frailty, and in 
considering the work that he has left we must remember that 
it is by the sublimity of his genius, and not by any mental defect, 
that he is most clearly distinguished from his fellows. With 
the publication of the Songs of Experience Blake's poetic career, 

so far at least as ordinary readers are concerned, may be said to 
close. A writer of prophecy he continued for many years, but 
the works by which he is best known in poetry are those earlier 
and simpler efforts, supplemented by a few pieces taken from 
various sources, some of which were of later production. But 
although Blake the poet ceases in a general sense at this date, 
Blake the artist is only just entering upon his career. In the 
Songs of Innocence and Experience, and even in some of the 
earlier Books of Prophecy, the two gifts worked together in 
perfect balance and harmony; but at this point the supremacy 
of the artistic faculty asserts itself, and for the remainder of his 
life Blake was pre-eminently a designer and engraver. The 
labour of poetical composition continues, but the product 
passes beyond the range of general comprehension; while, with 
apparent inconsistency, the work of the artist gains steadily iv 
strength and coherence, and never to the last loses its hold upon 
the understanding. It may almost be said without exaggeration 
that his earliest poetic work, The Songs of Innocence, and nearly 
his latest effort in design, the illustrations to The Book of Job, 
take rank among the sanest and most admirable products of 
his genius. Nor is the fact, astonishing enough at first sight, 
quite beyond a possible explanation. As Blake advanced in his 
poetic career, he was gradually hindered and finally overpowered 
by a tendency that was most serviceable to him in design. His 
inclination to substitute a symbol for a conception, to make an 
image do duty for an idea, became an insuperable obstacle to 
literary success. He endeavoured constantly to treat the 
intellectual material of verse as if it could be moulded into 
sensuous form, with the inevitable result that as the ideas to 
be expressed advanced in complexity and depth of meaning, 
his poetic gifts became gradually more inadequate to the task 
of interpretation. The earlier poems dealing with simpler 
themes, and put forward at a time when the bent of the artist's 
mind was not strictly determined, do not suffer from this difficulty; 
the symbolism then only enriches an idea of no intellectual 
intricacy; but when Blake began to concern himself with 
profounder problems the want of a more logical understanding of 
language made itself strikingly apparent. If his ways of thought 
and modes of workmanship had not been developed with an 
intensity almost morbid, he would probably have been able to 
distinguish and keep separate the double functions of art and 
literature. As it is, however, he remains as an extreme illustration 
of the ascendancy of the artistic faculty. For this tendency to 
translate ideas into image, and to find for every thought, however 
simple or sublime, a precise and sensuous form, is of the essence 
of pure artistic invention. If this be accepted as the dominant 
bent of Blake's genius, it is not so wonderful that his work in 
art should have strengthened in proportion as his poetic powers 
waned; but whether the explanation satisfies all the require- 
ments of the case or not, the fact remains, and cannot be over- 
looked by any student of Blake's career. 

In 1 796 Blake was actively employed in the work of illustration. 
Edwards, a bookseller of New Bond Street, projected a new 
edition of Young's Night Thoughts, and Blake was chosen to 
illustrate the work. It was to have been issued in parts, but for 
some reason not very clear the enterprise failed, and only a 
first part, including forty-three designs, was given to the world. 
These designs were engraved by Blake himself, and they are 
interesting not only for their own merit but for the peculiar 
system by which the illustration has been associated with the 
text. It was afterwards discovered that the artist had executed 
original designs in water-colour for the whole series, and these 
drawings, 537 in number, form one of the most interesting 
records of Blake's genius. Gilchrist, the painter's biographer, 
in commenting upon the engraved plates, regrets the absence 
of colour, " the use of which Blake so well understood, to relieve 
his simple design and give it significance," and an examination 
of the original water-colour drawings fully supports the justice 
of his criticism. Soon after the publication of this work Blake 
was introduced by Flaxman to the poet Hayley, and in the year 
1 801 he accepted the suggestion of the latter, that he should 
take up his residence at Felpham in Sussex. The mild and 



amiable poet had planned to write a life of Cowper, and for the 
illustration of this and other works he sought Blake's help and 
companionship. The residence at Felph'am continued for three 
years, partly pleasant and partly irksome to Blake, but appar- 
ently not very profitable to the progress of his art. One of the 
annoyances of his stay was a malicious prosecution for traason 
set on foot by a common soldier whom Blake had summarily 
ejected from his garden; but a more serious drawback was the 
increasing irritation which the painter seems to have experienced 
from association with Hayley. In 1 804 Blake returned to London, 
to take up his residence in South Moulton Street, and as the 
fruit of his residence in Felpham, he published, in the manner 
already described, the prophetic books called the Jerusalem, 
The Emanation of the Giant Albion, and Milton. The first of these 
is a very notable performance in regard to artistic invention. 
Many of the designs stand out from the text in complete in- 
dependence, and are now and then of the very finest quality. 

In the years 1804-1805 Blake executed a series of designs 
in illustration of Robert Blair's The Grave, of much beauty and 
grandeur, though showing stronger traces of imitation of Italian 
art than any earlier production. These designs were purchased 
from the artist by an adventurous and unscrupulous publisher, 
Cromek, for the paltry sum of £21, and afterwards published in a 
series of engravings by Schiavonetti. Despite the ill treatment 
Blake received in the matter, and the other evils, including 
a quarrel with his friend Stothard as to priority of invention 
of a design illustrating the Canterbury Pilgrims, which his 
association with Cromek involved, the book gained for him a 
larger amount of popularity than he at any other time secured. 
Stothard's picture of the Canterbury Pilgrims was exhibited in 
1807, and in 1809 Blake, in emulation of his' rival's success, 
having himself painted in water-colour a picture of the same 
subject, opened an exhibition, and drew up a Descriptive Catalogue, 
curious and interesting, and containing a very valuable criticism 
of Chaucer. 

The remainder of the artist's life is not outwardly eventful. 
In 1813 he formed, through the introduction of George Cumber- 
land of Bristol, a valuable friendship with John Linnell and other 
rising water-colour painters. Amongst the group Blake seems 
to have found special sympathy in the society of John Varley, 
who, himself addicted to astrology, encouraged Blake to cultivate 
his gift of inspired vision; and it is probably to this influence 
that we are indebted for several curious drawings made from 
visions, especially the celebrated "ghost of a flea " and the very 
humorous portrait of the builder of the Pyramids. In 182 1 
Blake removed to Fountain Court; in the Strand, where he died 
on the 1 2th of August 1827. The chief work of these last years 
was the splendid series of engraved designs in illustration of the 
book of Job. Here we find the highest imaginative qualities 
of Blake's art united to the technical means of expression 
which he best understood. Both the invention and the engraving 
are in all ways remarkable, and the series may fairly be cited in 
support of a very high estimate of his genius. None of his works 
is without the trace of that peculiar artistic instinct and power 
which seizes the pictorial element of ideas, simple or sublime, 
and translates them into the appropriate language of sense; 
but here the double faculty finds the happiest exercise. The 
grandeur of the theme is duly reflected in the simple and sublime 
images of the artist's design, and in the presence of these plates 
we are made to feel the power of the artist over the expressional 
resources of human form, as well as his sympathy with the 
imaginative significance of his subject. 

A life of Blake, with selections from his works, by Alexander 
Gilchrist, was published in 1863 (new edition by W. G. Robertson, 
1906) ; in 1868 A. C. Swinburne published a critical essay on his 
genius, remarkable for a full examination of the Prophetic Books, 
and in 1874 William Michael Rossetti published a memoir prefixed 
to an edition of the poems. In 1893 appeared The Works of William 
Blake, edited by E. J. Ellis and W. B. Yeats. But for a long time 
all the editors paid too little attention to a correct following of 
Blake's own MSS. The text of the poems was finally edited with 
exemplary care and thoroughness by John Sampson in his edition 
of the Poetical Works (1905), which has rescued Blake from the 
" improvements " of previous editors. See also The Letters of 

William Blake, together . with a Life by Frederick Tatham; edited 
by A. G. B. Russell (1906); and Basil de Selincourt, William, Blake 
(1909). (J. C. C.) 

BLAKELOCK, RALPH ALBERT (1847- ), American 
painter, was born in New York, on the 15th of October, 1847. 
He graduated at the College of the City of New York in 1867. 
In art he was self-taught and markedly original. Until ill-health 
necessitated the abandonment of his profession, he was a most 
prolific worker, his subjects including pictures of North American 
Indian life, and landscapes — notably such canvases as "The 
Indian Fisherman"; "Ta-wo-koka: or Circle Dance"; 
"Silvery Moonlight"; "A Waterfall by Moonlight"; "Soli- 
tude"; and "Moonlight on Long Island Sound." 

British soldier, was born. at Mount Blakeney in Limerick in 1672. 
Destined by his father for politics, he soon showed a decided 
preference for a military career, and at the age of eighteen headed 
the tenants in defending the Blakeney estate against the Rap- 
parees. As a volunteer he went to the war in Flanders, and at 
the siege of Venlo in 1702 won his commission. He served as 
a subaltern throughout Marlborough's campaigns, and is said 
to have been the first to drill troops by signal of drum or colour. 
For many years after the peace of Utrecht he served unnoticed, 
and was sixty-five years of age before he became a colonel. 
This neglect, which was said to be due to the hostility of Lord 
Verney, ceased when the duke of Richmond was appointed 
colonel of Blakeney's regiment, and thenceforward his advance 
was rapid. Brigadier-general in the Cartagena expedition of 
1741, and major-general a little later, he distinguished himself 
by his gallant and successful defence of Stirling Castle against 
the Highlanders in 1745. Two years later George II. made him 
lieutenant-general and lieutenant-governor of Minorca. The 
governor of that island never set foot in it, and Blakeney was 
left in command for ten years. 

In 1756 the Seven Years' War was preluded by a swift descent 
of the French on Minorca. Fifteen thousand troops under 
marshal the due de Richelieu, escorted by a strong squadron 
under the marquis de la Gallisonniere, landed on the island on 
the 1 8th of April, and at once began the siege of Fort St Philip, 
where Blakeney commanded at most some 5000 soldiers and 
workmen. The defence, in spite of crumbling walls and rotted 
gun platforms, had already lasted a month when a British fleet 
under vice-admiral the Hon. John Byng appeared. La Gallison- 
niere and Byng fought, on the 20th of May, an indecisive battle, 
after which the relieving squadron sailed away and Blakeney 
was left to his fate. A second expedition subsequently appeared 
off Minorca, but it was then too late, for after a heroic resistance 
of -seventy-one days the old general had been compelled to 
surrender the fort to Richelieu (April 18-June 28, 1756). Only 
the ruined fortifications were the prize of the victors. Blakeney 
and his little garrison were transported to Gibraltar with absolute 
liberty to serve again. Byng was tried and executed; Blakeney, 
on his return to England, found himself the hero of the nation. 
Rewards came freely to the veteran. He was made colonel of 
the Enniskillen regiment of infantry, knight of the Bath, and 
Baron Blakeney of Mount Blakeney in the Irish peerage. A 
little later Van Most's statue of him was erected in Dublin, and 
his popularity continued unabated for the short remainder of 
his life. He died on the 20th of September 1761, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. 
, See Memoirs of General William Blakeney (1757). 

BLAKESLEY, JOSEPH WILLIAMS (1808-1885), English 
divine, was born in London on the 6th of March 1808, and was 
educated at St Paul's school, London, and at Corpus Christi and 
Trinity Colleges, Cambridge. In 1831 he was elected a fellow, 
and in 1839 a tutor of Trinity. In 1833 he took holy orders, and 
from 1845 to 1872 held the college living of Ware, Hertfordshire. 
Over the signature " Hertfordshire Incumbent " he contributed 
a large number of letters to The Times on the leading social and 
political subjects of the day, and he also wrote many reviews of 
books for that paper. In 1863 he was made a canon of Canter- 
bury, and in 1872 dean of Lincoln. Dean Blakesley was the 



author of the first English Life of Aristotle (1839), an edition of 
Herodotus (1852-1854) in the Bibliotheca Classica, and Four 
Months in Algeria (1859). He died on the 18th of April 1885. 

BLAMIRE, SUSANNA (1747-1794), English poet, daughter of 
a Cumberland yeoman, was born at Cardew Hall, near Dalston, 
in January 1 747. Her mother died while she was a child, and she 
was brought up by her aunt, a Mrs Simpson of Thackwood, who 
sent her niece to the village school at Raughton Head. Susanna 
Blamire's earliest poem is " Written in a Churchyard, on seeing 
a number of cattle grazing," in imitation of Gray. She lived an 
uneventful life among the farmers of the neighbourhood, and her 
gaiety and good-humour made her a favourite in rustic society. 
In 1767 her elder sister Sarah married Colonel Graham of Gart- 
more. " An Epistle to her friends at Gartmore " gives a playful 
description of the monotonous simplicity of her life. To her 
Perthshire visits her songs in the Scottish vernacular are no 
doubt partly due. Her chief friend was Catharine Gilpin of 
Scaleby Castle. The two ladies spent the winters together in 
Carlisle, and wrote poems in common. Susanna Blamire died 
in Carlisle on the 5th of April 1794. The poems which were not 
collected during her lifetime, were first published in 1842 by 
Henry Lonsdale as The Poetical Works of Miss Susanna Blamire, 
" the Muse of Cumberland," with a memoir by Mr Patrick 
Maxwell. Some of her songs rank among the very best of north- 
country lyrics. " And ye shall walk in silk attire " and " What 
ails this heart o' mine," are well known, and were included in 
Johnson's Scots' Musical Museum. 

BLANC, (Jean Joseph Charles) LOUIS (1811-1882), French 
politician and historian, was born on the 29th of October 181 1 
at Madrid, where his father held the post of inspector-general of 
finance under Joseph Bonaparte. Failing to receive aid from 
Pozzo di Borgo, his mother's uncle, Louis Blanc studied law in 
Paris, living in poverty, and became a contributor to various 
journals. In the Revue du progrbs, which he founded, he published 
in 1839 his study on L' Organisation du travail. The principles 
laid down in this famous essay form the key to Louis Blanc's 
whole political career. He attributes all the evils that afflict 
society to the pressure of competition, whereby the weaker are 
driven to the wall. He demanded the equalization of wages, and 
the merging of personal interests in the common good — ■" & 
chacun selon ses besoins, de chacun selon ses facultes." This was 
to be effected by the establishment of " social workshops," a sort 
of combined co-operative society and trade-union, where the 
workmen in each trade were to unite their efforts for their 
common benefit. In 1841 he published his Histoire de dix ans 
1830-1840, an attack upon the monarchy of July. It ran through 
four editions in four years. 

In 1847 he published the two first volumes of his Histoire de la 
Revolution Francaise. Its publication was interrupted by the 
revolution of 1848, when Louis Blanc became a member of the 
provisional government. It was on his motion that, on the 25th 
of February, the government undertook " to guarantee the 
existence of the workmen by work "; and though his demand 
for the establishment of a ministry of labour was refused — as 
beyond the competence of a provisional government — he was 
appointed to preside over the government labour commission 
{Commission du Gouvernement pour les travailleurs) established 
at the Luxembourg to inquire into and report on the labour 
question. On the 10th of May he renewed, in the National 
Assembly, his proposal for a ministry of labour, but the temper 
of the majority was hostile to socialism, and the proposal was 
again rejected. His responsibility for the disastrous experiment 
of the national workshops he himself denied in his Appel aux 
honnltes gens (Paris, 1849), written in London after his flight; 
but by the insurgent mob of the 15th of May and by the victorious 
Moderates alike he was regarded as responsible. Between the 
sansculottes, who tried to force him to place himself at their head, 
and the national guards, who maltreated him, he was nearly done 
to death. Rescued with difficulty, he escaped with a false 
passport to Belgium, and thence to London; in his absence he 
was condemned by the special tribunal established at Bourges, 
in contumaciam, to deportation. Against trial and sentence he 

alike protested, developing his protest in a series of articles in the 
Nouveau Monde, a review published in Paris under his direction. 
These he afterwards collected and published as Pages de I'histoire 
de la revolution de 1848 (Brussels, 1850). 

During his stay in England he /made use of the unique collection 
of materials for the revolutionary period preserved at the 
British Museum to complete his Histoire dela Resolution Franqaise 
12 vols. (1847-1862). In 1858 he published a reply to Lord 
Normanby's A Year of Revolution in Paris (1858), which he 
developed later into his Histoire de la revolution de 1848 (2 vols., 
1870-1880). As far back as 1839 Louis Blanc had vehemently 
opposed the idea of a Napoleonic restoration, predicting that it 
would be "despotism without glory," " the Empire without the 
Emperor." He therefore remained in exile till the fall of the 
Second Empire in September 1870, after which he returned to 
Paris and served as a private in the national guard. On the 8th 
of February 187 1 he was elected a member of the National 
Assembly, in which he maintained that the republic was " the 
necessary form of national sovereignty," and voted for the 
continuation of the war; yet, though a member of the extreme 
Left, he was too clear-minded to sympathize with the Commune, 
and exerted his influence in vain on the side of moderation. In 
1878 he advocated the abolition of the presidency and the senate. 
In January 1879 he introduced into the chamber a proposal for 
the amnesty of the Communists, which was carried. This was 
his last important act. His declining years were darkened by 
ill-health and by the death, in 1876, of his wife (Christina Groh), 
an Englishwoman whom he had married in 1865. He died at 
Cannes on the 6th of December 1882, and on the 12th of December 
received a state funeral in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise. 

Louis Blanc possessed a picturesque and vivid style, and 
considerable power of research; but the fervour with which he 
expressed his convictions, while placing him in the first rank of 
orators, tended to turn his historical writings into political 
pamphlets. His political and social ideas have had a great 
influence on the development of socialism in France. His 
Discours politiques (1847-1881) was published in 1882. His 
most important works, besides those already mentioned, are 
Lettres sur I'Angleterre (1866-1867), Dix annees de I'histoire de 
l' Angleterre (1879-1881), and Questions d'aujourd'hui et de demain 


See L. Fiaux, Louis Blanc (1883). 

BLANC, MONT, the culminating point (15,782 ft.) of the 
mountain range of the same name, which forms part of the 
Pennine Alps, and is divided unequally between France, Italy 
and Switzerland. The actual highest summit is wholly French 
and is the loftiest peak in the Alps, and in Europe also, if certain 
peaks in the Caucasus be excluded. At Geneva the mountain 
was in former days named the Montagne Maudite, but the 
present name seems to have been always used locally. On the 
north is the valley of Chamonix, and on the east the head of the 
valley of Aosta. Among the great glaciers which stream from the 
peak the most noteworthy are those of Bossons and Taconnaz 
(northern slope) and of Brenva and Miage (southern slope). 
The first ascent was made in 1 786 by two Chamonix men, Jacques 
Balmat and Dr Michel Paccard, and the second in 1 787 by Balmat 
with two local men. Later in 1787 H. B. de Saussure made the 
third ascent, memorable in many respects, and was followed a 
week later by Colonel Beaufoy, the first Englishman to gain the 
top. These ascents were all made from Chamonix, which is still 
the usual starting point, though routes have been forced up the 
peak from nearly every side, those on the Italian side being much 
steeper than that from Chamonix. The ascent from Chamonix 
is now frequently made in summer (rarely in winter also), but, 
owing to the great height of the mountain, the view is unsatis- 
factory, though very extensive (Lyons is visible). There is an inn 
at the Grands Mulets (9909 ft.). In 1890 M. Vallot built an 
observatory and shelter hut (14,312 ft.) on the Bosses du Droma- 
daire (north-west ridge of the mountain), and in 1893 T. J. C. 
Janssen constructed an observatory just below the very summit. 

SeeC.Durier, Le Mont Blanc (4th ed., Paris, 1897) ; C.E.Mathews, 
The Annals of Mont Blanc (London. 1898); P. Giissfeldt, Der 


Montblanc (Berlin, 1894, also a French translation, Geneva, I 
L. Kurz, Climbers' Guide to the Chain of Mont Blanc, section vi. 
(London, 1892) ; L. Kurz and X. Imfeld, Carte de la chaine du Mont 
Blanc (1896, new edition 1905). (W. A. B. C.) 

BLANCHARD, SAMUEL LAMAN (1804-1845), British author 
and journalist, the son of a painter and glazier, was born at Great 
Yarmouth on the 15th of May 1804. He was educated at St 
Olave's school, Southwark, and then became clerk to a proctor 
in Doctors' Commons. At an early age he developed literary 
tastes, contributing dramatic sketches to a paper called Drama. 
For a short time he was a member of a travelling dramatic 
company, but subsequently became a proof-reader in London, 
and wrote for the Monthly Magazine. In 1827 he was made 
secretary of the Zoological Society, a post which he held for three 
years. In 1828 he published Lyric Offerings, dedicated to Charles 
Lamb. He had a verj varied journalistic experience, editing in 
succession the Monthly Magazine, the True Sun, the Constitu- 
tional, the Court Journal, the Courier, and George Cruikshank's 
Omnibus; and from 1841 till his death he was connected with 
the Examiner. In 1846 Bulwer-Lytton collected a number of his 
prose-essays under the title Sketches of Life, to which a memoir of 
the author was prefixed. His verse was collected in 1876 by 
Blanchard Jerrold. Over-work broke down his strength, and, 
unnerved by the death of his wife, he died by his own hand on 
the 15th of February 1845. 

His eldest son, Sidney Laman Blanchard, who was the author 
of Yesterday and To-day in India, died in 1883. 

BLANCHE, JACQUES EMILE ( 1 86 1- ) , French painter, was 
born in Paris. He enjoyed an excellent cosmopolitan education, 
and was brought up at Passy in a house once belonging to the 
princesse de Lamballe, which still retained the atmosphere of 
18th-century elegance and refinement and influenced his taste 
and work. Although he received some instruction in painting 
from Gervex, he may be regarded as self-taught. He acquired a 
great reputation as a portrait painter; his art is derived from 
French and English sources, refined, sometimes super-elegant, 
but. full of character. Among his chief works are his portraits of 
his father, of Pierre Louys, the Thaulow family, Aubrey Beardsley 
and Yvette Guilbert. 

BLANCHE OF CASTILE (1188-1252), wife of Louis VIII. of 
France, third daughter of Alphonso VIII., king of Castile, and of 
Eleanor of England, daughter of Henry II., was born at Valencia. 
In consequence of a treaty between Philip Augustus and John of 
England, she was betrothed to the former's son, Louis, and was 
brought to France, in the spring of 1200, by John's mother 
Eleanor. On the 22nd of May 1200 the treaty was finally signed, 
John ceding with his niece the fiefs of Issoudun and Gracay, 
together with those that Andre de Chavigny, lord of Chateauroux, 
held in Berry, of the English crown. The marriage was celebrated 
the next day, at Portmort on the right bank of the Seine, in John's 
domains, as those of Philip lay under an interdict. 

Blanche first displayed her great qualities in 1216, when Louis,- 
who on the death of John claimed the English crown in her right, 
invaded England, only to find a united nation against him. Philip 
Augustus refused to help his son, and Blanche was his sole 
support. The queen established herself at Calais and organized 
two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk, 
and an army under Robert of Courtenay; but all her resolution 
and energy were in vain. Although it would seem that her 
masterful temper exercised a sensible influence upon her 
husband's gentler character, her role during his reign (1223-1226) 
is not well known. Upon his death he left Blanche regent and 
guardian of his children. Of her twelve or thirteen children, six 
had died, and Louis, the heir — afterwards the sainted Louis IX., 
— was but twelve years old. The situation was critical, for the 
hard- won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to 
pieces during a minority. Blanche had to bear the whole burden 
of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to 
repel the attack of the king of England (1 230). But her" energy 
and firmness overcame all dangers. There was an end to the 
calumnies circulated against her, based on the poetical homage 
rendered her by Theobald IV., count of Champagne, and the 


prolonged stay in Paris of the papal legate, Romano Bonaventura, 
cardinal of Sant' Angelo. The nobles were awed by her warlike 
preparations or won over by adroit diplomacy, and their league 
was broken up. St Louis owed his realm to his mother, but 
he himself always remained somewhat under the spell of her 
imperious personality. After he came of age (1236) her influence 
upon him may still be traced. In 1248 she again became regent, 
during Louis IX. 's absence on the crusade, a project which she 
had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed she main- 
tained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid 
her son in the East. At last her strength failed her. She fell ill 
at Melun in November 1252, and was taken to Paris, but lived 
only a few days. She was buried at Maubuisson. 

Besides the works 'of Joinville and William of Nangis, see FJie 
Berger, " Histoire de Blanche de Castille, reine de France," in 
Bibliotheque des ecoles franqaises d'Athenes et de Rome { vol. lxx. 
(Paris, 1895) ; Le Nain de Tillemont, " Vie de Saint Louis," ed. by 
J. de Gaulle for the Societe de I'histoire de France (6 vols., 1847- 
1851) ; and Paulin Paris, " Nouvelles recherches sur les mceurs de la 
reine Blanche et de Thibaud," in Cabinet historique (1858). 

BLANCH FEE, or Blanch Holding (from Fr. blanc, white), 
an ancient tenure in Scottish land law, the duty payable being in 
silver or white money in contradistinction to gold. The phrase 
was afterwards applied to any holding of which the quit-rent was 
merely nominal, such as a penny, a peppercorn, &c. 

BLANDFORD, or Blandford Forum, a market town, and 
municipal borough in the northern parliamentary division of 
Dorsetshire, England, on the Stour, 19 m. N.W. of Bournemouth 
by the Somerset & Dorset railway. Pop. (1901) 3649. The 
town is ancient, but was almost wholly destroyed by fire in the 
1 8th century. The church of St Peter and St Paul, a classical 
building, was built in 1732. There are a grammar-school 
(founded in 1521 at Milton Abbas, transferred to Blandford in 
1775), a Blue Coat school (1729), and other educational charities. 
Remnants of a mansion of the 14th century, Damory Court, are 
seen in a farmhouse, and an adjoining Perpendicular chapel is 
used as a barn. There are numerous early earthworks on the 
chalk hills in the neighbourhood. The fine modern mansion of 
Bryanston, in the park adjoining the town, is the seat of Lord 
Portman. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen 
and 12 councillors. Area, 145 acres. 

BLANDRATA, or Biandrata, GIORGIO (c. 1515-1588), 
Italian physician and polemic, who came of the De Blandrate 
family, powerful from the early part of the 13th century, was 
born at Saluzzo, the youngest son of Bernardino Biandrata. 
He graduated in arts and medicine at Montpellier in 1533, and 
specialized in the functional and nervous disorders of women. 
In 1544 he made his first acquaintance with Transylvania; 
in 1553 he was with Alciati in the Grisons; in 1557 he spent a 
year at Geneva, in constant intercourse with Calvin, who dis- 
trusted him. He attended the English wife (Jane Stafford) of 
Count Celso Massimiliano Martinengo, preacher of the Italian 
church at Geneva, and fostered anti-trinitarian opinions in that 
church. In 1558 he found it expedient to remove to Poland, 
where he became a leader of the heretical party at the synods 
of Pinczow (1558) and Ksionzh (1560 and 1562). His point 
was the suppression of extremes of opinion, on the basis of a 
confession literally drawn from Scripture. He obtained the 
position of court physician to the queen dowager, the Milanese 
Bona Sforza. She had been instrumental in the burning (1539) 
of Catharine Weygel, at the age of eighty, for anti-trinitarian 
opinions; but the writings of Ochino had altered her views, 
which were now anti-Catholic. In 1563 Biandrata transferred 
his services to the Transylvanian court, where the daughters 
of his patroness were married to ruling princes. He revisited 
Poland (1576) in the train of Stephen Bathory, whose tolerance 
permitted the propagation of heresies; and when (1579) Chris- 
topher Bathory introduced the Jesuits into Transylvania, 
Biandrata found means of conciliating them. Throughout his 
career he was accompanied by his two brothers, Ludovico and 
Alphonso, the former being canon of Saluzzo. In Transylvania, 
Biandrata co-operated with Francis David (d. 1579), the anti- 
trinitarian bishop, but in 1578 two circumstances broke the 



connexion. Blaridrata was charged with "Italian vice"; 
David renounced the worship of Christ. To influence David, 
Blandrata sent for Faustus Socinus from Basel. Socinus was 
David's guest, but the discussion between them led to no result. 
At the instance of Blandrata, David was tried and condemned 
to prison at Deva (in which he died) on the charge of innovation. 
Having amassed a fortune, Blandrata returned to the com- 
munion of Rome. His end is obscure. According to the Jesuit, 
Jacob Wujek, he was strangled by a nephew (Giorgio, son of 
Alphonso) in May 1588. He published a few polemical writings, 
some in conjunction with David. 

See Malacarne, Commentario delle Opere e delle Vicende di G. 
Biandrata (Padova, 1814); Wallace, Anti-trinitarian Biography, 
vol. ii. (1850). (A. Go.*) 

BLANE, SIR GILBERT (1740-1834), Scottish physician, 
was born at Blanefield, Ayrshire, on the 29th of August 1749. 
He was educated at Edinburgh university, and shortly after 
his removal to London became private physician to Lord Rodney, 
whom he accompanied to the West Indies in 1779. He did much 
to improve the health of the fleet by attention to the diet of the 
sailors and by enforcing due sanitary precautions, and it was 
largely through him that in 1795 the use of lime-juice was made 
obligatory throughout the navy as a preventive of scurvy. 
Enjoying a number of court and hospital appointments he built 
up a good practice for himself in London, and the government 
constantly consulted him on questions of public hygiene. He 
was made a baronet in 181 2 in reward for the services he rendered 
in connexion with the return of the Walcheren expedition. 
He died in London on the 26th of June 1834. Among his works 
were Observations on the Diseases of Seamen (1795) and Elements 
of Medical Logic (1819). 

BLANFORD, WILLIAM THOMAS (1832-1905), English 
geologist and naturalist, was born in London on the 7th of 
October 1832. He was educated in private schools in Brighton 
and Paris, and with a view to the adoption of a mercantile career 
spent two years in a business house at Civita Vecchia. On return- 
ing to England in 185 1 he was induced to enter the newly estab- 
lished Royal School of Mines, which his younger brother Henry 
F. Blanford (1834-1893), afterwards head of the Indian Meteoro- 
logical Department, had already joined; he then spent a year 
in the mining school at Freiburg, and towards the close of 1854 
both he and his brother obtained posts on the Geological Survey 
of India. In that service he remained for twenty-seven years, 
retiring in 1882. He was engaged in various parts of India, in 
the Raniganj coalfield, in Bombay, and in the coalfield near 
Talchir, where boulders considered to have been ice-borne 
were found in the Talchir strata — a remarkable discovery con- 
firmed by subsequent observations of other geologists in equiva- 
lent strata elsewhere. His attention was given not only to 
geology but to zoology, and especially to the land-mollusca and 
to the vertebrates. In 1866 he was attached to the Abyssinian 
expedition, accompanying the army to Magdala and back; 
and in 1871-1872 he was appointed a member of the Persian 
Boundary Commission. The best use was made of the excep- 
tional opportunities of studying the natural history of those 
countries. For his many contributions to geological science 
Dr Blanford was in 1883 awarded the Wollaston medal by the 
Geological Society of London; and for his labours on the zoology 
and geology of British India he received in 1901 a royal medal 
from the Royal Society. He had been elected F.R.S. in 1874, 
and was chosen president of the Geological Society in 1888. 
He was created CLE. in 1904. He died in London on the 23rd 
of June 1905. His principal publications were: Observations 
on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia (1870), and Manual of 
the Geology of India, with H. B. Medlicott (1879). 

Biography, with bibliography and portrait, in Geological Magazine, 
January 1905. 

BLANK (from the Fr. blanc, white), a. word used in various 
senses based on that of " left white," i.e. requiring something 
to be filled in; thus a " blank cheque " is one which requires 
the amount to be inserted, an insurance policy in blank, where 
the name of the beneficiary is lacking, " blank verse " (q.v.) 

verse without rhyme, " blank cartridge " that contains only 
powder and no ball or shot. The word is also used, as a sub- 
stantive, for a ticket in a lottery or sweepstake which does not 
carry a number or the name of a horse running or for an 
unstamped metal disc in coining. 

BLANKENBERGHE, a seaside watering-place on the North 
Sea in the province of West Flanders, Belgium, 12 m. N.E. 
of Ostend, and about 9 m. N.W. of Bruges, with which it 
is connected by railway. It is more bracing than Ostend, and 
has a fine parade over a mile in length. During the season, 
which extends from June to September, it receives a large 
number of visitors, probably over 60,000 altogether, from 
Germany as well as from Belgium. There is a small fishing port 
as well as a considerable fishing-fleet. Two miles north of this 
place along the dunes is Zeebrugge, the point at which the new 
ship-canal from Bruges enters the North Sea. Fixed population 
(1904) 5925. 

BLANKENBURG. (1) A town and health resort of Germany, 
in the duchy of Brunswick, at the N. foot of the Harz Mountains, 
12 m. by rail S.W. from Halberstadt. Pop. (1901) 10,173. It 
has been in large part rebuilt since a fire in 1836, and possesses 
a castle, with various collections, a museum of antiquities, an old 
town hall and churches. There are pine-needle baths and a 
hospital for nervous diseases. Gardening is a speciality. In the 
vicinity is a cliff or ridge of rock called Teufelsmauer (Devil's 
wall), from which fine views are obtained across the plain and 
into the deep gorges of the Harz Mountains. 

(2) Another Blankenburg, also a health-resort, is situated 
in Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, at the confluence of the 
rivers Rinne and Schwarza, and at the entrance of the Schwar- 
zatal. Its environs are charming, and to the north of it, on an 
eminence, rise the fine ruins of the castle of Greifenstein, built 
by the German king Henry I., and from 1275 to 1583 the seat 
of a cadet branch of the counts of Schwarzburg. 

BLANKETEERS, the nickname given to some 5000 operatives 
who on the 10th of March 181 7 met in St Peter's Field, near 
Manchester, to march to London, each carrying blankets or rugs. 
Their object was to see the prince regent and lay their grievances 
before him. The Habeas Corpus Act was suspended, and the 
leaders were seized and imprisoned. The bulk of the demon- 
stration yielded at once. The few stragglers who persisted in 
the march were intercepted by troops, and treated with consider- 
able severity. Eventually the spokesmen had an interview with 
the ministers, and some reforms were the result. 

BLANK VERSE, the unrhymed measure of iambic deca- 
syllable in five beats which is usually adopted in English epic 
and dramatic poetry. The epithet is due to the absence of the 
rhyme which the ear expects at the end of successive lines. The 
decasyllabic line occurs for the first time in a Provencal poem 
of the 10th century, but in the earliest instances preserved it is 
already constructed with such regularity as to suggest that it 
was no new invention. It was certainly being used almost 
simultaneously in the north of France. Chaucer employed it 
in his Compleynte to Pitie about 1370. In all the literatures of 
western Europe it became generally used, but always with 
rhyme. In the beginning of the 16th century, however, certain 
Italian poets made the experiment of writing decasyllables 
without rhyme. The tragedy of Sophonisba (1515) of G. G. 
Trissino (1478-1550) was the earliest work completed in this 
form; it was followed in 1525 by the didactic poem Le Apt 
(The Bees), of Giovanni Rucellai (1475-1525), who announced 
his intention of writing " Con verso Etrusco dalle rime sciolto," 
in consequence of which expression this kind of metre was called 
versi sciolti or blank verse. In a very short time this form was 
largely adopted in Italian dramatic poetry, and the comedies 
of Ariosto, the Aminta of Tasso and the Pastor Fido of Guarini 
are composed in it. The iambic blank verse of Italy was, how- 
ever, mainly hendecasyllabic, not decasyllabic, and under French 
influences the habit of rhyme soon returned. 

Before the close of Trissino's life, however, his invention had 
been introduced into another literature, where it was destined 
to enjoy a longer and more glorious existence. Towards the 



close of the reign of Henry VIII., Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, 
translated two books of the Aeneid into English rhymeless verse, 
" drawing " them '* into a strange metre." Surrey's blank verse 
is stiff and timid, permitting itself no divergence from the exact 
iambic movement: — 

"Who can express the slaughter of that night, 

Or tell the number of the corpses slain, 

Or can in tears bewail them worthily? 

The ancient famous city falleth down, 

That many years did hold such seignory." 

Surrey soon found an imitator in Nicholas Grimoald, and in 
1562 blank verse was first applied to English dramatic poetry 
in the Gorboduc of Sackville and Norton. In 1576, in the Steel 
Glass of Gascoigne, it was first used for satire, and by the year 
1585 it had come into almost universal use for theatrical purposes. 
In Lyly's The Woman in the Moon and Peek's Arraignment of 
Paris (both of 1584) we find blank verse struggling with rhymed 
verse and successfully holding its own. The earliest play written 
entirely in blank verse is supposed to be The Misfortunes of 
Arthur (1587) of Thomas Hughes. Marlowe now immediately 
followed, with the magnificent movement of his Tamburlaine 
(1589), which was mocked by satirical critics as " the swelling 
bombast of bragging blank verse" (Nash) and " the spacious 
volubility of a drumming decasyllable " (Greene), but which 
introduced a great new music into English poetry, in such 
" mighty lines "as 

" Still climbing after knowledge infinite, 
And always moving as the restless spheres," 

or: — 

" See where Christ's blood streams in the firmament! " 

Except, however, when he is stirred by a particularly vivid 
emotion, the blank verse of Marlowe continues to be' monotonous 
and uniform. It still depends too exclusively on a counting of 
syllables. But Shakespeare, after having returned to rhyme 
in his earliest dramas, particularly in The Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, adopted blank verse conclusively about the time that 
the career of Marlowe was closing, and he carried it to the greatest 
perfection in variety, suppleness and fulness. He released it 
from the excessive bondage that it had hitherto endured; as 
Robert Bridges has said, " Shakespeare, whose early verse may 
be described as syllabic, gradually came to write a verse depend- 
ent on stress." In comparison with that of his predecessors and 
successors, the blank verse of Shakespeare is essentially regular, 
and his prosody marks the admirable mean between the stiffness 
of his dramatic forerunners and the laxity of those who followed 
him. Most of Shakespeare's lines conform to the normal type 
of the decasyllable, and the rest are accounted for by familiar 
and rational rules of variation. The ease and fluidity of his 
prosody were abused by his successors, particularly by Beaumont 
and Fletcher, who employed the soft feminine ending to excess ; 
in Massinger dramatic blank verse came too near to prose, and 
in Heywood and Shirley it was relaxed to the point of losing all 
nervous vigour. 

The later dramatists gradually abandoned that rigorous 
difference which should always be preserved between the cadence 
of verse and prose, and the example of Ford, who endeavoured 
to revive the old severity of blank verse, was not followed. But 
just as the form was sinking into dramatic desuetude, it took 
new life in the direction of epic, and found its noblest proficient 
in the person of John Milton. The most intricate and therefore 
the most interesting blank verse which has been written is that 
of Milton in the great poems of his later life. He reduced the 
elisions, which had been frequent in the Elizabethan poets, to 
law; he admitted an extraordinary variety in the number of 
stresses; he deliberately inverted the rhythm in order to produce 
particular effects; and he multiplied at will the caesurae or 
breaks in a line. Such verses as 

" Arraying with reflected purple and gold — 
Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep — 
Universal reproach, far worse to bear — 
Me, me only, just object of his ire " — • 
are not mistaken in rhythm, nor to be scanned by forcing them 
to obey the conventional stress. They are instances, and 

Paradise Lost is full of such, of Milton's exquisite art in ringing 
changes upon the metrical type of ten syllables, five stresses and 
a rising rhythm, so as to make the whole texture of the verse 
respond to his poetical thought. Writing many years later 
in Paradise Regained and in Samson Agonistes, Milton retained 
his system of blank verse in its general characteristics, but he 
treated it with increased dryness and with a certain harshness 
of effect. It is certainly in his biblical drama that blank verse 
has been pushed to its most artificial and technical perfection, 
and it is there that Milton's theories are to be studied best; yet 
it must be confessed that learning excludes beauty in some of 
the very audacious irregularities which he here permits himself 
in Samson Agonistes. Such lines as 

" Made arms ridiculous, useless the forgery — 
My griefs not only pain me as a lingering disease — 
Drunk with idolatry, drunk with wine — 
Justly, yet despair not of his final pardon " — 

are constructed with perfect comprehension of metrical law, yet 
they differ so much from the normal structure of blank verse that 
they need to be explained, and to imitate them would be perilous. 
A persistent weakness in the third foot has ever been the snare of 
English blank verse, and it is this element of monotony and 
dulness which Milton is ceaselessly endeavouring to obviate by 
his wonderful inversions, elisions and breaks. 

After the Restoration, and after a brief period of experiment 
with rhymed plays, the dramatists returned to the use of blank 
verse, and in the hands of Otway, Lee and Dryden, it recovered 
much of its magnificence. In the 18th century, Thomson and 
others made use of a very regular and somewhat monotonous 
form of blank verse for descriptive and didactic poems, of which 
the Night Thoughts of Young is, from a metrical point of view, 
the most interesting. With these poets the form is little open to 
licence, while inversions and breaks are avoided as much as 
possible. Since the 18th century, blank verse has been subjected 
to constant revision in the hands of Wordsworth, Coleridge, 
Shelley, Keats, Tennyson, the Brownings and Swinburne, but 
no radical changes, of a nature unknown to Shakespeare and 
Milton, have been introduced into it. 

See J. A. Symonds, Blank Verse (1895); Walter Thomas, Le 
Decasyllabe romain et sa fortune en Europe (1904); Robert Bridges 
Milton's Prosody (1894); Ed. Guest, A History of English Rhythms 
(1882) ; J. Mothere, Les Theories du vers heroique anglais (1886) ; 
J. Schipper, Englische Metrik (1881-1888). (E. G.) 

BLANQUI, JEROME ADOLPHE (1798-1854), French econo- 
mist, was born at Nice on the 21st of November 1798. Begin- 
ning life as a schoolmaster in Paris, he was attracted to the study 
of economics by the lectures of J. B. Say, whose pupil and assist- 
ant he became. Upon the recommendation of Say he" was in 
1825 appointed professor of industrial economy and of history 
at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. In 1833 he succeeded 
Say as professor of political economy at the same institution, 
and in 1838 was elected a member of the Academie des Sciences 
Morales et Politiques. In 1838 appeared his most important 
work, Histoire de I'economie politique en Europe, depuis les 
anciens jusqu'd nos jours. He was indefatigable in research, 
and for the purposes of his economic inquiries travelled over 
almost the whole of Europe and visited Algeria and the East. 
He contributed much to our knowledge of the conditions of the 
working-classes, especially in France. Other works of Blanqui 
were De la situation Sconomique et morale de I'Espagne en 1846; 
Resume de I'histoire du commerce et de Vindustrie (1826); PrScis 
Mementaire d'economie politique (1826); Les Classes ouvrieres 
en France (1848). 

BLANQUI, LOUIS AUGUSTE (1805-1881), French publicist, 
was born on the 8th of February 1805 at Puget-Theniers, where 
his father, Jean Dominique Blanqui, was at that time sub- 
prefect. He studied both law and medicine, but found his real 
vocation in politics, and at once constituted himself a champion 
of the most advanced opinions. He took an active part in the 
revolution of July 1830, and continuing to maintain the doctrine 
of republicanism during the reign of Louis Philippe, was con- 
demned to repeated terms of imprisonment. Implicated in the 
armed outbreak of the Soci6te des Saisons, of which he was a 



leading spirit, he was in the following year, 1840, condemned 
to death, a sentence that was afterwards commuted to imprison- 
ment for life. He was released by the revolution of 1848, only 
to resume his attacks on existing institutions. The revolution, 
he declared, was a mere change of name. The violence of the 
Sociiti rSpublicaine centrale, which was founded by Blanqui to 
demand a modification of the government, brought him into 
conflict with the more moderate Republicans, and in 1849 ne 
was condemned to ten years' imprisonment. In 1865, while 
serving a further term of imprisonment under the Empire, he 
contrived to escape, and henceforth continued his propaganda 
against the government from abroad, until the general amnesty 
of i860 enabled him to return to France. Blanqui's leaning 
towards violent measures was illustrated in 1870 by two un- 
successful armed demonstrations: one on the 12th of January 
at the funeral of Victor Noir, the journalist shot by Pierre 
Bonaparte; the other on the 14th of August, when he led an 
attempt to seize some guns at a barrack. Upon the fall of the 
Empire, through the revolution of the 4th of September, Blanqui 
established the club and journal La patrie en danger. He was one 
of the band that for a moment seized the reins of power on the 
31st of October, and for his share in that outbreak he was again 
condemned to death on the 17 th of March of the following year. 
A few days afterwards the insurrection ' which established the 
Commune broke out, and Blanqui 'was elected a member of the 
insurgent government, but his detention in prison prevented 
him from taking an active part. Nevertheless he was in 1872 
condemned along with the other members of the Commune to 
transportation; but on account of his broken health this 
sentence was commuted to one of imprisonment. In 1879 he 
was elected a deputy for Bordeaux; although the election was 
pronounced invalid, Blanqui was set at liberty, and at once 
resumed his work of agitation. At the end of 1880, after a speech 
at a revolutionary meeting in Paris, he was struck down by 
apoplexy, and expired on the 1st of January 1881. Blanqui's 
uncompromising communism, and his determination to enforce 
it by violence, necessarily brought him into conflict with every 
French government, and half his life was spent in prison. Besides 
his innumerable contributions to journalism, he published an 
astronomical work entitled L'Eternite par les astres (1872), and 
after his death his writings on economic and social questions 
were collected under the title of Critique sociale (1885). 

A biography by G. Geffroy, L'Enferme (1897), is highly coloured 
and decidedly partisan. 

BLANTYRE, the chief town of the Nyasaland protectorate, 
British Central Africa. It is situated about 3000 ft. above the 
sea in the Shire Highlands 306 m. by river and rail N.N.W. of 
the Chinde mouth of the Zambezi. Pop. about 6000 natives 
and 100 whites. It is the headquarters of the principal trading 
firms and missionary societies in the protectorate. It is also a 
station on the African trans-continental telegraph line. The 
chief building is the Church of Scotland church, a fine red brick 
building, a mixture of Norman and Byzantine styles, with lofty 
turrets and white domes. It stands in a large open space and is 
approached by an avenue of cypresses and eucalyptus. The 
church was built entirely by native labour. Blantyre was 
founded in 1876 by Scottish missionaries, and is named after the 
birthplace of David Livingstone. 

BLANTYRE (Gaelic, "the warm retreat"), a parish of 
Lanarkshire, Scotland. Pop.- (1901) 14,145. The parish lies a 
few miles south-east of Glasgow, and contains High Blantyre 
(pop. 2521), Blantyre Works (or Low Blantyre), Stonefield 
and several villages. The whole district is rich in coal, the 
mining of which is extensively carried on. Blantyre Works 
(pop. 1683) was the birthplace of David Livingstone (1813- 
1873) and his brother Charles (1821-1873), who as lads were 
both employed as piecers in a local cotton-mill. The scanty 
remains of Blantyre Priory, founded towards the close of the 
13th century, stand on the left bank of the Clyde, almost opposite 
the beautiful ruins of Bothwell Castle. High Blantyre and 
Blantyre Works are connected with Glasgow by the Caledonian 
railway. Stonefield (pop. 7288), the most populous place in 

the parish, entirely occupied with mining, lies between High 
Blantyre and Blantyre Works. Calderwood Castle on Rotten 
Calder Water, near High Blantyre, is situated amid picturesque 

BLARNEY, a small town of Co. Cork, Ireland, in the mid 
parliamentary division, 5 m. N.W. of the city of Cork on 
the Cork & Muskerry light railway. Pop. (1901) 928. There 
is a large manufacture of tweed. The name " blarney " has 
passed into the language to denote a peculiar kind of persuasive 
eloquence, alleged to be characteristic of the natives of Ireland. 
The " Blarney Stone," the kissing of which is said to confer this 
faculty, is pointed out within the castle. The origin of this 
belief is not known. The castle, built c. 1446 by Cormac 
McCarthy, was of immense strength, and parts of its walls are 
as much as 18 ft. thick. To its founder is traced by some the 
origin of the term " blarney," since he delayed by persuasion 
and promises the surrender of the castle to the lord president. 
Richard Millikin's song, " The Groves of Blarney " (c. 1798), 
contributed to the fame of the castle, which is also bound up 
with the civil history of the county and the War of the Great 


artist, was born on the 15th of December 1848 in New York City; 
He was a pupil of Bonnat in Paris, and became (1888) a member 
of the National Academy of Design in New York. For some 
years a genre painter, he later turned to decorative work, marked 
by rare delicacy and beauty of colouring. He painted mural 
decorations for a dome in the manufacturers' building at the 
Chicago Exposition of 1893; for the dome of the Congressional 
library, Washington; for the capitol at St Paul, Minnesota; 
for the Baltimore court-house; in New York City for the Appellate 
court house, the grand ball-room of the Waldorf-Astoria hotel, 
the Lawyers' club, and the residences of W. K. Vanderbilt and 
Collis P. Huntington; and in Philadelphia for the residence of 
George W. Drexel. With his wife he wrote Italian Cities (1900) 
and edited Vasari's Lives of the Painters (1896), and was well 
known as a lecturer and writer on art. He became president of 
the Society of Mural Painters, and of the Society of American 

BLASIUS (or Blaise), SAINT, bishop of Sebaste or Sivas in 
Asia Minor, martyred under Diocletian on the 3rd of February 
316. The Roman Catholic Church holds his festival on the 3rd 
of February, the Orthodox Eastern Church on the nth. His 
flesh is said to have been torn with woolcombers' irons before he 
was beheaded, and this seems to be the only reason why he has 
always been regarded as the patron saint of woolcombers. In 
pre-Reformation England St Blaise was a very popular saint, 
and the council of Oxford in 1222 forbade all work on his festival. 
Owing to a miracle which he is alleged to have worked on a child 
suffering from a throat affection, who was brought to him on his 
way to execution, St Blaise's aid has always been held potent in 
throat and lung diseases. The woolcombers of England still 
celebrate St Blaise's day with a procession and general festivities. 
He forms one of a group of fourteen (i.e. twice seven) saints, who 
for their help in time of need have been associated as objects of 
particularly devoted worship in Roman Catholic Germany since 
the middle of the 1 5th century. 
See William Hone, Every Day Book, i. 210. 

BLASPHEMY (through the Fr. from Gr. /3Xa<r0r;/wa, profane 
language, slander, probably derived from root of J3\airTtii>, to 
injure, and $1^17, speech), literally, defamation or evil speaking, 
but more peculiarly restricted to an indignity offered to the 
Deity by words or writing. By the Mosaic law death by stoning 
was the punishment for blasphemy (Lev. xxiv. 16). The 77th 
Novel of Justinian assigned death as the penalty, as did also the 
Capitularies. The common law of England treats blasphemy as 
an indictable offence. All blasphemies against God, as denying 
His being, or providence, all contumelious reproaches of Jesus 
Christ, all profane scoffing at the Holy Scriptures, or exposing 
any part thereof to contempt or ridicule, are punishable by the 
temporal courts with fine, imprisonment and also infamous 
corporal punishment. An act of Edward VI. (1547; repealed 



r 553» and revived 1558) enacts that persons reviling the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, by contemptuous words or otherwise, 
shall suffer imprisonment. Persons denying the Trinity were 
deprived of the benefit of the Act of Toleration by an act of 1688. 
An act of 1697-1698, commonly called the Blasphemy Act, 
enacts that if any person, educated in or having made profession 
of the Christian religion, should by writing, preaching, teaching or 
advised speaking, deny any one of the Persons of the Holy Trinity 
to be God, or should assert or maintain that there are more gods 
than one, or should deny the Christian religion to be true, or the 
Holy Scriptures to be of divine authority, he should, upon the 
first offence, be rendered incapable of holding any office or place 
of trust, and for the second incapable of bringing any action, of 
being guardian or executor, or of taking a legacy or deed of gift, 
and should suffer three years' imprisonment without bail. It 
has been held that a person offending under the statute is also 
indictable at common law {Rex v. Carlisle, 1819, where Mr 
Justice Best remarks, " In the age of toleration, when that 
statute passed, neither churchmen nor sectarians wished to 
protect in their infidelity those who disbelieved the Holy 
Scriptures"). An act of 1812-1813 excepts from these enact- 
ments " persons denying as therein mentioned respecting the 
Holy Trinity," but otherwise the common and the statute law on 
the subject remain as stated. In the case of Rex v. Woolston 
(1728) the court declared that they would not suffer it to be 
debated whether to write against Christianity in general was not 
an offence punishable in the temporal courts at common law, but 
they did not intend to include disputes between learned men on 
particular controverted points. 

The law against blasphemy has practically ceased to be put in 
active operation. In 1841 Edward Moxon was found guilty of 
the publication of a blasphemous libel (Shelley's Queen Mab), the 
prosecution having been instituted by Henry Hetherington, who 
had previously been condemned to four months' imprisonment 
for a similar offence, and wished to test the law under which he 
was punished. In the case of Cowan v. Milboum (1867) the 
defendant had broken his contract to let a lecture-room to the 
plaintiff, on discovering that the intended lectures were to 
maintain that " the character of Christ is defective, and his 
teaching misleading, and that the Bible is no more inspired than 
any other book," and the court of exchequer held that the 
publication of such doctrine was blasphemy, and the contract 
therefore illegal. On that occasion the court reaffirmed the 
dictum of Chief Justice Hale, that Christianity is part of the laws 
of England. The commissioners on criminal law (sixth report) 
remark that " although the law forbids all denial of the being and 
providence of God or the Christian religion, it is only when 
irreligion assumes the form of an insult to God and man that the 
interference of the criminal law has taken place." In England 
the last prominent prosecution for blasphemy was the case of 
R. v. Ramsey &" Foote, 1883, 48 L.T. 739, when the editor, 
publisher and printer of the Freethinker were sentenced to 
imprisonment; but police court proceedings were taken as late 
as 1908 against an obscure Hyde Park orator who had become a 
public nuisance. 

Profane cursing and swearing is made punishable by the 
Profane Oaths Act 1745, which directs the offender to be brought 
before a justice of the peace, and fined five shillings, two shillings 
or one shilling, according as he is a gentleman, below the rank of 
gentleman, or a common labourer, soldier, &c. 

By the law of Scotland, as it originally stood, the punishment 
of blasphemy was death, but by an act of 1825, amended in 
1837, blasphemy was made punishable by fine or imprisonment 
or both. 

In France, blasphemy (which included, also, speaking against 
the Holy Virgin and the saints, denying one's faith, or speaking 
with impiety of holy things) was from very early times punished 
with great severity. The punishment was death in various 
forms, burning alive, mutilation, torture or corporal punishment. 
In the United States the common law of England was largely 
followed, and in most of the states, also, statutes were enacted 
against the offence, but, as in England, the law is practically 

never put in force. In Germany, the punishment for blasphemy 
is imprisonment varying from one day to three years, according 
to the gravity of the offence. To constitute the offence, the 
blasphemy must be uttered in public, be offensive in character, 
and have wounded the religious susceptibilities of some other 
person. In Austria, whoever commits blasphemy by speech or 
writing is liable to imprisonment for any term from six months 
up to ten years, according to the seriousness of the offence. 

BLASS, FRIEDRICH (1843-1907), German classical scholar, 
was born on the 22nd of January 1843 at Osnabriick. After 
studying at Gottingen and Bonn from i860 to 1863, he lectured at 
several gymnasia and at the university of Konigsberg. In 1876 
be was appointed extraordinary professor of classical philology 
at Kiel, and ordinary professor in 1881. In 1892 he accepted a 
professorship at Halle, where he died on the 5th of March 1907. 
He frequently visited England, and was intimately acquainted 
with leading British scholars. He received an honorary degree 
from Dublin University in 1892, and his readiness to place the 
results of his labours at the disposal of others, together with the 
courtesy and kindliness of his disposition, won the respect of all 
who knew him. Blass is chiefly known for his works in connexion 
with the study of Greek oratory: Die griechische Beredsamkeit 
von Alexander bis auf Augustus (1865); Die attische Beredsamkeit 
(1868-1880; 2nd ed., 1887-1898), his greatest work; editions 
for the Teubner series of Andocides (1880), Antiphon (1881), 
Hypereides (1881, 1804), Demosthenes (Dindorf's ed., 1885), 
Isocrates (1886), Dinarchus (1888), Demosthenes (Rehdantz' ed., 
1893), Aeschines (1896), Lycurgus, Leocrates (1902); Die 
Rhythmen der atliscben Kunslprosa (1901); Die Rhythmen der 
asianischen und romischen Kunstprosa (1905). Among his other 
works are editions of Eudoxus of Cnidus (1887), the 'KB^vaiuv 
iroKLTeia (4th ed., 1903), a work of great importance, and Bacchy- 
lides (3rd. ed., 1904) ; Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch 
(1902; Eng. trans, by H. St John Thackeray, 1905); Hermeneu- 
tik und Kritik and Paldographie, Buchwesen, und Handschrijten- 
kunde (vol. i. of Miiller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertums- 
wissenschaft, 1891); JJber die Aussprache des Griechischen (1888; 
Eng. trans, by W. J. Purton, 1890); Die Interpolationen in der 
Odyssee (1904); contributions to Collitz's Sammlung der griechi- 
schen Dialektinschriften; editions of the texts of certain portions 
of the New Testament (Gospels and Acts). His last work was an. 
edition of the Choephori (1906). 

See notices in the Academy, March 16, 1907 (J. P. Mahaffy) ; 
Classical Review, May 1907 (J. E. Sandys), which contains also a 
review of Die Rhythmen der asianischen und romischen Kunstprosa. 

BLASTING, the process of rending or breaking apart a solid 
body, such as rock, by exploding within it or in contact with it 
some explosive substance. The explosion is accompanied by the 
sudden development of gas at a high temperature and under a 
tension sufficiently great to overcome the resistance of the 
enclosing body, which is thus shattered and disintegrated. 
Before the introduction of explosives, rock was laboriously 
excavated by hammer and chisel, or by the ancient process of 
" fire-setting," i.e. building a fire against the rock, which, on 
cooling, splits and flakes off. To hasten disintegration, water 
was often applied to the heated rock, the loosened portion being 
afterwards removed by pick or hammer and wedge. In modern 
times blasting has become a necessity for the excavation of rock 
and other hard material, as in open surface cuts, quarrying, 
tunnelling, shaft-sinking and mining operations in general. 

For blasting, a hole is generally drilled to receive the charge of 
explosive. The depth and diameter of the hole and the quantity 
of explosive used are all variable, depending on the character of 
the rock and of the explosive, the shape of the mass to be blasted, 
the presence or absence of cracks or fissures, and the position of the 
hole with respect to the free surface of the rock. The shock of 
a blast produces impulsive waves acting radially in all directions, 
the force being greatest at the centre of explosion and varying 
inversely as the square of the distance from the charge. This 
is evidenced by the observed facts. Immediately surrounding 
the explosive, the rock is often finely, splintered and crushed. 
Beyond this is a zone in which it is completely broken and 



displaced or projected, leaving an enveloping mass of more or 
less ragged fractured rock only partially loosened. Lastly, the 
diminishing waves produce vibrations which are transmitted to 
considerable distances. Theoretically, if a charge of explosive be 
tired in a solid material of perfectly homogeneous texture and at 
a proper distance from the free surface, a conical mass will be 
blown out to the full depth of the drill hole, leaving a funnel- 
shaped cavity. No rock, however, is of uniform mineralogical 
and physical character, so that in practice there is only a rough 
approximation to the conical crater, even under the most favour- 
able conditions. Generally, the shape of the mass blasted out is 
extremely irregular, because of the variable texture of the rock 
and the presence of cracks, fissures and cleavage planes. The 
ultimate or resultant useful effect of the explosion of a confined 
charge is in the direction where the least resistance is presented. 
In the actual work of rock excavation it is only by trial, or by 
deductions based on experience, that the behaviour of a given 
rock can be determined and the quantity of explosive required 
properly proportioned. 

Blasting, as usually carried on, comprises several operations: 
(i) drilling holes in the rock to be blasted; (2) placing in the hole 
the charge of explosive, with its fuze; (3) tamping the charge, i.e. 
compacting it and filling the remainder of the hole with some 
suitable material for preventing the charge from blowing out 
without breaking the ground; (4) igniting or detonating the 
charge; (5) clearing away the broken material. The holes for 
blasting are made either by hand, with hammer and drill or 
jumper, or by machine drill, the latter being driven by steam, 
compressed air, or electricity, or,in rare cases,by hydraulic power. 
Drill holes ordinarily vary in diameter from 1 to 3 in., and in 
depth from a few inches up to 15 or 20 ft. or more. The deeper 
holes are made only in surface excavation of rock, the shallower, 
to a maximum depth of say 12 ft., being suitable for tunnelling 
and mining operations. 

Hand Drilling. — -The work is either " single-hand " or " double- 
hand." In single-hand drilling, the miner wields the hammer with 
one hand, and with the other holds the drill or " bit," rotating it 
slightly after every blow in order to keep the hole round and 
prevent the drill from sticking fast; in double-hand work, 
one man strikes, while the other holds and rotates the 
drill. For large and deep holes, two hammermen are 
sometimes employed. 

A miner's drill is a steel bar, occasionally round but 
generally of octagonal cross-section, one end of which is 
forged out to a cutting edge (fig. 1). The edge of the drill 
is made either straight, like that of a chisel, or with a 
convex curve, the latter shape being best for very hard 
rock. For hard rock the cutting edge should be rather 
thicker and blunter, and therefore stronger, than for soft 
rock. Drills are made of high-grade steel, as they must 
FlG. I. be tempered accurately and uniformly. The diameter of 
drill steel for hand work is usually from j to I in., and the 
length of cutting edge, or gauge, of the drill is always greater 
than the diameter of the shank, in the proportion of from 7 '4 
to 4-3. Holes over 10 or 12 in. deep generally require the use of a 
set of drills of different lengths and depending in number on the 
depth required. The shortest drill, for starting the hole, has the 
widest cutting edge, the edges of the others being successively 
narrower and graduated to follow each other properly, as drill after 
drill is dulled in deepening the hole. Thus the hole decreases 
in diameter as it is made deeper. The miner's hammer (fig. 2) 
ranges in weight from 3! to 4i ft for single-hand drilling, up to 
8 or 10 ft for double-hand. If the hole is directed downward, a 
little water is poured into it at intervals, to keep the cutting edge 
of the drill cool and make a thin mud of the cuttings. From time 
to time the hole is cleaned out by the " scraper " or " spoon," a 

long slender iron bar, forged 
in the shape of a hollow 
semi-cylinder, with one end 
flattened and turned over at 
right angles. If the hole is 
directed steeply upward and 
the rock is dry, the cuttings 
will run out continuously 
during the drilling; other 

ployed for drilling holes horizontally or upward. Other tools used 
in connexion with rock-drilling are the pick and gad. 

Holes drilled by hand usually vary in depth from say 18 to 36 in., 
according to the nature of the rock and purpose of the work, though 
deeper holes are often made. For soft rock, single-hand drilling is 
from 20 to 30% cheaper than double-hand, but this difference does 
not hold good for the harder rocks. For these double-hand drilling 
is preferable, and may even be 
essential, to secure a reason- 
able speed of work. 

Machine Drills. — The intro- 
duction of machine drills in 
the latter part of the 19th cen- 
tury exerted an important in- 
fluence on the work of rock 
excavation in general, and 
specially on the art of mining. 
By their use many great tun- 
nels and other works involving 
rock excavation under adverse 
conditions have been rapidly 

and successfully carried out. 
Before the invention of 

machine drills such work pro- 
gressed slowly and with diffi- 
culty. Nearly all machine 

drills are of the reciprocating 

or percussive type, in which 

the drill bit is firmly clamped 

to the piston rod and delivers 

a rapid succession of strong . 

blows on the bottom of the - 

hole. The ordinary compressed 

air drill (which may, for surface 

work, be operated also by 

steam) may be taken as an 

illustration. The piston works 

in a cylinder, provided with a 

that of 

Fig. 3. — Ingersoll-Sergeant 
Mining Drill. 

valve motion somewhat similar to 
a steam-engine, together with an automatic device for 
producing the necessary rotation of the piston and drill bit. While 
at work the machine is mounted on a heavy tripod (fig. 3) ; or, if 
underground, sometimes on an iron column or bar, firmly wedged in 
position between the roof and floor, or side walls, of the tunnel or 
mine working. As the hole is deepened, the entire drill head, is 
gradually fed forward on its support by a screw feed, a succession 
of longer and longer drill bits being used as required. 

Among the numerous types and makes of percussion drill may 
be named the following: — Adelaide, Climax, Darlington, Dubois- 
Frangois, Ferroux, Froelich, Hirnant, Ingersoll, Jeffrey, Leyner, 
McKiernan, Rand, Schram, Sergeant, Sullivan and Wood. 

One of the simplest of the machine drills is the Darlington (figs. 4 
and 5): a is the cylinder; 6, piston rod; c, bit; d,d, air inlets, 

Inches 12 

Figs. 4 and 5. — Darlington's Rock Drill. 

Fig. 2. — Sledge-hammer. 

wise the scraper is necessary, or a small pipe with a plunger like 
a syringe is used for washing out the cuttings. The " jumper " is a 
long steel bar, with cutting edges on one or both ends, which is 
alternately raised and dropped in the hole by one or two men. In 
rock work the jumper is rarely used except for holes directed steeply 
downward, though for coal or soft shale or slate it may be em- 

either being used according to the position of the drill while at 
work; h, piston; j, rifle-bar for rotating piston and bit; k, ratchet 
attached to j ; I, brass nut, screwed into h, and in which j works ; 
/, chuck for holding drill-bit; n, air port communicating between 
ends of cylinder, front and back of piston; 0, exhaust port. This 
machine has no valve. From- its construction, the compressed air 
(or steam) is always acting on the annular shoulder round the for- 
ward end of the piston. The piston is thereby forced back on the 



in-stroke until the port » is uncovered. This admits the compressed air 
to the rear end of the cylinder, and as the area of this end of the piston 
is much greater than that of the shoulder on the other end, the piston 
is driven forward and strikes its blow. When it has advanced far 
enough to cover the exhaust port o, the air behind the piston is 
exhausted, and, under the constant inward pressure noted above, 
the stroke is reversed. The rotation of piston and bit is caused by 
the rifle-bar j. On the outward stroke, j, with its ratchet k, is free 
to turn under a couple of pawls and springs, and consequently the 
piston delivers its blow without rotation. On the inward stroke the 
ratchet is held fast by the pawls, and the piston and bit are forced to 
rotate through a small part of a revolution. The cylinder is fed 
forward with respect to the shell r, by rotating the handle p, which 
works a long screw-bar engaging with a nut on the under side of the 
cylinder. The shell r is bolted to the clamp s, which in turn is 
mounted on the hollow column or bar g, or on a tripod, according to 
(he character of the work. By means of the adjustable clamp s, 
the machine can be set for drilling a hole in any desired direction. 
The drill makes from 400 to 800 strokes per minute. 

The " New Ingersoll " drill, which may be taken as an example 
of the numerous machines in which valves are used, is shown in 
section in fig. 6. The steam or compressed air is distributed through 
the ports alternately to the ends of the cylinder, by the reciprocations 
of a spool-valve working in a chest mounted on the cylinder. The 
movements of this valve are caused by the strokes of the main 
piston, which, by means of the wide annular groove around the 
middle of the piston, alternately open and close the spool-valve 
exhaust ports. Fig. 3 shows the Ingersoll "Light Mining drill," 
as mounted on a tripod, and in position for drilling a hole vertically 
downward. In the Leyner drill the drill-bit is not connected to 
the piston, but is struck a quick succession of blows by the latter. 
An important feature of this machine is the provision lor directing 
a stream of water into the hole for clearing out the cuttings. For 
this purpose the shank of the drill-bit is perforated longitudinally, 
the water being supplied under pressure from a small tank, to which 
compressed air is led. 

A rock drill of entirely different design, the Brandt, has been 
successfully used in Europe for driving railway tunnels. It is 
operated by hydraulic power, the pressure water being supplied by 
a pump. The hollow drill-bit, which has a serrated cutting edge, is 
forced under heavy pressure against the bottom of the hole, and is 
rotated slowly — at six to eight revolutions per minute — by a pair of 
small hydraulic cylinders, thus grinding and crushing the rock instead 
of chipping it. The bottom of the hole is kept clean and the drill-bit 
cooled by a stream of water passing down through its hollow shank. 
On account of its size and weight, this machine is not suitable for 
mine work. 

Most of the machine drills are made in a number of sizes, from 
2 in. up to 5 in. diameter of cylinder, the larger sizes being capable 
of drilling holes 5 in. diameter and 30 ft. deep. They range in weight 
from say 95 to 690 lb for the drill head (unmounted), the tripods 
weighing from 40 to 260 lb, exclusive of the weights placed for 
stability on the tripod legs (fig. 3). The sizes in most common use 
for mining are from 2.\ in. to 3^ in. diameter of cylinder. In rock of 
average hardness the best drills make from 4 to 75 linear ft. of hole 
per hour. For use in narrow veins, or other confined workings 
underground, several extremely small and light compressed air 
drills have been introduced, as, for example, the Franke and Wonder, 
the first of which weighs complete only 16 lb, and the second 18 lb. 
These drills are held in the hands of the miner in the required position, 
and strike a rapid succession of light blows. A large number of 
mechanical drills operated by hand power have been invented. 
Some imitate hand-drilling in the mode of delivering the blow; in 

has been successfully used in collieries, viz. rotary auger drills, 
mounted on light columns and driven through gearing hy diminutive 
motors. These are intended for boring in coal, slate or other similar 
soft material. Hand augers resembling a carpenter's brace and bit 
are also often used in collieries. 

Whatever may be the method of drilling, after the hole has been 
completed to the depth required, it is finally cleaned out by a scraper 
or swab; or, when compressed air drills are used, by a jet of air 
directed into the hole by a short piece of pipe connected through a 
flexible hose with the compressed air supply pipe. The hole is then 
ready for the charge. 

Location and Arrangement of Holes. — For hand drilling in mining 
the position of the holes is determined largely by the character and 

Fig. 7. 

shape of the face of rock to be blasted. The miner observes the 
joints and cracks of the rock, placing the holes to take advantage 
of them and so obtain the best result from the blast. In driving a 
tunnel or drift, as in figs. 7 and 8, the rock joints can be made of 
material assistance by beginning with hole No. I and following in 
succession by Nos. 2, 3 and 4. Frequently the ore, or vein matter, 
is separated from the wall-rock by a thin, soft layer of clay (D,D, 
fig. 8). This would act almost as a free face, and the first holes of 
the round would be directed at an angle towards it, for blasting out 
a wedge; after which the positions of the other holes would be 

When machine drills are employed, less attention is given to 
natural cracks or joints, chiefly because when the drill is once set up 
several holes at 
different angles 
can be drilled in 
succession by 
merely swinging 
the cylinder of 
the machine into 
a new position 
with respect to 
its m o u n t i ng. 
According to one 
method, the holes 
are placed with 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10. 

Fig. 6. — New Ingersoll Drill. 

others the drill-bit is caused to reciprocate by means of combinations 
of crank and spring. None of these machines is entirely satisfactory, 
and but few are in use. 

Among percussion rock-drills operated by electricity are the 
Bladray, Box, Durkee, Marvin and Siemens-Halske. The Marvin 
drill works with a solenoid ; most of the others have crank and spring 
movements for producing the reciprocations of the piston. Power 
is furnished by a small electric motor, either mounted on the machine 
itself, as with the Box drill, or more often standing on the ground 
and transmitting its power through a flexible shaft. Although rather 
frequently used, electric percussion drills cannot yet be considered 
entirely successful, at least for mine service, in competition with 
compressed air machines. Another type of electric drill, however, 

some degree of symmetry, in roughly concentric rings, as shown 
by figs. 9 and 10. The centre holes are blasted first, and are 
followed by the others in one or more volleys as indicated by the 
dotted lines. Another method is the " centre cut," in which the 
holes are drilled in parallel rows on each side of the centre line of the 
tunnel, drift or shaft. Those in the two rows nearest the middle are 
directed towards each other, and enclose a prism of rock, which is 
first blasted out by heavy charges, after which the rows of side holes 
will break with relatively light charges. 

Explosives.— A great variety of explosives are in use for blasting 
purposes. Up to 1864, gunpowder was the only available 
explosive, but in that year Alfred Nobel first applied nitro- 
glycerin for blasting, and in 1867 invented dynamite. This 
name was originally applied to his mixture of nitroglycerin 
with kieselguhr, but now includes also other mechanical 
mixtures or chemical compounds which develop a high 
explosive force as compared with gunpowder. Besides these 
there are the so-called nameless or safety explosives, used 
in collieries where inflammable gases are given off from the 

Gunpowder, or black powder, is seldom used for rock- 
blasting, except in quarrying building-stone, where slow 
explosives of relatively low power are desirable to avoid 
shattering the stone, and in such collieries as do not require the 
use of safety explosives. Gunpowder is exploded by deflagration, 
by means of a fuze, and exerts a comparatively slow and rending 
force. The high explosives, on the other hand, are exploded by 
detonation, through the agency of a fuze and fulminating cap, 
exerting a quick, shattering, rather than a rending force. Dyna- 
mites and flameless explosives are made in a variety of strengths, 
and are packed in waterproofed cartridges of different sizes. The 
grades of dynamite most commonly employed contain from 35 
to 60% of nitroglycerin; the stronger are used for tough rock 
or deep holes, or for holes unfavourably placed in narrow mine 
workings, as sometimes in shaft-sinking or tunnelling. When of 
good quality high explosives are safer to handle than gunpowder, 



as they cannot be ignited by sparks and are not so easily exploded. 
The ordinary dynamites used in mining are about four times as 
powerful as gunpowder. 

Nitroglycerin in its liquid form is now rarely used for blasting, 

Cartly because its full strength is not often necessary but chiefly 
ecause of the difficulty and danger of transporting, handling and 
charging it. If employed at all, it is charged in thin tinned plate 
cases or rubber-cloth cartridges. 

Blasting with Black Powder. — The powder is coarse-grained, 
usually from | to fV in. in size, and is charged in paper cartridges, 
8 to 10 in. long and of a proper diameter to fit loosely in the drill 
hole. A piece of fuze, long enough to reach a little beyond the 
mouth of the hole, is inserted in the cartridge and tied fast. For 
wet holes paraffined paper is used, the miner waterproofing the joints 
with grease. When more than one cartridge is required for the blast, 
that which has the fuze attached is usually charged last. The 
cartridges are carefully rammed down by a wooden tamping bar 
and the remainder of the hole filled with tamping. This consists of 
finely broken rock, dry clay or other comminuted material, carefully 
compacted by the tamping bar on top of the charge. The fuze is a 
cord, having in the centre a core of gunpowder, enclosed in several 
layers of linen or hemp waterproofed covering. It is ignited by the 
miner's candle or lamp, or by a candle end so placed at the mouth 
of the hole that the flame must burn its way through the fuze cover- 
ing. As the fuze burns slowly, at the rate of 2 or 3 ft. per minute, 
the miner uses a sufficient length to allow him to reach a place of 

For blasting in coal, " squibs " instead of fuzes are often used. 
A squib is simply a tiny paper rocket, about | in. diameter by 3 in. 
long, containing fine gunpowder and having a sulphur slow-match 
at one end. It is fired into the charge through a channel in the 
tamping. This channel may be formed by a piece of J in. gas pipe, 
tamped in the hole and reaching the charge; or a " needle," a long 
taper iron rod, is laid longitudinally in the hole, with its point 
entering the charge, and after the tamping is finished, by carefully 
withdrawing the needle a little channel is left, through which the 
squib is fired. In this connexion it may be noted that for breaking 
ground in gassy collieries several substitutes for explosives have 
been used to a limited extent, e.g. plugs of dry wood driven tightly 
into a row of drill holes, and which on being wetted swell and split 
the coal; quicklime cartridges, which expand powerfully On the 
application of water; simple wedges, driven by hammer into the 
drill holes; multiple wedges, inserted in the holes and operated 
by hydraulic pressure from a small hand force-pump. 

Blasting with High Explosives. — High explosives are fired either 
by ordinary fuze and detonating cap or by electric fuze. Detonating 
caps of ordinary strength contain 10 to 15 grains of fulminating 
mixture. The cap is crimped tight on the end of the fuze, embedded 
in the cartridge, and on being exploded by fire from the fuze detonates 
the charge. The number of cartridges charged depends on the depth 
of hole, the length of the line of least resistance, and the toughness 
and other characteristics of the rock. Each cartridge should be 
solidly tamped, and, to avoid waste spaces in the hole, which would 
reduce the effect of the blast, it is customary to split the paper 
covering lengthwise with a knife. This allows the dynamite to 
spread under the pressure of the tamping bar. The cap is often 
placed in the cartridge preceding the last one charged, but it is 
better to insert it last, in a piece of cartridge called a " primer." 
Though the dynamites are not exploded by sparks, they should 
nevertheless always be handled carefully. It is not so essential to 
fill the hole completely and so thoroughly to compact the tamping, 
as in charging black powder, because of the greater rapidity and 
shattering force of the explosion of dynamite; tamping, however, 
should never be omitted, as it increases the efficiency of the blast. 
In exploding dynamite, strong caps, containing say 15 grains of 
fulminating powder, produce the best results. Weaker caps are not 
economical, as they do not produce complete detonation of the 
dynamite. This is specially true if the weather be cold. Dynamite 
then becomes less sensitive, and the cartridges should be gently 
warmed before charging, to a temperature of not more than §0° F. 
Poisonous fumes are often produced by the explosion of the nitro- 
glycerin compounds. These are probably largely due to incomplete 
detonation, by which part of the nitroglycerin is vaporized or 
merely burned. This is most likely to occur when the dynamite is 
chilled, or of poor quality, or when the cap is too weak, There is 
generally but little inconvenience from the fumes, except in confined 
underground workings, where ventilation is imperfect. 

Like nitroglycerin, the common dynamites freeze at a temperature 
of from 42 ° to 46 F. They are then comparatively safe, and so far 
as possible should be transported in the frozen state. At very low 
temperatures dynamite again becomes somewhat sensitive to shock. 
When it is frozen at ordinary temperatures even the strongest 
detonating caps fail to develop the full force. In thawing dynamite, 
care must be exercised. The fact that a small quantity will often 
burn quietly has led to the dangerously mistaken notion that mere 
heating will not cause explosion. It is chiefly a question of tempera- 
ture. If the quantity ignited by flame be large enough to heat the 
entire mass to the detonating point (say 36cr F.) before all is con- 
sumed, an explosion will result. Furthermore, dynamite, when 
even moderately heated, becomes extremely sensitive to shocks. 

There are several accepted modes of thawing dynamite: (1) In a 
water bath, the cartridges being placed in a vessel surrounded on 
the sides and bottom by warm water contained in a larger enclosing 
vessel. The warm water may be renewed from time to time, or 
the water bath placed over a candle or small lamp, not on a stove. 
(2) In two vessels, similar to the above, with the space between them 
occupied by air, provided the heat applied can be definitely limited, 
as by using a candle. (3) When large quantities of dynamite are 
used a supply may be kept on shelves in a wooden room or chamber, 
warmed by a stove, or by a coil of pipe heated by exhaust steam 
from an engine. Live steam should not be used, as the heat might 
become excessive. Thawing should always take place slowly, never 
before an open fire or by direct contact with a stove or steam pipes 
and care must be taken that the heat does not rise high enough to 
cause sweating or exudation of liquid nitroglycerin from the 
cartridges, which would be a source of danger. 

For the storage of explosives at mines, &c. , proper magazines must 
be provided, situated in a safe place, not too near other buildings, 
and preferably of light though fireproof construction. Masonry 
magazines, though safer from some points of view, may be the cause 
of greater damage in event of an explosion, because the brick or 
stones act as projectiles. Isolated and abandoned mine workings, 
if dry, are sometimes used as magazines. 

Firing blasts by electricity has a wide application for both surface 
and underground work. An electrical fuze (fig. 11) consists of a 
pair of fine, insulated copper wires, several feet long and about 3*5 
of an inch in diameter, with their bare ends inserted in a detonating 
cap. For firing, the fuze wires are joined to long leading wires, 
connected with some source of electric current. By joining the fuze 
wires in series or in groups, any number of holes may be 
fired simultaneously, according to the current avail- 
able. A round of holes fired in this way, as for driving 
tunnels, sinking shafts, or in large surface excavations, 
produces better results, both in economy of explosive 
and effect of the blast, than when the holes are fired 
singly or in succession. Also, the miners are enabled to 
prepare for the blast with more care and deliberation, 
and then to reach a place of safety before the current 
is transmitted. Another advantage is that there is no 
danger of a hole " hanging fire," which sometimes 
causes accidents in using ordinary fuzes. 

Hanging fire may be due to a cut, broken or dam- 
aged powder fuze, which may smoulder for some time 
before communicating fire to the charge. " Miss-fires," 
which also are of not infrequent occurrence with both 
ordinary and electric fuzes, are cases where explosion 
from any cause fails to take place. After waiting a 
sufficient length of time before approaching the charged 
hole, the miner carefully removes the tamping down to 
within a few inches of the explosives and inserts and 
fires another cartridge, the concussion usually detonat- 
ing the entire charge. Sometimes another hole is 
drilled near the one which has missed. No attempt to 
remove the old charge should ever be made. p IG IJ) 

High tension electricity, generated by a frictiohal El ec tricaJ 
machine, provided with a condenser, was formerly Fuze 
much used for blasting. The bare ends of the fuze 
wires in the detonating cap are placed say | in. apart, leaving 
a gap across which a spark is discharged, passing through a 
priming charge of some sensitive composition. The priming 
is not only combustible but also a conductor of electricity, 
such as an intimate mixture of potassium chlorate with copper 
sulphide and phosphide. By the combustion of the priming the 
fulminate mixture in the cap is detonated. As these fuzes are more 
apt to deteriorate when exposed to dampness than fuzes for low- 
tension current, and the generating machine is rather clumsy and 
fragile, low-tension current is more generally employed. It may be 
generated by a small, portable dynamo, operated by hand, or may be 
derived from a battery or from any convenient electric circuit. The 
ends of the fuze wires in the detonating cap are connected by a 
fine platinum filament (fig. 11), embedded in a guncotton priming 
on top of the fulminating mixture, and explosion results from the 
heat generated by the resistance opposed to the passage of the 
current through the filament. Blasting machines are made in 
several sizes, the smaller ones being capable of firing simultaneously 
from ten to twenty holes. The fuzes must obviously be of uniform 
electrical resistance, to ensure that all the connected charges will 
explode simultanefously. The premature explosion of any one of the 
fuzes would break the circuit. 

In the actual operations of blasting, definite rules for the pro- 
portioning of the charges are rarely observed, and although the blasts 
made by a skilful miner seldom fail to do their work, it is a common 
fault that too much, rather than too little, explosive is used. The 
high explosives are specially liable to be wasted, probably through 
lack of appreciation of their power as compared with that of black 
powder. Among the indications of excessive charges are the pro- 
duction of much finely broken rock or of crushed and splintered rock 
around the bottom of the hole, and excessive displacement or 
projection of the rock broken by the blast. In beginning any new 
piece of work, such waste may be avoided or reduced by making 

4 8 


trial shots with different charges and depths of hole, and noting the 
results; also by letting contracts under which the workmen pay for 
the explosive. In surface rock excavation the location and deter- 
mination of the depth of the holes and the quantity of explosive 
used, are occasionally put in charge of one or more skilled men, 
who direct the work and are responsible for the results obtained. 

Blasting in surface excavations and quarries is sometimes done 
on an immense scale — called " mammoth blasting." Shafts are 
sunk, or tunnels driven, in the mass of rock to be blasted, and, 
connected with them, a number of chambers are excavated to 
receive the charges of explosive. The preparation for such blasts 
may occupy months, and many tons of gunpowder or dynamite 
are at times exploded simultaneously, breaking or dislodging thou- 
sands, or even hundreds of thousands, of tons of rock. This method 
is adopted for getting stone cheaply, as for building macadamized 
roads, dams and breakwaters, obtaining limestone for blast furnace 
flux, and occasionally in excavating large railway cuttings. It is 
also applied in submarine blasting for the removal of reefs obstructing 
navigation, and sometimes for loosening extensive banks of partly 
cemented gold-bearing gravel, preparatory to washing by hydraulic 

Authorities. — For further information on drilling and blasting 
see: — Callon, Lectures on Mining (1876), vol. i. chs. v. and vi.; 
Foster, Text-book of Ore and Stone Mining, (1900), ch. iv. ; Hughes, 
Text-book of Coal Mining (1901), ch. iii. ; H. S. Drinker, Tunnelling, 
Explosive Compounds and Rock Drills (1878) ; M. C. Ihlseng, Manual 
of Mining (1905), pp. 596-696; Kohler, Der Bergbaukunde (1897), 
pp. 104-208; Daw, The Blasting of Rock (1898); Prelini, Earth and 
Rock Excavation (1905), chs. v., vi. and vii.; Gillette, The Excavation 
of Rock (1904); Guttmann, Blasting (1892); Spon's Dictionary of 
Engineering, art. "Boring and Blasting"; Eissler, Modern High 
Explosives (1893), pts. ii. and iii.; Walke, Lectures on Explosives 
(1897), chs. xix.-xxii. Also: Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. (London), 
vol. Ixxxv. p. 264; Trans. Inst. Min. Eng. (England), vols, xiv., xv. 
and xvi. (arts, by VV. Maurice), vol. xxvi. pp. 322, 348, vol. xxiv. 
p. 526 and vol. xxv. p. 108; Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Eng., vol. xxvii. 
P- 53°; Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xviii. p. 370, vol. xxix 
p. 405 and vol. xxxiv. p. 871; South Wales Inst. Eng. (1888); 
Jour. Ass. Eng. Socs., vol. vii. p. 58; Jour. Chem. Met. and Mining 
Soc. of South Africa, August 1905 ; School of Mines Quarterly, N. Y., 
vol. ix. p. 308; Colliery Guardian, April 15, 1898, and February 6, 
1903; Mines and Minerals, February 1905, p. 348, January 1906, 
p. 259, and April 1906, p. 393; Eng. and Mining Jour., April 19, 
1902, p. 552; The Engineer, February 24, 1905; Elec. Rev., June 9, 
1899; Eng. News, vol. xxxii. p. 249, and August 3, 1905; Gluckauf, 
September 28, 1901, and July 5, 1902; Osterr. Zeitschr. f. Berg- u. 
Huttenwesen, May 18, 25, 1901, April 18, 1903 and November, 18, 
1905; Annales des mines, vol. xviii. pp. 217-248. (R. P.*) 

BLAUBEUREN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Wiirttemberg, 12 m. W. of Ulm, with which it is connected by- 
railway. Pop. (1900) 31 14. It is romantically situated in a wild 
and deep valley of the Swabian Alps at an altitude of 1600 ft. and 
is partly surrounded by ancient walls. Of the three churches 
(two Evangelical and one Roman Catholic) the most remarkable 
is the abbey church {Klosterkirche) , a late Gothic building dating 
from 1465-1496, the choir of which contains beautiful 15th 
century carved choir-stalls and a fine high altar with a triptych 
(1496) . The choir only is used for service (Protestant) , the nave 
being used as a gymnasium. The town church (Stadtkirche) also 
has a fine altar with triptych. The Benedictine abbey, founded 
in 1095, was used after the Reformation as a school, and is now 
an Evangelical theological seminary. There are two hospitals 
in the town. 

BLAVATSKY, HELENA PETROVNA (1831-1891), Russian 
theosophist, was born at Ekaterinoslav, on the 31st of July (O.S.) 
183 i,the daughter of Colonel Peter Hahn, a member of a Mecklen- 
burg family, settled in Russia. She married in her seventeenth 
year a man very much her senior, Nicephore Blavatsky, a 
Russian official in Caucasia, from whom she was separated after 
a few months; in later days, when seeking to invest herself with 
a halo of virginity, she described the marriage as a nominal one. 
During the next twenty years Mme Blavatsky appears to have 
travelled widely in Canada, Texas, Mexico and India, with two 
attempts on Tibet. In one of these she seems to have crossed 
the frontier alone in disguise, been lost in the desert, and, after 
many adventures, been conducted back by a party of horsemen. 
The years from 1848 to 1858 were alluded to subsequently as "the 
veiled period " of her life, and she spoke vaguely of a seven years' 
sojourn in " Little and Great Tibet," or preferably of a " Hima- 
layan retreat." Ini8s8 she revisited Russia, where she created 
a sensation as a spiritualistic medium. About 1870 she acquired 

prominence among the spiritualists of the United States, where 
she lived for six years, becoming a naturalized citizen. Her 
leisure was occupied with the study of occult and kabbalistic 
literature, to which she soon added that of the sacred writings of 
India, through the medium of translations. In 1875 she conceived 
the plan of combining the spiritualistic " control " with the 
Buddhistic legends about Tibetan sages. Henceforth she 
determined to exclude all control save that of two Tibetan adepts 
or "mahatmas." The mahatmas exhibited their "astral 
bodies " to her, " precipitated " messages which reached her 
from the confines of Tibet in an instant of time, supplied her with 
sound doctrine, and incited her to perform tricks for the con- 
version of sceptics. At New York, on the 17th of November 
1875, with the aid of Colonel Henry S. Olcolt, she founded the 
" Theosophical Society "with the object of (1) forming a universal 
brotherhood of man,(2) studying and making known the ancient 
religions, philosophies and sciences, (3) investigating the laws of 
nature and developing the divine powers latent in man. The 
Brahmanic and Buddhistic literature supplied the society with 
its terminology, and its doctrines were a curious amalgam of 
Egyptian, kabbalistic, occultist, Indian and modern spiritual- 
istic ideas and formulas. Mme Blavatsky's principal books were 
Isis Unveiled (New York, 1877), The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis 
of Science, Religion and Philosophy (1888), The Key to Theosophy 
(1891). The two first of these are a mosaic of unacknowledged 
quotations from such books as K. R. H. Mackenzie's Royal 
Masonic Encyclopaedia, C. W. King's Gnostics, Zeller's Plato, the 
works on magic by Dunlop, E. Salverte, Joseph Ennemoser, and 
Des Mousseaux, and the- mystical writings of Eliphas Levi (L. A. 
Constant). A Glossary of Theosophical Terms (1890-1892) was 
compiled for the benefit of her disciples. But the appearance of 
Home's Lights and Shadoivs of Spiritualism (1877) had a pre- 
judicial effect upon the propaganda, and Heliona P. Blavatsky 
(as she began to style herself) retired to India. Thence she con- 
tributed some clever papers, " From the Caves and Jungles of 
Hindostan " (published separately in English, London, 1892) to 
the Russky Vyestnik. Defeated in her object of obtaining em- 
ployment in the Russian secret service, she resumed her efforts 
to gain converts to theosophy. For this purpose the exhibition 
of " physical phenomena " was found necessary. Her jugglery 
was cleverly conceived, but on three occasions was exposed 
in the most conclusive manner. Nevertheless, her cleverness, 
volubility, energy and will-power enabled her to maintain her 
ground, and when she died on the 8th of May 1891 (White 
Lotus Day), at the theosophical headquarters in the Avenue 
Road, London, she was the acknowledged head of a community 
numbering not far short of 100,000, with journalistic organs in 
London, Paris, New York and Madras. 

Much information respecting her will be found in V. S. Solovyov's 
Modern Priestess of Isis, translated by Walter Leaf (1895), in Arthur 
Lillie's Madame Blavatsky and Her Theosophy (1895), and in the 
report made to the Society for Psychical Research by the Cambridge 
graduate despatched to investigate her dpings in India. See also 
the article Theosophy. 

English classical scholar, was born at Hampton Court Green, on 
the 29th of September 1818, being a collateral descendant of 
Andrew Marvell, the satirist and friend of Milton. He was 
educated at St Peter's school, York, and Christ Church, Oxford. 
He was Hertford scholar in 1838, took a second class in literae 
humaniores in 1840, and was subsequently elected to a student- 
ship at Christ Church. In 1842 he took orders, and from 1843 
to 1886 was vicar of Harringworth in Northamptonshire. During 
a long life he devoted himself almost entirely to the study of the 
Greek dramatists. His editions and philological papers are 
remarkable for bold conjectural emendations of corrupt (and 
other) passages. His distinction was recognized by his being 
made an honorary LL.D. of Dublin, Ph.D. of the university of 
Buda Pest and a fellow of the royal society of letters at Athens. 
He died at Southsea on the 7th of September 1908. 

His works include: — Aristophanes: Comedies and Fragments, 
with critical notes and commentary (1880-1893); Clouds, Knights, 
Frogs, Wasps (1873-1878) ; Opera Omnia, with critical notes (1886); 



Sophocles,; Oedipus Coloneus, Oedipus Tyrannus and Antigone (in 
the Bibliotheca Classica, 1859) ; Philoctetes (1870), Trachiniae (1871), 
Eleclra (1873), Ajax (1875), Antigone (1905) ; Aeschylus : Agamemnon 
(1898), Choephori (1899), Eumenides (1900), Adversaria Critica tn 
Comicorum Graecorum Fragmenta (1890); in Tragicorum Craec. 
Frag. (1894), in Aeschylum (1895), in Varios Poetas Graecos et 
Latinos (1898), in Aristophanem (1899), in Sophoclem (1899), * M 
Euripidem (1901), tw Herodotum (1901); Analecta Comica Graeca 
(1905) ; Analecta Tragica Graeca (1906). 

BLAYDON, an urban district in the Chester-le-Street parlia- 
mentary division of Durham, England, on the Tyne, 4 m. W. of 
Newcastle by a branch of the North-Eastern railway. -Pop. ( 1 88 1 ) 
10,687; (1901) 19,617. The chief industries are coal-mining, 
iron-founding, pipe, fire-brick, chemical manure and bottle 
manufactures. In the vicinity is the beautiful old mansion of 
Stella, and below it Stellaheugh, to which the victorious Scottish 
army crossed from Newburn on the Northumberland bank in 
1640, after which they occupied Newcastle. 

BLAYE-ET-STE LUCE, a town of south-western France, 
capital of an arrondissement in the department of Gironde, on 
the right bank of the Gironde (here over 2 m. wide), 35 m. N. of 
Bordeaux by rail. Pop. (1906) of the town, 3423; of the com- 
mune, 4890. The town has a citadel built by Vauban on a rock 
beside the river, and embracing in its enceinte ruins of an old 
Gothic chateau. The latter contains the tomb of Caribert, king 
of Toulouse, and spn of Clotaire II. Blaye is also defended by 
the Fort Pate on an island in the river and the Fort Medoc on its 
left bank, both of the 17th century. The town is the seat of a 
sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce 
and a communal college. It has a small river-port, and carries 
on trade in wine, brandy, grain, fruit and timber. The industries 
include the building of small vessels, distilling, flour-milling, and 
the manufacture of oil and candles. Fine red wine is produced 
in the district. 

In ancient times Blaye (Blavia) was a port of the Santones. 
Tradition states that the hero Roland was buried in its basilica, 
which was on the site of the citadel. It was early an important 
stronghold which played an important part in the wars against 
the English and the Religious Wars. The duchess of Berry was 
imprisoned in its fortress in 1832-1833. 

BLAZE (A.-S. Maese, a torch), a fire or bright flame; more 
nearly akin to the Ger. Mass, pale or shining white, is the use 
of the word for the white mark on the face of a horse or cow, 
and the American use for a mark made on a tree by cutting off 
a piece of the bark. The word " to blaze," in the sense of to 
noise abroad, comes from the A.-S. blaesan, to blow, cf. the Ger. 
blasen; in sense, if not in origin, it is confused with " blazon " 
in heraldry. 

BLAZON, a heraldic shield, a coat of arms properly " de- 
scribed " according to the rules of heraldry, hence a proper 
heraldic description of such a coat. The O. Fr. Mason seems 
originally to have meant simply a shield as a means of defence 
and not a shield-shaped surface for the display of armorial 
bearings, but this is difficult to reconcile with the generally 
accepted derivation from the Ger. Masen, to blow, proclaim, 
English " blaze," to noise abroad, to declare. In the 16th 
century the heraldic term, and " blaze " and " blazon " in the 
sense of proclaim, had much influence on each other. 

BLEACHING, the process of whitening or depriving objects 
of colour, an operation incessantly in activity in nature by the 
influence of light, air and moisture. The art of bleaching, of 
which we have here to treat, consists in inducing the rapid 
operation of whitening agencies, and as an industry it is mostly 
directed to cotton, linen, silk, wool and other textile fibres, but 
it is also applied to the whitening of paper-pulp, bees'-wax and 
some oils and other substances. The term bleaching is derived 
from the A.-S. blaecan, to bleach, or to fade, from which also 
comes the cognate German word bleichen, to whiten or render 
pale. Bleachers, down to the end of the 18th century, were 
known in England as " whitsters," a name obviously derived 
from the nature of their calling. 

The operation of bleaching must from its very nature be of 
the same antiquity as the work of washing textures of linen, 

cotton or other vegetable fibres. Clothing repeatedly washed, 
and exposed in the open air to dry, gradually assumes a whiter 
and whiter hue, and our ancestors cannot have failed to notice 
and take advantage of this fact. Scarcely anything is known 
with certainty of the art of bleaching as practised by the nations 
of antiquity. Egypt in early ages was the great centre of textile 
manufactures, and her white and coloured linens were in high 
repute among contemporary nations. As a uniformly well- 
bleached basis is necessary for the production of a satisfactory 
dye on cloth, it may be assumed that the Egyptians were fairly 
proficient in bleaching, and that still more so were the Phoe- 
nicians with their brilliant and famous purple dyes. We learn, 
from Pliny, that different plants, and likewise the ashes of plants, 
which no doubt contained alkali, were employed as detergents. 
He . mentions particularly the Struthium as much used for 
bleaching in Greece, a plant which has been identified by some 
with Gypsophila Struthium. But as it does not appear from 
John Sibthorp's Flora Graeca, edited by Sir James Smith, that 
this species is a native of Greece, Dr Sibthorp's conjecture that 
the Struthium of the ancients was the Saponaria officinalis, a 
plant common in Greece, is certainly more probable. 

In modern times, down to the middle of the 18th century, 
the Dutch possessed almost a monopoly of the bleaching trade 
although we find mention of bleach-works at Southwark near 
London as early as the middle of the 17th century. It was 
customary to send all the brown linen, then largely manufactured 
in Scotland, to Holland to be bleached. It was sent away in the 
month of March, and not returned till the end of October, being 
thus out of the hands of the merchant more than half a year. 

The Dutch mode of bleaching, which was mostly conducted 
in the neighbourhood of Haarlem, was to steep the linen first 
in a waste lye, and then for about a week in a potash lye poured 
over it boiling hot. The cloth being taken out of this lye and 
washed, was next put into wooden vessels containing butter- 
milk, in which it lay under a pressure for five or six days. After 
this\,it was spread upon the grass, and kept wet for several 
months, exposed to the sunshine of summer. 

In 1728 James Adair from Belfast proposed to the Scottish 
Board of Manufactures to establish a bleachfield in Galloway; 
this proposal the board approved of, and in the same year re- 
solved to devote £2900 as premiums for the establishment of 
bleachfields throughout the country. In 1732 a method of 
bleaching with kelp, introduced-by R. Holden, also from Ireland, 
was submitted to the board; and with their assistance Holden 
established a bleachfield for prosecuting his process at Pitkerro, 
near Dundee. 

The bleaching process, as at that time performed, was very 
tedious, occupying a complete summer. It consisted in steeping 
the cloth in alkaline lyes for several days, washing it clean, 
and spreading it upon the grass for some weeks. The steeping 
in alkaline lyes, called bucking, and the bleaching on the grass, 
called crofting, were repeated alternately for five or six times. 
The cloth was then steeped for some days in sour milk, washed 
clean and crofted. These processes were repeated, diminishing 
every time the strength of the alkaline lye, till the linen had 
acquired the requisite whiteness. 

For the first improvement in this tedious process, which was 
faithfully copied from the Dutch bleachfields, manufacturers 
were indebted to Dr Francis Home of Edinburgh, to whom the 
Board of Trustees paid £100 for his experiments in bleaching. 
He proposed to substitute water acidulated with sulphuric acid 
for the sour milk previously employed, a suggestion made in 
consequence of the new mode of preparing sulphuric acid, con- 
trived some time before by Dr John Roebuck, which reduced 
the price of that acid to less than one-third of what it had 
formerly been. When this change was first adopted by x the 
bleachers, there was the same outcry against its corrosive effects 
as arose when chlorine was substituted for crofting. A great 
advantage was found to result from the use of sulphuric acid, 
which was that a souring with sulphuric acid required at the 
longest only twenty-four hours, and often not more than twelve; 
whereas, when sour milk was employed, six weeks, or even two 



months, were requisite, according to the state of the weather. 
In consequence of this. improvement, the process of bleaching 
was shortened from eight months to four, which enabled the 
merchant to dispose of his goods so much the sooner, and conse- 
quently to trade with less capital. 

No further modification of consequence was introduced in 
the art till the year 1787, when a most important change was 
initiated by the use of chlorine (q.v.), an element which had been 
discovered by C. W. Scheele in Sweden about thirteen years 
before. The discovery that this gas possesses the property of 
destroying vegetable colours, led Berthollet to suspect that it 
might be introduced with advantage into the art of bleaching, and 
that it would enable practical bleachers greatly to shorten their 
processes. In a paper on chlorine or oxygenated muriatic 
acid, read before the Academy of Sciences at Paris in April 
1785, and published in the Journal de Physique for May of the 
same year (vol. xxvi. p. 325), he mentions that he had tried the 
effect of the gas in bleaching cloth, and found that it answered 
perfectly. This idea is still further developed in a paper on the 
same substance, published in the Journal de Physique for 1786. 
In 1786 he exhibited the experiment to James Watt; who, 
immediately upon his return to England, commenced a practical 
examination of the subject, and was accordingly the person 
who first introduced the new method of bleaching into Great 
Britain. We find from Watt's own testimony that chlorine was 
practically employed in the bleachfield of his father-in-law, 
Mr Macgregor, in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, in March 1787. 
Shortly thereafter the method was introduced at Aberdeen by 
Messrs Gordon, Barron & Co., on information received from 
De Saussure through Professor Patrick Copland of Aberdeen. 
Thomas Henry of Manchester was the first to bleach with chlorine 
in the Lancashire district, and to his independent investigations 
several of the early improvements in the application of the 
material were due. 

In these early experiments, the bleacher had to make his own 
chlorine and the goods were bleached either by exposing them 
in chambers to the action of the gas or by steeping them in its 
aqueous solution. If we consider the inconveniences which must 
have arisen in working with such a pungent substance as free 
chlorine, with its detrimental effect on the health of the work- 
people, it will be readily understood that the process did not at 
first meet with any great amount of success. The first important 
improvement was the introduction in 1792 of eau de Javel, 
which was prepared at the Javel works near Paris by absorbing 
chlorine in a solution of potash (1 part) in water (8 parts) until 
effervescence began. The greatest impetus to the bleaching 
industry was, however, given by the introduction in 1799 of 
chloride of lime, or bleaching-powder, by Charles Tennant of 
Glasgow, whereby the bleacher was supplied with a reagent in 
solid form which contained up to one-third of its weight of avail- 
able chlorine. Latterly frequent attempts have been made to 
replace bleaching-powder by hypochlorite of soda, which is 
prepared by the bleacher as re'quired, by the electrolytic decom- 
position of a solution of common salt in specially constructed 
cells, but up to the present this mode of procedure has met with 
only a limited success (see Alkali Manufacture). 

Bleaching of Cotton. 

Cotton is bleached in the raw state, as yarn and in the piece. 
In the raw state, and as yarn, the only impurities present are 
those which are naturally contained in the fibres and which 
include cotton wax, fatty acids, pectic substances, colouring 
matters, albuminoids and mineral matter, amounting in all to 
some s % of the weight of the material. Both in the raw state 
and in the manufactured condition cotton also contains small 
black particles which adhere firmly to the material and are 
technically known as " motes." These consist of fragments of 
the cotton seed husk, which cannot be completely removed by 
mechanical means. The bleaching of cotton pieces is more 
complicated, since the bleacher is called upon to remove the 
sizing materials with which the manufacturer strengthens the 
warp before weaving (see below). 

In principle, the bleaching of cotton is a comparatively simple 
process in which three main operations are involved, viz. (1) 
boiling with an alkali; (2) bleaching the organic colouring matters 
by means of a hypochlorite or some other oxidizing agent; 
(3) souring, i.e. treating with weak hydrochloric or sulphuric 
acid. For loose cotton and yarn these three operations are 
sufficient, but for piece goods a larger number of operations is 
usually necessary in order to obtain a satisfactory result. 

Loose Cotton.— The bleaching of loose or raw cotton previous to 
spinning is only carried out to a very limited extent, and consists' 
essentially in* first steeping the' material in a warm solution of soda 
for some hours, after which it is washed and treated with a solution 
of bleaching powder or sodium hypochlorite. It is then . again 
washed, soured with weak sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, and 
ultimately washed free from acid. Careful treatment is necessary 
in order to avoid any undue matting of the fibres, while any drastic 
treatment, such as heating with caustic soda and soap, as used for 
other cotton materials, cannot be employed, since the natural wax. 
would thereby be removed, and this would detract from the spinning 
qualities of the fibre. In case the cotton is not intended to be spun, 
but is to serve for cotton wool or for the manufacture of gun cotton, 
more drastic treatment can be employed, and is, in fact, desirable. 
Thus, cotton waste is first extracted with petroleum spirit or some 
other suitable solvent, in order to remove any mineral oil or grease 
which may be present. It is then boiled with dilute caustic soda 
and resin soap, washed, bleached white with bleaching-powder,' 
washed, soured and finally washed free from acid. In these opera- 
tions, a certain amount of matting is unavoidable, and it is conse- 
quently necessary to open out the material after drying, ih 

Cotton Yarn.— Cotton yarn is bleached in the form of cops, hanks 
or warps. In principle the processes employed are the same in each, 
case, but the machinery necessarily differs. Most yarn is bleached 
in the hank, and it will suffice to give an account of this process 
only, The sequence of operations is the same as in the bleaching of 
cotton waste, and these can be conducted for small lots in an ordinary 
rectangular wooden vat as used in dyeing, in which the yarn is 
suspended in the liquor from poles which rest with their ends on 
the two longer sides of the vat. For bleaching yarn in bulk, however, 
this mode of procedure would involve so much manual labour that 
the process would become too expensive. It is, therefore, mainly" 
with the object of economy that machinery has been introduced, 
by means of which large quantities can be dealt with at a time. 

The first operation, viz. that of boiling in alkali, is carried out in 
a " kier," a large, egg-ended, upright cylindrical vessel, constructed 
of boiler-plate and capable of treating, from one to three tons of yarn 
at a time. In construction, the kiers used for yarn bleaching are 
similar in construction to those used for pieces (see below). The 
yarn to be bleached is evenly packed in the kier, and is then boiled 
by means of steam with the alkaline lye (3-4 % of soda ash or 2 % 
caustic soda on the weight of the cotton being usually employed) 
for periods varying from six to twelve hours. It is essential that a 
thorough circulation of the liquor should be maintained during the 
boiling, and this is effected either by means of a steam injector, or 
in other ways. As a rule low pressure kiers (working up to 10 lb 
pressure) are employed for yarn bleaching, though some bleachers 
prefer to use high pressure kiers for the purpose. 

When the boiling has continued for the requisite time (6-8 hours), 
the steam is shut off, and the kier liquor blown off, when the yarn is 
washed in the kier by filling the latter with water and then running 
off, this operation being repeated two or three times. The hanks are, 
now transferred to a stone cistern provided with a false bottom, 
from beneath which a pipe connects the cistern with a well situated 
below the floor line. The well contains a solution of bleaching- 
powder, usually of 2° Tw. strength, and this is drawn up by means 
of a centrifugal brass pump and showered over the top of the goods 
through a perforated wooden tray, passing then by gravitation 
through the goods back into the well. The circulation is maintained 
for one and a half to two hours, when the yarn will be found to be 
white. The bleaching-powder solution is now allowed to drain off, 
and water is circulated through the cistern to wash out what bleach- 
ing powder remains in the goods. The souring is next carried out 
either in the same or in a separate cistern by circulating hydrochloric 
or sulphuric acid of 2° Tw. for about half an hour. This is also 
allowed to drain, and the yarn is thoroughly washed to remove all 
acid, when it is taken out and wrung or hydroextracted. At this 
stage the yarn may be dyed in light or bright shades without further 
treatment, but if it is to be sold as white yarn, it is blued. The 
blueing may either be effected by dyeing or tinting with a colouring 
matter like Victoria blue 4R or acid violet, or by treatment in wash 
stocks with a suspension of ultramarine in weak soap until the colour 
is uniformly distributed throughout the material. The yarn is now 
straightened out and dried. 

The bleaching of cotton yarn is a very straightforward process, 
and it is very seldom that either complications or faults arise, 
providing that reasonable care and supervision are exercised. 

The raison d'etre of the various operations is comparatively simple. 



The effect of boiling with alkali is to remove the pectic acid, the fatty 
acids, part of the cotton wax and the bulk of the colouring matter, 
while the albuminoids are destroyed and the motes swelled up. If 
soap be used along with the alkali, the whole of the wax is removed 
by emulsification. In the operation of bleaching proper, the calcium 
hypochlorite of the chloride of lime through coming into contact 
with the carbonic acid of the atmosphere suffers decomposition 
according to the equation, Ca(OCl) 2 +C0 2 +H 2 0->CaC0 3 +2HOCl, 
and the hypochlorous acid thus liberated destroys the colouring 
matter still remaining from the first operation, by oxidation. At 
the same time the motes which were swelled up by the alkali are 
broken up into small fragments and are thus removed. In the 
operation of souring, the lime which has been deposited on the 
fibres during the treatment with bleaching powder is dissolved, 
while at the same time any other metallic oxides (iron, copper, 
&c.) are removed. 

Cotton Pieces. — By far the largest bulk of cotton is bleached in 
the piece, as it can be more conveniently and more economically , 
dealt with in this form than in any other. Though similar in prin- 
ciple to yarn bleaching, the process of piece bleaching is somewhat 
more complex because the pieces contain in addition to the natural 
impurities of the cotton a considerable amount of foreign matter 
in the form of size which has been incorporated with the warp before 
weaving, with the object of strengthening it. This size consists 
essentially of starch (farina), with additions of tallow, zinc chloride, 
and occasionally other substances such as paraffin wax, magnesium 
chloride, soap, &c, all of which .must be removed if a perfect bleach 
is to result. Besides, mineral oil stains from the machinery of the 
weaving-shed are of common occurrence in piece goods. 

Cotton pieces are bleached either for whites, for prints or for dyed 
goods. The processes employed for these different classes vary but 
slightly and only in detail. The most drastic bleach is that required 
for goods which are subsequently to be printed. For dyed goods, 
the main object is not so much to obtain a perfect white as to remove 
any impurities which might interfere with the dyeing, while avoiding 
the formation of any oxycellulose. In bleaching for whites (" market 
bleaching ") it is essential that the white should be as perfect as 
possible, and such goods are consequently invariably blued after 

For small lots (1-20 pieces) the bleaching can be conducted on 
very simple machinery. Thus many small piece dyers conduct the 
whole of their bleaching on the jigger, a simple form of dyeing 
machine on which most cotton piece goods are dyed (see Dyeing). 
For muslins, laces and other very light fabrics, which will not stand 
rough handling, the operations are conducted mainly by hand, 
washing being effected in the dash-wheel (fig. 1), which consists of a 

cylindrical box, revolv- 
ing on its axis. It has 
four divisions, as shown 
by the dotted lines, and 
an opening into each 
division. A number of 
pieces are put into 
each, abundance of 
water is admitted be- 
hind, and the knocking 
of the pieces as they 
alternately dash from 
one side of the division 
to the other during the 
revolution of the wheel 
effects the washing. 
The process lasts from 
four to six minutes. 
For velveteens, cor- 
duroys, heavy drills, pocketings and other fabrics in which creasing 
has to be avoided as much as possible, the so-called " open bleach " 
is resorted to, which differs from the ordinary process chiefly in that 
the goods are treated throughout at full width. 

The great bulk of cotton pieces is bleached in rope form, i.e. 
stitched together end to end and laterally collapsed, so that they 
will pass through a ring of 4 to 5 in. in diameter. 

The first operation which the goods undergo on arriving in the 
grey-room of the bleachworks is that of stamping with tar or some 
other indelible material in order that they may be identified after 
passing through the whole process. They are then stitched together 
end to end by means of special sewing machines, the stitch being of 
such a nature (chain stitch) that the thread can be ripped out at one 
pull at the end of the operations. 

Singeing. — In the condition in which the pieces leave the loom 
and come into the hands of the bleacher, the surface of the fabric 
is seen to be covered with a nap of projecting fibres which gives it a 
downy appearance. For some classes of goods this is not a dis- 
advantage, but in the majority of cases, especially for prints where 
a clean surface is essential, the nap is removed before bleaching. 
This is usually effected by running the pieces at full width over a 
couple of, arched copper plates heated to a full red heat by direct 
fire. An arrangement of the kind is shown in fig. 2, in which the 
singe-plates, o and b, are mounted over the flues of a coal fire. The 
plate 6 is most highly heated, a being at the end of the flue farthest 

Fig. 1. — Section of a Dash -wheel. 

removed from the fire. The cloth enters over a rail A, and in passing 
over the plate a is thoroughly dried and prepared for the singeing 
it receives when it comes to the highly-heated plate b. A block d, 
carrying two rails in the space between the plates, can be raised or 
loweredso as to increase or lessen the pressure of the cloth against 
the plates, or, if necessary, to lift it quite free of contact with them. 
The pieces on leaving the singeing machine are passed either 
through a water trough or through a steam box with the object of 
extinguishing sparks, and are then plaited down. The speed at 

Fig. 2. — Section of Singe-stove. 

which the pieces travel over the singe plates is necessarily considerable 
and varies with different classes of material. 1 

In lieu of plates, a cast-iron cylinder is sometimes employed 
( ' roller singeing "), the heating being effected by causing the flame 
of the fire to be drawn through the roller, which is carried on two 
small rollers, at each end and revolves slowly in the reverse direction 
to that followed by the piece, thus exposing continuously a freshly 
heated surface and avoiding uneven cooling. 

For figured pieces which have an uneven surface, it is obvious 
that plate or roller singeing would only affect the portions which 
project most, leaving the rest untouched. For such goods, " gas 
singeing " is employed, which consists in running the pieces over a 
non-luminous gas flame, the breadth of which slightly exceeds that of 
the piece, or in drawing the flame right through the piece. 2 The 
construction of an ordinary gas singeing apparatus is seen in section 
in rig- 3- Coal gas mixed with air is sent under pressure through 
pipe a ino the burners b, b, where the mixture burns with an intense 
heat. The cloth travels in the direction of the arrows, and in 
passing over the 
small nap rollers c 
comes into contact 
with the flame four 
times in succession 
before leaving the 

Gas singeing is 
also used for plain 
goods, and being 
cleaner and under 
better control has 
largely replaced 
plate singeing. 

At this stage the 
goods which have 
been browned on 
the surface by singeing are ready for the bleaching operations. A 
great many innovations have been introduced in recent years in 
the bleaching of calico, but although it is generally admitted that 
in point of view of time and economy many of these processes 
offer considerable advantages, the old process, in which a lime boil 
precedes the other operations, is still the one which is most largely 
employed by bleachers in England. In this, the sequence of 
operations is the following — ■ 

_ Grey Washing. — This operation (which is sometimes omitted) 
simply consists in running the pieces through an ordinary washing 
machine (as shown in fig. 5) through water in order to wet them out. 
On leaving the machine they are piled in a heap and left over night, 
when fermentation sets in, which results in the starch being to a 
large extent hydrolysed and rendered soluble in water. 

Lime Boil. — In this operation, which is also known as bowking 
(Ger. beuchen), the pieces are first run through milk of lime 
contained in an ordinary washing machine and of such a strength 

1 Besides being used for cotton goods, plate singeing is also em- 
ployed for certain classes of worsted goods (alpacas, bunting, &c), 
and for most union. goods (cotton warp and worsted weft). 

2 A machine working on this principle has been constructed by 
F. Binder, and the makers of the machine (Messrs Mather & Piatt, 
Ltd.) claim that it does better service than the machines constructed 
on the older principle. 

Fig. 3. — Gas Singeing Apparatus. 



that they take up about 4% of their weight of lime (CaO). They 
are then run over winches and guided through smooth porcelain 
rings (" pot-eyes ") into the kier, where they are evenly packed by 
boys who enter the vessel through the manhole at the top. It is 
of the greatest importance that the goods should be evenly packed, 
for, if channels or loosely-packed places are left, the liquor circulating 
through the kier, when boiling is subsequently in progress, will 
follow the line of least resistance, and the result is an uneven treat- 
ment. Of the numerous forms of kier in use, the injector kier is 
the one most generally adopted. This consists of an egg-ended 
cylindrical vessel constructed of stout boiler plate and shown in 
sectional elevation in fig. 4. The kier is from 10 to 12 ft. in height 
and from 6 to 7 ft. in diameter, and stands on three iron legs riveted 
to the sides, but not shown in the figure. The bottom exit pipe E 
is covered with a shield-shaped false bottom of boiler plate, or (and 
this is more usual) the whole bottom of the kier is covered with large 
rounded stones from the river bed, the object in either case being 
simply to provide space for the accumulation of liquor and to prevent 
the pipe E being blocked. The cloth is evenly packed up to within 
about 3 to 4 ft. of the manholes M, when lime water is run in through 
the liquor pipe until the level of the liquid reaches within about 2 ft. 
of the top of the goods. The manholes are now closed, and steam 
is turned on at the injector J by opening the valve v. The effect 
of this is to suck the liquor through E, and to force it up through 
pipe P into the top of the kier, where it dashes against the umbrella- 
shaped shield U and is distributed over the pieces, through which 
it percolates, until on arriving at E it is again carried to the top of 
the kier, a continuous circulation being thus effected. As the 
circulation proceeds, the steam condensing in the liquor rapidly 
heats the latter to the boil, and as soon as, in the opinion of the fore- 
man, all air has been expelled, the blow-through tap is closed and 
the boiling is continued for periods varying from six to twelve 
hours under 20-60 lb pressure. Steam is now turned off, and by 
opening the valve V the liquor, which is of a dark-brown colour, is 
forced out by the pressure of the steam it contains. 

The pieces are now run through a continuous washing machine, 
which is provided with a plentiful supply of water. The machine, 

___-__— Floor Level 

Fig. 4. — High Pressure Blow-through Kier. 

which is shown in fig. 5, consists essentially of a wooden vat, over 
which there is a pair of heavy wooden (sycamore) bowls or squeezers. 
The pieces enter the machine at each end, as indicated by the arrows, 
and pass rapidly through the bowls down to the bottom of the vat 
over a loose roller, thence between the first pair of guide pegs through 
the bowls again, and travel thus in a spiral direction until they arrive 
at the middle of the machine, when they leave at the side opposite 
to that on which they entered. The same type of machine is used 
for liming, chemicking, and souring. 

The next operation is the " grey sour," in which the goods are 
run through a washing machine containing hydrochloric acid of 
2° Tw. strength, with the object of dissolving out the lime which 
the goods retain in considerable quantity after the lime boil. The 
goods are then well washed, and are now boiled again in the ash 
bowking kier, which is similar in construction to the lime kier, with 
soda ash (3%) and a solution of rosin (i|%) in caustic soda (ij%) 

Fig. 5. — Roller Washing Machine. 

for eight to ten hours. For white bleaching the rosin soap is omitted, 
soda ash alone being employed. 

The pieces are now washed free from alkali and the bleaching 
proper or "chemicking" follows. This operation may be effected 
in various ways, but the most efficient is to run the goods in a wash- 
ing machine through bleaching powder solution at j°-i° Tw., 
and allow them to lie loosely piled over night, or in some cases for 
a longer period. They are now washed, run through dilute sulphuric 
or hydrochloric acid at 2° Tw. (" white sour ") and washed again. 
Should the white not appear satisfactory at this stage (and this is 
usually the case with very heavy or dense materials) , they are boiled 
again in soda ash, chemicked with bleaching powder at |° Tw. or 
even weaker, soured and washed. It is of the utmost importance 
that the final washing should be as thorough as possible, in order 
to completely remove the acid, for if only small quantities of the 
latter are left in the goods, they are liable to become tender in the 
subsequent drying, through formation of hydrocellulose. 

The modern processes of bleaching cotton pieces differ from the 
one described above, chiefly in that the lime boil is entirely dispensed 
with, its place being taken by a treatment in the kier with caustic 
soda (or a mixture of caustic soda and soda ash) and resin soap. 
The best known and probably the most widely practised of these 
processes is one which was worked out by the late M. Horace 
Koechlin in conjunction with Sir William Mather, and this differs 
from the old process not only in the sequence of the operations but 
also in the construction of the kier. This consists of a horizontal 
egg-ended cylinder, and is shown in transverse and longitudinal 
sections in figs. 6 and 7. One of the ends E constitutes a door 
which can be raised or lowered by means of the power-driven chain 
C. , The goods to be bleached are packed in wagons W outside the 
kier, and when filled these are pushed home into the kier, so that the 
pipes p fit with their flanges on to the fixed pipes at the bottom of 
the kier. The heating is effected by means of steam pipes at the 
lowest extremity of the kier, while the circulation of the liquor is 
brought about by means of the centrifugal pump P, which draws 
the liquor through the pipes p from beneath the false bottoms of the 
wagons and showers it over distributors D on to the goods. By 
this mode of working a considerable economy is effected in point of 
time, as the kier can be worked almost continuously; for as soon 
as one lot of goods has been boiled, the wagons are run out and two 
freshly-packed wagons take their place. The following is the 
sequence of operations: — The goods are first steeped over night in 



dilute sulphuric acid, after which they are washed and run through 
old kier liquor from a previous operation. They are then packed 
evenly in the wagons which are pushed into the kier, and, the door 
having been closed, they are boiled for about eight hours at 7-15 lb 
pressure with a liquor containing soda ash, caustic soda, resin soap 
and a small quantity of sulphite of soda. The rest of the operations 
(chemicking, souring and washing) are the same as in the old process. 
A somewhat different principle is involved in the Thies-Herzig 
process. In this the kier is vertical, and the circulation of the liquor 
is effected by means of a centrifugal or other form of pump, while the 
heating of the liquor is brought about outside the kier in a separate 

The machine consists essentially of a series of copper or tinned iron 
cylinders, which are geared together so as to run at a uniform 
speed. Steam at 10-15 lb pressure is admitted through the iournalled 
bearings at one side of the machine, and the condensed water is 
forced out continuously through the bearings at the other side. 
The pieces pass in the direction of the arrow (fig. 9) over a scrimp 
rail or expanding roller round the first cylinder, then in a zigzag 
direction over all succeeding cylinders, and ultimately leave the 
machine dry, being mechanically plaited down at the other end. 

If the bleaching process has been properly conducted, the pieces 
should not only show a uniform pure white colour, but their strength 
should remain unimpaired. Careful experiments conducted by the 
late Mr Charles O'Neill showed in fact that carefully bleached cotton 
may actually be stronger than in the unbleached condition, and 
this result has since been corroborated by others. Excessive blueing, 
which is frequently resorted to in order to cover the defects of 
imperfect bleaching, can readily be detected by washing a sample of 
the material in water, or, better still, in water containing a little 
ammonia, and then comparing with the original. The formation of 
oxycellulose during the bleaching process may either take place in 
bojling under pressure with lime or caustic soda in consequence of 
the presence of air in the kier, or through excessive action of bleaching 
powder, which may either result from the latter not being properly 
dissolved or being used too strong. Its detection may be effected by 

dyeing a sample of the bleached 
cotton in a cold, very dilute 
solution of methylene blue for 
about ten minutes, when any 
portions of the fabric in which 
the cellulose has been con- 
verted into oxycellulose will 
assume a darker colour than 
the rest. The depth of the 
colour is at the same time an 
indication of the extent to 
which such conversion has taken 
place. Most bleached cotton 
contains some oxycellulose, but 
as long as the formation has not 
proceeded far enough to cause 
tendering, its presence is of no 
importance in white goods. If, 
on the other hand, the cotton 
has to be subsequently dyed 
with direct cotton colours 
(see Dyeing), the presence of 
oxycellulose may result in un- 
even dyeing. Tendering of the 
pieces, due to insufficient wash- 
ing after the final souring 
operation, is a common defect in 
bleached goods. As a rule the 
free acid can be detected by 
extracting the tendered material 
with distilled water and adding 
to the extract a drop of methyl 
orange solution, when the latter 
will turn pink if free acid be 
present. Other defects which 
may occur in bleached goods are 
iron stains, mineral oil stains, 
and defects due to the addition 
of paraffin wax in the size. 

Fig. 7. — The Mather Kier, longitudinal section. 

vessel between the pump and the kier by means of indirect steam. 
The sequence of operations is similar to that adopted in the Mather- 
Koechlin process, differing chiefly from the latter in the first opera- 
tion, which consists in running the goods, after singeing, through 
very dilute boiling sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, containing in 
either case a small proportion of hydrofluoric acid, and then running 
them through a steam box, the whole operation lasting from twenty 
to sixty seconds. 

Bleached by any of the above processes, the cloth is next passed 
over a mechanical contrivance known as a " scutcher," which opens 
it out from the rope form to its full breadth, and is then dried on a 
continuous drying machine. Fig. 8 shows the appearance and 
construction of an improved form of the horizontal drying machine, 
which is in more common use for piece goods than the vertical form. 

Bleaching of Linen. 
The bleaching of linen is 
a much more complicated 
and tedious process than the 
bleaching of cotton. This is 
due in part to the fact that in 
linen the impurities amount to 
20% or more of the weight of 
the fibre, whereas in cotton 
they do not usually exceed 5%. Furthermore these im- 
purities, which include colouring matter, intracellular sub- 
stances and a peculiar wax known as "flax wax," are more 
difficult to attack than those which are present in cotton, and 
the difficulty is still further enhanced in the case of piece 
goods owing to their dense or impervious character. 

Till towards the end of the 18th century the bleaching of linen 
both in the north of Ireland and in Scotland was accomplished 
by bowking in cows' dung and souring with sour milk, the pieces 
being exposed to light on the grass between these operations for 
prolonged periods. Subsequently potash and later on soda 



was substituted for the cows' dmig, while sour milk was replaced 
by sulphuric acid. This " natural bleach " is still in use in 
Holland, a higher price being paid for linen bleached in thisway 
than for the same material bleached with the aid of bleaching 
powder. In the year 1744 Dr James Ferguson of Belfast received 
a premium of £300 from the Irish Linen Board for the application 
of lime in the bleaching of linen. Notwithstanding this reward, 

Fig. 8.— Mather & Piatt's Horizontal Drying Machine. 

the use of lime in the bleaching of linen was for a long time- 
afterwards forbidden in Ireland under statutory penalties, and so 
late as 1815 Mr Barklie, a respectable'; linen bleacher of Linen 
Vale, near Keady, was " prosecuted for using lime in the whiten- 
ing of linens in his bleachyard." 

The methods at present employed fof the bleaching of linen 
are, except in one or two unimportant particulars, the same as 
were used in the middle of the 19th century. In principle they 
resemble those used in cotton bleaching; but require to be fre- 
quently repeated, while an additional operation, 'which is a relic 
of the old-fashioned process, viz. that of '■ "grassing" or "croft- 
ing," is still essential for the production of the finest whites. 
Considerably more care has to be exercised in linen bleaching 
than is the case with cotton, and the process consequently 
necessitates a greater amount of manual labour. The practical 
result of this is that whereas cotton pieces can be bleached and 
finished in less than a week, linen pieces require at least six weeks. 
Many attempts have naturally been made to shorten and cheapen 
the process, but without success. The use of stronger reagents 
and more drastic treatment, which would at first suggest itself, 
incurs the risk of injury to the fibre, not so much in respect to 
actual tendering as to the destruction of its characteristic gloss, 
while if too drastic a treatment is employed at the beginning 
the colouring matter is liable to become set in the fibre, and it is 
then almost impossible to remove it. Among the many modern 
improvements which have been suggested, mention may be made 
of the use of hypochlorite of soda in place of bleaching powder, 
the use of oil in the first treatment in alkali (Cross & Parkes), 
while de Keukelaere suggests the use of sodium sulphide for 
this purpose. With the object of dispensing with the operation 
of grassing, which besides necessitating much manual labour 
is subject to the influences of the atmospheric conditions, Siemens 
& Halske of Berlin have suggested exposure of the goods in a 
chamber to the action of electrolytically prepared ozone. ^ Jardin 
seeks to achieve the same object by steeping the linen in dilute 
nitric acid. 

Since the qualities of linen which are submitted to the bleacher 
vary considerably, and the mode of treatment has to be varied 
accordingly, it is not possible to give more than a bare outline 
of linen bleaching. 

Linen is bleached in the yarn and in the piece. Whenever one 
of the operations is repeated, the strength of the reagent is 
successively diminished. In yarn-bleaching the sequence of the 
operations is about as follows:— (1) 
Boil in kier with soda ash. (2) Reel 
in bleaching powder. This operation, 
which is peculiar to linen bleaching, 
consists in suspending the hanks from 
a square roller into bleaching powder 
solution contained in a shallow stone 
trough. The roller revolves slowly, so 
that the hanks, while passing continu- 
ously through the bleaching powder, 
are for the greater part of the time 
being exposed to the air. , (3) Sour in 
sulphuric acid. (4) Scald in soda ash. 
(The term " scalding " means boiling 
in a kier.) (5) Reel in bleaching pow- 
der. (6) Sour in sulphuric acid. (7) 
Scald in soda ash. (8) Dip, i.e. steep 
in bleaching powder. (9) Sour in 
sulphuric acid. (10) Scald in soda ash. 
(n) Dip in bleaching powder. (12) 
Sour in sulphuric acid. For a full 
white, two more operations are usually 
required, viz. (13) scald in soda ash, 
and (14) dip in bleaching powder. 
Washing intervenes between all these 

Pieces are not stamped as in the 
case oi, cotton, but thread-marked by 
hand with cotton dyed Turkey red. 
They are then sewn together end to 
end, and subjected to the following 
operations :— 

Boil with lime in kier. 
The pieces are now separated and 
made up into bundles (except in the 
case of very light linens, which may 
pass through the whole of the operations in rope form) and soured 
with sulphuric acid. 

First lye boil with soda ash and caustic soda. - 
Second lye boil. For some classes of goods no less than six lye 
boils may be required. 

Grass between lye boils (according to their number). 
! Rub with rubbing boards. This is also a speciality in linen 
bleaching, and consists of a mechanical treatment with soft soap, 
the object of which is to remove black stains in the yarn. » 
Bleach with hypochlorite of soda. 

Scald. The two latter treatments are repeated three to five times, 
each series constituting a " turn." Grassing intervenes between 
each turn, and in some instances the pieces are rubbed before the 
last soda boil. 

The pieces are next steeped in large vessels (kiers) in weak hypo- 

FlG. 9.— Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine 
threaded with Cloth. 

chlorite of soda, and then in weak sulphuric acid, these treatments 
being repeated several times. 
Ultimately the goods are mill- washed, blued with smalt and dried. 

Bleaching of other Vegetable Textile Fabrics. 
Hemp may be bleached by a process similar to that used for 
linen, but this is seldom done owing to the expense entailed. 
China grass is bleached like cotton. Jute contains in its raw 
state a considerable amount of colouring matter and intracellular 
substance. Since the individual fibres are very shortj the 



complete removal of .the latter would be attended by a disin- 
tegration of the material. Although it is possible to bleach jute 
white; this'is seldom if ever carried out on a la,rge scale owing' 
to the great expense involved. ' A half -bleach on jute is obtained 
by steeping the goods alternately in bleaching powder (or hypo- 
chlorite of soda) and sulphuric acid, washing intervening. For 
a cream these treatments are repeated. 

Bleaching of Straw. 
■■■ In the Luton district, straw is bleached principally in the form 
of plait, in which form it is imported. The bleaching is effected 
by steeping the straw for periods varying from twelve hours to 
several days in fairly strong alkaline peroxide of hydrogen. 
The number of baths depends upon the quality of straw and the 
degree of whiteness required. Good whites are thus obtained, 
aijd no further process would be necessary if the hats had not 
subsequently to be "blocked" or pressed at a high temperature 
which brings about a deterioration of the colour. After 
bleaching with peroxide and drying, the straw consequently 
undergoes a further process of sulphuring, i.e. exposure to gaseous 
sulphurous acid. Panama hats are bleached after making up, 
but in this case only peroxide of hydrogen is used and a very 
lengthy treatment entailing sometimes fourteen days' steeping 
is required. 

Bleaching of Wool. 
■ In the Condition in which it is delivered to the manufacturers 
wool is generally a very impure article, even if it has been washed 
on the sheep's back before shearing. The impurities which it 
contains consist in the main of the natural grease (in reality 
a kind of wax) exuded from the skin of the sheep and technically 
known as the " yolk," the dried-up perspiration from the body 
of the sheep, technically called " suint," and dust, dirt, burrs, 
ire, which mechanically adhere to the sticky surfaces of the 
fibres. In this condition wool is quite unfit for any manufacturing 
purposes and must be cleansed before any mechanical operations 
can be commenced. Formerly the washing was effected in stale 
urine, which owed its detergent properties mainly to the presence 
of ammonium carbonate. The stale urine or lant was diluted 
with four to five times its bulk of water, and in this liquor, heated 
to 4b°-so° C, the Washing was effected. 

At the present day this method has been entirely abandoned, 
the washing or " scouring " being effected with soap, assisted 
by ammonia, potash, soda or silicate of soda. The finest quali- 
ties of wool are washed with soft soap and potash, while for 
inferior qualities, cheaper detergents are employed. The 
operation is in principle perfectly simple, the wool being sub- 
merged in the warm soap solution, where it is moved about with 
forks arid then taken out and allowed to drain. A second 
treatment in weaker soap serves to complete the process. In 
dealing with large quantities, wocl-washing machines are em- 
ployed, which consist essentially of long cast-iron troughs which 
contain the soap solution. The wool to be washed is fed in at 
one end of the machine and is slowly propelled to the other end 
by means b'f a system of mechanically-driven forks or rakes. As 
it passes from the machine, it is squeezed through a pair of rollers. 
Three such machines are usually required for efficient washing, 
the first containing the strongest and the third the weakest soap. 

The washing of wool is in the main a mechanical process, in 
which the water dissolves out the suint while the soap emulsifies 
the yolk and thus removes it from the fibre. The attendant 
earthy impurities pass mechanically into the surrounding liquid 
and are swilled away. 

In some works the wool is washed first with water alone, the 
aqueous extract thus obtained being evaporated to dryness and 
the residue calcined. A very good quality of potash is thus 
obtained as a by-product. In many works in Yorkshire and 
elsewhere, the dirty soap liquors obtained in wool-washing are 
riot allowed to run to waste, but are run into tanks and there 
treated with sulphuric acid. The effect of this treatment 
is to decompose the soap, and the fatty acids along with the 
wool-grease rise as a rnagma to the surface. The purified product 
is known m fllfc' trade as "Yorkshire grease." 

Attempts have been made from time to time to extract the 
natural grease from wool by means of organic solvents, such as 
carbon bisulphide, carbon tetrachloride, petroleum spirit, &c, 
but have not met with much success. 

Worsted yarn spun on the English system, as well as woollen 
yarn and fabrics made from them, contain oil which has been 
incorporated with the wool to facilitate the spinning. This oil 
must be got rid of previous to bleaching, and this is effected by 
scouring in warm soap with or without the assistance of alkalis. 

The actual bleaching of wool may be effected in two ways, viz. 
by treating the material either with sulphurous acid or with hydrogen 
peroxide. Sulphurous acid may either be applied in the gaseous 
form or in solution as bisulphite of soda. In working by the first 
method, which is technically known as " stoving," the scoured yarn 
is wetted in very weak soap containing a small amount of blue 
colouring matter, wrung or hydro-extracted and then suspended in 
a chamber or stove. Sulphur contained in a vessel on the floor of 
the 'chamber is now lighted, and the door having been closed, is 
allowed to burn itself out. The goods are left thus exposed to the 
sulphur dioxide overnight, when they are taken out and washed 
in water. For piece goods a somewhat different arrangement is 
employed, the pieces passing through a slit into a chamber supplied 
with sulphur dioxide, then slowly up and down over a large number 
of rollers and ultimately emerging again at the same slit. Wool 
may also be bleached by steeping in a fairly strong solution of 
bisulphite of soda and then washing well in water. Wool bleached 
with sulphurous acid or bisulphite is readily affected by alkalis, 
the natural yellow colour returning on washing with soap or soda. 
A more permanent bleach is obtained by steeping the wool in 
hydrogen peroxide (of 12 volumes strength), let down with about 
three times its bulk of water and rendered slightly alkaline with 
ammonia or silicate of soda. Black or brown wools cannot be 
bleached white, but when treated with peroxide they assume a 
golden colour, a change which is frequently desired in human hair. 

Bleaching of Silk. 

In raw silk, the fibre proper is uniformly coated with a proteid 
substance known as silk-gum, silk-glue or sericine which amounts 
to 19-25 % of the weight of the material, and it is only after' the 
removal of this coating that the characteristic properties of the 
fibre become apparent. This is effected by the process of " dis- 
charging " or " boiling-off," which consists in suspending the 
hanks of raw silk over poles or sticks in a vat containing a strong 
hot soap solution (30 % of soap on the weight of the silk). The 
liquor is kept just below boiling point for two or three hours, the 
hanks being turned from time to time. During the process, the 
sericine at first swells up considerably, the fibres becoming 
slippery, but as the operation proceeds it passes into solution. 
It is important that only soft water should be used for boiling-off 
since calcareous impurities are liable to mar the lustre of the silk. 

The silk is now rinsed in weak soda solution and wrung. In this 
condition it is suitable for being dyed, but if it is to be bleached, 
the hanks are tied up loosely with smooth tape, put into coarse 
linen bags to prevent the silk becoming entangled, and boiled 
again in soap solution which is half as strong as that used in the 
first operation. The hanks are now taken out, rinsed in a weak 
soda solution, washed in water and wrung. 

The actual bleaching of silk is usually effected by stoving as in 
the case of wool, with this difference, that the operation is repeated 
several times and blueing or tinting with other colours is effected 
after bleaching. Silk may also be bleached with peroxide of 
hydrogen, but this method is only used for certain qualities of 
spun silk and for tussore. 

Ornamental feathers are best bleached by steeping in peroxide of 
hydrogen, rendered slightly alkaline by the addition of ammonia. 
The same treatment is applied to the bleaching of ivory. If peroxide 
of hydrogen could be prepared at a moderate cost, it would doubtless 
find a much more extensive application in bleaching, since it combines 
efficiency with safety, and gives good results with both vegetable and 
animal substances. (E. K.) 

BLEAK, or Blick (Alburnus lucidus), a small fish of the 
Cyprinid family, allied to the bream and the minnow, but with 
a more elongate body, resembling a sardine. It is found in 
European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite 
in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of 
" Essence Orientale " and artificial pearls, carried on in France 
and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of 



the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 
17 th century. 

BLEEK, FRIEDRICH (1793-1859), German Biblical scholar, 
was born on the 4th of July 1793, at Ahrensbok, in Holstein, a 
village near Liibeck. His father sent him in his sixteenth year 
to the gymnasium at Liibeck, where he became so much inter- 
ested in ancient languages that he abandoned his idea of a legal 
career and resolved to devote himself to the study of theology. 
After spending some time at the university of Kiel, he went to 
Berlin, where, from 1814 to 1817, he studied under De Wette, 
Neander and Schleiermacher. So highly were his merits 
appreciated by his professors — Schleiermacher was accustomed 
to say that he possessed a special charisma for the science of 
" Introduction " — that in 1818 after he had passed the examina- 
tions for entering the ministry he was recalled to Berlin as 
Repetent or tutorial fellow in theology, a temporary post which 
the theological faculty had obtained for him. Besides dis- 
charging his duties in the theological seminary, he published 
two dissertations in Schleiermacher's and G. C. F. Lucke's 
Journal{\ 819-1820,1822), one on the origin and composition of the 
Sibylline Oracles " Uber die Entstehung und Zusammensetzung 
der Sibyllinischen Orakel," and another on the authorship and 
design of the Book of Daniel, " Uber Verfasser und Zweck des 
Buches Daniel." These articles attracted much attention, and 
were distinguished by those qualities of solid learning, thorough 
investigation and candour of judgment which characterized 
all his writings. Bleek's merits as a rising scholar were recog- 
nized by the minister of public instruction, who continued his 
stipend as Repetent for a third year, and promised further 
advancement in due time. But the attitude of the political 
authority underwent a change. De Wette was dismissed from 
his professorship in 18 19, and Bleek, a favourite pupil, incurred 
the suspicion of the government as an extreme democrat. 
Not only was his stipend as Repetent discontinued, but his 
nomination to the office of professor extraordinarius, which 
had already been signed by the minister Karl Altenstein, was 
withheld. At length it was found that Bleek had been con- 
founded with a certain Baueleven Blech, and in 1823 he received 
the appointment. 

During the six years that Bleek remained at Berlin, he twice 
declined a call to the office of professor ordinarius of theology, 
once to Greifswald and once to Konigsberg. In 1829, however, 
he was induced to accept Lucke's chair in the recently-founded 
university of Bonn, and entered upon his duties there in the 
summer of the same year. For thirty years he laboured with 
ever-increasing success, due not to any attractions of manner or 
to the enunciation of novel or bizarre opinions, but to the sound- 
ness of his investigations, the impartiality of his judgments, and 
the clearness of his method. In 1843 he was raised to the office 
of consistorial councillor, and was selected by the university 
to hold the office of rector, a distinction which has not since 
been conferred upon any theologian of the Reformed Church. 
He died suddenly of apoplexy on the 27th of February 1859. 

Bleek's works belong entirely to the departments of Biblical 
criticism and exegesis. His views on questions of Old Testament 
criticism were " advanced " in his own day; for on all the 
disputed points concerning the unity and authorship of the 
books of the Old Covenant he was opposed to received opinion. 
But with respect to the New Testament his position was con- 
servative. An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of 
the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is 
among the ablest that have been written; and although on 
some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with 
those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New 
Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most 
important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox 
opinions. His greatest work, his commentary on the epistle to 
the Hebrews {Brief an die Hebraer erldutert durch Einleitung, 
Ubersetzung, und fortlaufenden Commentar, in three parts, 1828, 
1836 and 1840) won the highest praise from men like De Wette 
and Fr. Delitzsch. This work was abridged by Bleek for his 
college lectures, and was published in that condensed form in 

1868. In 1846 he published his contributions to the criticism, 
of the gospels (Beitrage zur Evangelien Kritik, pt. i.), which 
contained his defence of St John's gospel, and arose out of a 
review of J. H. A. Ebrard's Wissenschaftliche Kritik der Evangeli- 
schen Geschichte (1842). 

After his death were published: — (1) His Introduction to the Old 
Testament (Einleitung in das Alte Testament), (3rd ed., 1869); Eng. 
trans, by G. H. Venables (from 2nd ed., 1869); in 1878 a new 
edition (the 4th) appeared under the editorship of J. Wellhausen, 
who made extensive alterations and additions; (2) his Introduction 
to the New Testament (3rd ed., W. Mangold, 1875), Eng. trans, (from 
2nd German ed.) by William Urwick (1869, 1870) ; (3) his Exposition 
of the First Three Gospels (Synoptische Erklarung der drei ersten 
Evangelien), by H. Holtzmann (1862); (4) his Lectures on the 
Apocalypse (Vorlesungen uber die Apokalyps'e) , (Eng. trans. 1875). 
Besides these there has also appeared a small volume containing 
Lectures on Colossians, Philemon and Ephesians (Berlin, 1865). 
Bleek also contributed many articles to the Studien und Kritiken. 
For further information as to Bleek's life and writings, see Kamp- 
hausen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie; Frederic 
Lichtenberger's Histoire des idees religieuses en Allemagne, vol. iil. ; 
Diestel's Geschichte des Alten Testamentes (1869) ; and T. K. Cheyne's 
Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893). 

German philologist, son of Friedrich Bleek, was born in 1827 
at Berlin. He studied first at Bonn and afterwards at Berlin, 
where his attention was directed towards the philological 
peculiarities of the South African languages. In his doctor's 
dissertation (Bonn, 1851), De nominum generibus linguarum 
Africae Australis, he endeavoured to show that the Hottentot 
language was of North African descent. In 1854 his health 
prevented him accompanying Dr W. B. Baikie in the expedition 
to the Niger; but in the following year he accompanied Bishop 
Colenso to Natal, and was enabled to prosecute his researches 
into the language and customs of the Kaffirs. Towards the close 
of 1856 he settled at Cape Town, and in 1857 was appointed 
interpreter by Sir George Grey. In 1859 he was compelled by 
ill-health to visit Europe, and on his return in the following year 
he was made librarian of the valuable collection of books pre- 
sented to the colony by Sir George Grey. In 1869 he visited 
England, where the value of his services was recognized by a 
pension from the civil list. He died at Cape Town on the 17 th 
of August 1875. His works, which are of considerable importance, 
for African and Australian philology, consist of the Vocabulary 
of the Mozambique Language (London, 1856); Handbook of 
African, Australian and Polynesian Philology (Cape Town and; 
London, 3 vols., 1858-1863); Comparative Grammar of the 
South African Languages (vol. i., London, 1869); Reynard the 
Fox in South Africa, or Hottentot Fables and Tales (London, 1864) ; 
Origin of Language (London, 1869). 

BLENDE, or Sphalerite, a naturally occurring zinc sulphide, 
ZnS, and an important ore of zinc. The name blende was used 
by G. Agricola in 1546, and is from the German blenden, to 
blind, or deceive, because the mineral resembles lead-ore in r 
appearance but contains no lead, and was consequently often 
rejected as worthless. Sphalerite, introduced by E. F. Glocker 
in 1847, has the same meaning (Gr. o-<ba\epos, deceptive), and 
so have the miners' terms "mock ore," " false lead," and 
" blackjack." The term " blende " was 
at one time used in a generic sense, and 
as such enters into the construction of 
several old names of German origin; 
the species under consideration is there- 
fore sometimes distinguished as zinc- 

Crystals of blende belong to that sub- 
class of the cubic system in which there 
are six planes of symmetry parallel to 
the faces of the rhombic dodecahedron 
and none parallel to the cubic faces; in other words, the, 
crystals are cubic with inclined hemihedrism, and have no 
centre of symmetry. The fundamental form is the tetrahedron. 
Fig. 1 shows a combination of two tetrahedra, in which the 
four faces of one tetrahedron are larger than the four faces of 
the other: further, the two sets of faces difer in surface 



characters, those of one set being dull and striated, whilst 
those of the other set are bright and smooth. A common 
' form, shown in fig. 2, is a combination of the rhombic 
dodecahedron with a three-faced tetrahedron y (311); 
the six faces meeting in each triad axis are often rounded 
together into low conical forms. The crystals are frequently 
twinned, the twin-axis coinciding with a triad axis; a rhombic 
dodecahedron so twinned (fig. 3) has no re-entrant angles. An 
important character of blende is the perfect dodecahedral 
cleavage, there being six directions of cleavage parallel to the 
faces of the rhombic dodecahedron, and angles between which 
are 6o°. 

When chemically pure, which is rarely the case, blende is 
colourless and transparent; usually, however, the mineral is 
yellow, brown or black, and often opaque, the depth of colour 
and degree of transparency depending on the amount of iron 
present. The streak, or colour of the powder, is brownish or 
light yellow, rarely white. The lustre is resinous to adamantine, 
and the index of refraction high (2-369 for sodium light). The 
substance is usually optically isotropic, though sometimes it 
exhibits anomalous double refraction; fibrous zinc sulphide 
which is doubly refracting is to be referred to the hexagonal 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

species wurtzite. The specific gravity is 4-0, and the hardness 
4. Crystals exhibit pyroelectrical characters, since they possess 
four uniterminal triad axes of symmetry. 

Crystals of blende are of very common occurrence, but owing 
to twinning and distortion and curvature of the faces, they are 
often rather complex and difficult to decipher. For this reason 
the mineral is not always readily recognized by inspection, 
though the perfect dodecahedral cleavage, the adamantine 
lustre, and the brown streak are characters which may be relied 
upon. The mineral is also frequently found massive, with a 
coarse or fine granular structure and a crystalline fracture; 
sometimes it occurs as a soft, white, amorphous deposit resem- 
bling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide. A compact 
variety of a pale liver-brown colour and forming concentric 
layers with a reniform surface is known in Germany as Schalen- 
blende or Leberblende. 

A few varieties of blende are distinguished by special names, 
these varieties depending on differences in colour and chemical 
composition.' A pure white blende from Franklin in New Jersey 
is known as cleiophane; snow-white crystals are also found at 
Nordmark in Vermland, Sweden. Black blende containing 
ferrous sulphide, in amounts up to 15 or 20 % isomorphously 
replacing zinc sulphide, is known as marmatite (from Marmato 
near Guayabal in Colombia, South America) and christophite 
(from St Christophe mine at Breitenbrunn near Eibenstock in 
Saxony). Transparent blende of a red or reddish-brown colour, 
such as that found near Holywell in Flintshire, is known as 
" ruby-blende " or " ruby-zinc." Pftbramite is the name 
given to a cadmiferous blende from Pribram in Bohemia. 
Other varieties contain small amounts of mercury, tin, man- 
ganese or thallium. The elements gallium and indium were 
discovered in blende. 

Blende occurs in metalliferous veins, often in association with 
galena, also with chalcopyrite, barytes, fluorspar, &c. In ore- 
deposits containing both lead and zinc, such as those filling 
cavities in the limestones of the north of England and of Missouri, 
the galena is usually found in the upper part of the deposit, the 
blende not being reached until the deeper parts are worked. 

Blende is also found sporadically in sedimentary rocks; for 
example, in nodules of clay-ironstone in the Coal Measures, in the 
cement-doggers of the Lias, and in the casts of fossil shells. It 
has occasionally been found on the old timbers of mines. In 
these cases the zinc sulphide has probably arisen from the 
reduction of sulphate by organic matter. 

Localities for fine crystallized specimens are numerous. 
Mention may be made of the brilliant black crystals from Alston 
Moor in Cumberland, St Agnes in Cornwall and Derbyshire. 
Yellow crystals are found at Kapnik-Banya, near Nagy-Banya 
in Hungary. Transparent yellow cleavage masses of large 
size occur in limestone in the zinc mines at Picos de 
Europa in the province of Santander, Spain. Beautiful 
isolated tetrahedra of transparent yellow blende are found 
in the snow-white crystalline dolomite of the Binnenthal in 
the Valais, Switzerland. (L. J. S.) 

BLENHEIM (Ger. Blindheim), a village of Bavaria, Germany, 
in the district of Swabia, on the left bank of the Danube, 30 m. 
N.E. from Ulm by rail, a few miles below Hochstadt. Pop. 700. 
It was the scene of the defeat of the French and Bavarians under 
Marshals Tallard and Marsin, on the 13th of August 1704, by the 
English and the Austrians under the duke of Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene. In consideration of his military services and 
especially his decisive victory, a princely mansion was erected by 
parliament for the duke of Marlborough near Woodstock in 
Oxfordshire, England, and was named Blenheim Palace after 
this place. 

The battle of Blenheim is also called Hochstadt, but the title 
accepted in England has the advantage that it distinguishes this 
battle from that won on the same ground a year previously, by 
the elector of Bavaria over the imperial general Styrum (9-20 
September 1703), and from the fighting between the Austrians 
under Krag and the French under Moreau in June 1800 (see 
French Revolutionary Wars). The ground between the 
hills and the marshy valley of the Danube forms a defile through 
which the main road from Donauworth led to Ulm; parallel 
streams divide the narrow plain into strips. On one of these 
streams, the Nebel, the French and Bavarians (somewhat 
superior in numbers) took up their position facing eastward, 
their right flank resting on the Danube, their left in the under- 
features of the hilly ground, and their front covered by the Nebel, 
on which were the villages of Oberglau, Unterglau and Blenheim. 
The imperialist army of Eugene and the allies under Marlborough 
(52,000 strong) encamped 5 m. to the eastward along another 
stream, their flanks similarly protected. On the 2nd-i3th of 
August 1704 Eugene and Marlborough set their forces in motion 
towards the hostile camps; several streams had to be crossed on 
the march, and it was seven o'clock (five hours after moving off) 
when the British of Marlborough's left wing, next the Danube, 
deployed opposite Blenheim, which Tallard thereupon garrisoned 
with a large force of his best infantry, aided by a battery of 
24-pounder guns. The French and Bavarians were taken 
somewhat by surprise, and were arrayed in two separate armies, 
each with its cavalry on the wings and its foot in the centre. 
Thus the centre of the combined forces consisted of the cavalry 
of Marsin's right and of Tallard's left. 

Here was the only good ground for mounted troops, and 
Marlborough followed Tallard's example when forming up to 
attack, but it resulted from the dispositions of the French 
marshal that this weak point of junction of his two armies was 
exactly that at which decisive action was to be expected. 
Tallard therefore had a few horse on his right between the 
Danube and Blenheim, a mass of infantry in his centre atBlenheim 
itself, and a long line of cavalry supported by a few battalions 
forming his left wing in the plain, and connecting with the right 
of Marsin's army. This army was similarly drawn up. The 
cavalry right wing was in the open, the French infantry near 
Oberglau, which was strongly held, the Bavarian infantry next 
on the left, and finally the Bavarian cavalry with a force of foot 
on the extreme left in the hills. The elector of Bavaria com- 
manded his own troops in person. Marlborough and Eugene on 
their part were to attack respectively Tallard and Marsin. The 



right wing under Eugene had to make a difficult march over 
broken ground before it could form up for battle, and Marl- 
borough waited, with his army in order of battle between 
Unterglau and Blenheim, until his colleague should be ready. 
At 12.30 the battle opened. Lord Cutts, with a detachment of 
Marlborough's left wing, attacked Blenheim with the utmost 
fury. A third of the leading brigade (British) was killed ^nd 
wounded in the vain attempt to break through the strong defences 
of the village, and some French squadrons charged upon it as it 
retired; a colour was captured in the melee, but a Hessian 
brigade in second line drove back the cavalry and retook the 
colour. After the repulse of these squadrons, in which some 
British cavalry from the centre took part, Cutts again moved 
forward. The second attack, though pressed even more fiercely, 
fared no better than the first, and the losses were heavier than 
before. The duke then ordered Cutts to observe the enemy in 
Blenheim, and concentrated all his attention on the centre. 
Here, between Unterglau and Blenheim, preparations were being 
made, under cover of artillery, for the crossing of the Nebel, and 
farther up-stream a corps was sent to attack Oberglau. This 
attack failed completely, and it was not until Marlborough 
himself, with fresh battalions, drove the French back into 
Oberglau that the allies were free to cross the Nebel. 
' In the meanwhile the first line of Marlborough's infantry had 
crossed lower down, and the first line of cavalry, following them 
across, had been somewhat severely handled by Tallard's cavalry. 
The squadrons under the Prussian general Bothmar, however, 
made a dashing charge, and achieved considerable temporary 
success. Eugene was now closely engaged with the elector of 
Bavaria, and both sides were losing heavily. But Eugene carried 
out his holding attack successfully. Marsin dared not reinforce 
Tallard to any extent, and the duke was preparing for the grand 
attack. His whole force, except the detachment of Cutts, was 
now across the Nebel, and he had formed it in several lines with 
the cavalry in front. Marlborough himself led the cavalry; 
the French squadrons received the attack at the halt, and were 
soon broken. Marsin's right swung back towards its own army.: 
Those squadrons of Tallard's left which retained their order fell 
back towards the Danube, and a great gap was opened in the 
centre of the defence, through which the victorious squadrons 
poured. Wheeling to their left the pursuers drove hundreds of 
fugitives into the Danube, and Eugene was now pressing the 
army of Marsin towards Marlborough, who re-formed and faced 
northward to cut off its retreat. Tallard was already a prisoner, 
but in the dusk and confusion Marsin slipped through between 
the duke and Eugene. General Churchill, Marlborough's brother, 
had meanwhile surrounded the French garrison of Blenheim; 
and after one or two attempts to break out, twenty-four ba ttalions 
of infantry and four regiments of dragoons, many of them the 
finest of the French army, surrendered. 

The losses of the allies are stated at 4500 killed and 7500 
wounded (British 670 killed and 1500 wounded). Of the French 
and Bavarians 11,000 men, 100 guns and, 200 colours and 
standards were taken; besides the killed and wounded, the 
numbers of which were large but uncertain — many were drowned 
in the Danube. Marsin's army, though it lost heavily, was 
drawn off in good order; Tallard's was almost annihilated. 

BLENNERHASSETT, HARMAN (1765-1831), Irish-American 
lawyer, son of an Irish country gentleman of English stock 
settled in Co. Kerry, was born on the 8th of October 1765. He 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1790 was called 
to the Irish bar. After living for several years on the continent, 
he married in 1796 his niece, Margaret Agnew, daughter of 
Robert Agnew, the lieutenant-governor of the Isle of Man. 
Ostracised by their families for this step the couple decided to 
settle in America, where Blennerhassett in 1798 bought an 
island in the Ohio river about 2 m. below Parkersburg, West 
Virginia. Here in 1805 he received a visit from Aaron Burr (q.v.), 
in whose conspiracy he became interested, furnishing liberal funds 
for its support, and offering the use of his island as a rendezvous 
for the gathering of arms and supplies and the training of 
volunteers. Wkn the conspiracy collapsed, the mansion and 

island were occupied and plundered by the Virginia militia. 
Blennerhassett fled, was twice arrested and remained a prisoner 
until after Burr's release; The island was then abandoned, and 
Blennerhassett was in. turn a cotton planter in Mississippi, and 
a lawyer (1819-1822) in Montreal, Canada. After returning to 
Ireland, he died in the island of Guernsey on the 2nd of February 
1831. His wife, who had considerable literary talent and who 
published The Deserted Isle (1822) and The Widow of the Rock 
and Other Poems (1824), returned to the United States in 1840, 
and died soon afterward in New York City while attempting to 
obtain through Congress payment for property destroyed on the 

See William H. Safford, Life ofHarman Blennerhassett (Cincinnati, 
1853) ; W. H. Safford (editor), The Blennerhassett Papers (Cincinnati, 
1864); and "The True Story of Harman Blennerhassett," by 
Therese Blennerhassett-Adams, in the Century Magazine for July 
1 90 1, vol. lxii. 

BLERA (mod. Bieda), an ancient Etruscan town on the Via 
Clodia, about 3 2 m. N.N. W. of Rome. It was of little importance, 
and is only mentioned by geographers and. in inscriptions. It 
is situated on a long, narrow tongue of rock at the junction of 
two deep glens. Some remains of the town walls still exist, and 
also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and 
many tombs hewn in the rock — small chambers imitating the 
architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented 
in relief. See G, Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, i. 207. 
There was another Blera in Apulia, on the road from Venusia to 

BLESSINGTON, MARGUERITE, Countess of (1789-1849), 
Irish novelist and miscellaneous writer, daughter of Edmund 
Power, a small landowner, was born near Clonmel, Co. Tipperary, 
Ireland, on the 1st of September 1789. Her childhood was made 
unhappy by her father's character and poverty, and her early 
womanhood wretched by her compulsory marriage at the age 
of fifteen to a Captain Maurice St Leger Farmer, whose drunken 
habits brought him at last as a debtor to the king's bench prison, 
where, in October 181.7, he died. His wife had left him some 
time before, and in February 1818 she married Charles John 
Gardiner, earl of Blessington. Of rare beauty, charm and wit, 
she was no less distinguished for her generosity and for the 
extravagant tastes which she shared with her husband, which 
resulted in encumbering his estates with a load of debt. In the 
autumn of 1822 they went abroad, spent four months of the next 
year at Genoa in close intimacy with Byron, and remained on 
the continent till Lord Blessington's deathin May 1829. Some 
time before this they had been joined by Count D'Orsay, who in 
1827 married Lady Harriet Gardiner, Lord Blessington's only 
daughter by a former wife. D'Orsay, who had soon separated 
from his wife, now accompanied Lady Blessington to England 
and lived with her till her death. Their home, first at Seamore 
Place, and afterwards Gore House, Kensington, became a centre 
of attraction for whatever was distinguished in literature, 
learning, art, science and fashion. After her husband's death 
she supplemented her diminished income by contributing to 
various periodicals as well as by writing novels. She was for 
some years editor of The Book of Beauty and The Keepsake, 
popular annuals of the day. In 1834 she published her Conversa- 
tions with Lord Byron. Her Idler in Italy (1839-1840), and 
Idler in France (1841) were popular for their personal gossip and 
anecdote, descriptions of nature and sentiment. Early in 1849, 
Count D'Orsay left Gore House to escape his creditors; the 
furniture and decorations were sold, and Lady Blessington joined 
the count in Paris, where she died on the 4th of June 1849. 

Her Literary Life and Correspondence (3 vols.), edited by R. R. 
Madden, appeared in 1855. Her portrait was painted in 1808 by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

BLIDA, a town of Algeria, in the department of Algiers, 
32 m. by railway S.W. from Algiers, on the line to Oran. 
Pop. (1906) 16,866. It lies surrounded with orchards and 
gardens, 630 ft. above the sea, at the base of the Little Atlas, 
on the southern edge of the fertile plain of the Metija, and the 
right bank of the Wad-el-Kebir affluent of the Chiffa. The 
abundant water of this stream provides power for large corn 



mills and several factories, and also supplies the town, with its 
numerous fountains and irrigated gardens. Blida is surrounded 
by a wall of considerable extent, pierced by six gates, and is 
further defended by Fort Mimieh, crowning a steep hill on the 
left bank of the river. The present town, French in character, 
has well-built modern streets with many arcades, and numbers 
among its buildings several mosques and churches, extensive 
barracks and a large military hospital. The principal square, 
the place d'Armes, is surrounded by arcaded houses and shaded 
by trees. The centre of a fertile district, and a post on one of 
the main routes in the country, Blida has a flourishing trade, 
chiefly in oranges and flour. The orange groves contain over 
50,000 trees, and in April the air for miles round is laden with 
the scent of the orange blossoms. In the public gardens is a 
group of magnificent olive trees. The products of the neigh- • 
bouring cork trees and cedar groves are a source of revenue 
to the .town. In the vicinity are the villages of Joinville and 
Montpensier, which owe their origin to military camps estab- 
lished by Marshal Valee in 1838; and on the road to Medea 
are the tombs of the marabout Mahommed-el-Kebir, who died 
in 1580, and his two sons. 

Blida, i.e. boleida, diminutive of the Arab word belad, city, 
occupies the site of a military station in the time of the Romans, 
but the present town appears to date from the 16th century. 
A mosque was built by order of Khair-ed-din Barbarossa, and 
under the Turks the town was of some importance. In 1825 
it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, but was speedily 
rebuilt on a site about a mile distant from the ruins. It was not 
till 1838 that it was finally held by the French, though they had 
been in possession for a short time eight years before. In 
April 1906 it was chosen as the place of detention of Behanzin, 
the ex-king of Dahomey, who died in December of that 

Blida is the chief town of a commune of the same name, 
having (1906) a population of 33, 332. 

BLIGH, WILLIAM (1754-1817), English admiral, was born 
of a good Cornish family in 1754. He accompanied Captain 
Cook in his second expedition (177 2-1 774) as sailing-master of 
the " Resolution." During the voyage, the bread-fruit, already 
known to Dampier, was found by them at Otaheite; and after 
seeing service under Lord Howe and elsewhere, " Bread-fruit 
Bligh," as he was nicknamed, was despatched at the end of 1787 
to the Pacific in command of H.M.S. " Bounty," for the purpose 
of introducing it into the West Indies from the South Sea Islands. 
Bligh sailed from Otaheite, after remaining there about six 
months; but, when near the Friendly Islands, a mutiny (April 
28, 1789) broke out on board the "Bounty," headed by 
Fletcher Christian, the master's mate, and Bligh, with eighteen 
others, was set adrift in the launch. The mutineers themselves 
settled on Pitcairn Island (q.v.), but some of them were after- 
wards captured, brought to England and in three cases executed. 
This mutiny, which forms the subject of Byron's Island, did 
not arise so much from tyranny on the part of Bligh as from 
attachments contracted between the seamen and the women 
of Otaheite. After suffering severely from hunger, thirst 
and storms, Bligh and his companions landed at Timor in the 
East Indies, having performed a voyage of about 4000 m. in 
an open boat. Bligh returned to England in 1790, and he was 
soon afterwards appointed to the " Providence," in which he 
effected the purpose of his former appointment by introducing 
the bread-fruit tree into the West India Islands. He showed 
great courage at the mutiny of the Nore in 1797, and in the same 
year took part in the battle of Camperdown, where Admiral 
Duncan defeated the Dutch under De Winter. In 1801 he 
commanded the " Glatton " (54) at the battle of Copenhagen, 
and received the personal commendations of Nelson. In 1805 
he was appointed " captain general and governor of New South 
Wales." As he made himself intensely unpopular by the 
harsh exercise of authority, he was deposed in January 1808 
by a mutiny headed by Major George Johnston of the 102nd 
foot, and was imprisoned by the mutineers till 1810. He re- 
turned to England in 1811, was promoted to rear-admiral in 

that year, and to vice-admiral in 1814. Major Johnston was 
tried by court martial at Chelsea in 181 1, and was dismissed the 
service. Bligh, who was an active, persevering and courageous 
officer, died in London in 18 1 7. 

BLIND, MATHILDE (1841-1896), English author, was born 
at Mannheim on the 21st of March 1841. Her father was a 
banker named Cohen, but she took the name of Blind after her 
step-father, the political writer, Karl Blind (1 826-1 907), one 
of the exiled leaders of the Baden insurrection in 1 848-1 849, 
and an ardent supporter of the various 19th-century movements 
for the freedom and autonomy of struggling nationalities. The 
family was compelled to take refuge in England, where Mathilde 
devoted herself to literature and to the higher education of 
women. She produced also three long poems, " The Prophecy 
of St Oran " (1881), " The Heather on Fire" (1886), an in- 
dignant protest against the evictions in the Highlands, and 
" The Ascent of Man " (1888), which was to be the epic of the 
theory of evolution. She wrote biographies of George Eliot 
(1883) and Madame Roland (1886), and translated D.F. Strauss's 
The Old Faith and the New (1873-1874) and the Memoirs 
of Marie Bashkirtsefi (1890). She died on the 26th of Nov- 
ember 1896, bequeathing her property to Newnham College, 

A complete edition of her poems was edited by Mr Arthur Symons 
in 1900, with a biographical introduction by Dr Richard Garnett. 

BUND HOOKEY, a game of chance, played with a full pack 
of cards. The deal, which is an advantage, is decided as at 
whist, the cards being shuffled and cut as at whist. The dealer 
gives a parcel of cards to each player including himself. Each 
player puts the amount of his stake on his cards, which he must 
not look at. The dealer has to take all bets. He then turns up 
his parcel, exposing the bottom card. Each player in turn does 
the same, winning or losing according as his cards are higher 
or lower than the dealer's. Ties pay the dealer. The cards rank 
as at whist. The suits are of no importance, the cards taking 
precedence according to their face-value. 

BLINDING, a form of punishment anciently common in many 
lands, being inflicted on thieves, adulterers, perjurers and other 
criminals. The inhabitants of Apollonia (Illyria) are said to 
have inflicted this penalty on their " watch " when found asleep 
at their posts. It was resorted to by the Roman emperors in 
their persecutions of the Christians. The method of destroying . 
the sight varied. Sometimes a mixture of lime and vinegar, or 
barely scalding vinegar alone, was poured into the eyes. Some- 
times a rope was twisted round the victim's head till the eyes 
started out of their sockets. In the middle ages the punishment 
seems to have been changed from total blindness to a permanent 
injury to the eyes, amounting, however, almost to blindness, 
produced by holding a red-hot iron dish or basin before the face. 
Under the forest laws of the Norman kings of England blinding 
was a common penalty. Shakespeare makes King John order 
his nephew Arthur's eyes to be burnt out. 

BLINDMAN'S-BUFF (from an O. Fr. word, buffe, a blow, 
especially a blow on the cheek), a game in which one player is 
blindfolded and made to catch and identify one of the others, 
who in sport push him about and " buffet " him. 

BLINDNESS, the condition of being blind (a common Teutonic 
word), i.e. devoid of sight (see also Vision; and Eye: Diseases). 
The data furnished in various countries by the census of 1901 
showed generally a decrease in blindness, due to the progress in 
medical science, use of antiseptics, better sanitation, control of 
infectious diseases, and better protection in shops and factories. 
Blindness is much more common in hot countries than in 
temperate and cold regions, but Finland and Iceland are excep- 
tions to the general rule. 1 In hot countries the eyes are affected 
by the glaring sunlight, the dust and the dryness of the air. 
From statistics in Italy, France and Belgium, localities on the 
coast seem to have more blind persons than those at a distance 
from the sea. 

1 There are no late returns for Iceland, but the last available 
statistics gave 3400 per million. A paper written in 1903 on blindness 
in Egypt stated that 1 in every 50 of the population was blind. 



The following table gives the number of blind persons as reported 
in the census of each country. Unless otherwise stated, it refers to 
the statistics of 1900. 








Finland l 





Holland (1890) 




Switzerland (1895) .... 


Spain (1877) 


United States (corrected census) 



per Million 

of Population. 







4 2 63 
















1 175 







about 2000 


Causes and Prevention 
There are many cases of complete or partial blindness which 
might have been prevented, and a knowledge of the best methods 
of prevention and cure should be spread as widely as possible. 
Magnus, Bremer, Steffen and Rossler are of opinion that 40 % of 
the cases of blindness might have been prevented. Hayes gives 
33.35% as positively avoidable, 38-75% possibly avoidable, 
and 46 • 2 7 % as a conservative estimate. Cohn regards blindness 
as certainly preventable in 33 %, as probably preventable in 
43 %, and as quite unpreventable in only 24 %. If we take the 
lowest of these figures, and assume that 400 out of every 1000 
blind persons might have been saved from such a calamity, 
we realize the importance of preventative measures. For the 
physiology and pathology of the eye generally, see Vision and 


The great majority of these cases are due to infantile purulent 
ophthalmia. This arises from inoculation of the eyes with 
hurtful material at time of birth. If the contagious 
Ophthal- discharges are allowed to remain, violent inflammation 
mia ' is set up which usually ends in the loss of sight. It 

depends on the presence of a microbe, and the effective applica- 
tion of a weak solution of nitrate of silver is curative, if made in a 
proper manner at an early period of the case. In Germany, 
midwives are expressly prohibited by law from treating any 
affection of the eyes or eyelids of infants, however slight. On the 
appearance of the first symptoms, they are required to represent 
to the parents, or others in charge, that medical assistance is 
urgently needed, or, if necessary, they are themselves to report 
to the local authorities and the district doctor. Neglect of 
these regulations entails liability to punishment. Eleven of the 
United States of America have enacted laws requiring that, if 
one or both eyes of an infant should become inflamed, swollen or 
reddened at any time within two weeks of its birth, it shall be the 
duty of the midwife or nurse having charge of such infant to 
report in writing within six hours, to the health officer or some 
legally qualified physician, the fact that such inflammation, 
swelling or redness exists. The penalty for failure to comply is 
fine or imprisonment. 

The following weighty words, from a paper prepared by Dr 
Park Lewis, of Buffalo, N.Y., for the American Medical Associa- 
tion, show that laws are not sufficient to prevent evil, unless 
supported by strong public sentiment: — 

" When an enlightened, civilized and progressive nation quietly 
and passively, year after year, permits a multitude of its people un- 
necessarily to become blind, and more especially when one-quarter 

1 Previous returns from Finland have shown a much larger number 
of blind persons, but these statistics were supplied by the British 
consul in St Petersburg from the last census. 

of these are infants, the reason for such a startling condition of 
affairs demands explanation. That such is the fact, practically all 
reliable ophthalmologists agree. • 

" From a summary of carefully tabulated statistics it has been 
demonstrated that at least four-tenths of all existing blindness 
might have been avoided had proper preventative or curative 
measures been employed, while one-quarter of this, or one-tenth of 
the whole, is due to ophthalmia neonatorum, an infectious, prevent- 
able and almost absolutely curable disease. Perhaps this statement 
will take on a new meaning when it is added that there are in the 
state of New York alone more than 6000, and in the United States 
more than 50,000 blind people; of these 600 in the one state, and 
5000 in the country, would have been saved from lives of darkness 
and unhappiness, in having lost all the joys that come through sight, 
and of more or less complete dependence — for no individual can be 
as self-sufficient without as with eyes — if a simple, safe and easily 
applied precautionary measure had been taken at the right time 
and in the right way to prevent this affliction. The following three 
vital facts are not questioned, but are universally accepted by those 
qualified to know : — 

" 1. The ophthalmia of infancy is an infectious germ disease. 
" 2. By the instillation of a silver salt in the eyes of a new-born 
infant the disease is prevented from developing in all but an exceed- 
ingly small number of the cases in which it would otherwise have 
appeared. . 

" 3. In practically all those few exceptional cases the disease is 
absolutely curable, if like treatment is employed at a sufficiently 
early period. < . 

" Since these facts are no longer subjects of discussion, but are 
universally accepted by all educated medical men, the natural 
inquiry follows: Why, as a common-sense proposition, are not 
these simple, harmless, preventive measures invariably employed} 
and why, in consequence of this neglect, does a nation sit quietly 
and indifferently by, making no attempt to prevent this enormous 
and needless waste of human eyes ? _ 

" The reasons are three-fold, and lie — first, with the medical 
profession; second, with the lay public; third, with the state. 

" For the education of its blind children annually New York alone 
pays per capita at least $350, and a yearly gross sum amounting to 
much more than $100,000. If, as sometimes happens, the blind 
citizen is a dependent throughout a long life, the cost of maintenance 
is not less than $10,000, and the mere cost in money will be multi- 
plied many times in that a productive factor, by reason of blindness, 
has been removed from the community. ,,■•■' 

" If, therefore, as an economic proposition, it were realized how 
vitally it concerns the state that not one child shall needlessly 
become blind, thereby increasing the public financial burden, there 
is no doubt that early and effective measures would be instituted to 
protect the state from this unnecessary and extravagant expenditure 
of public funds. ... 

" Eleven states have passed legislative enactments requiring that 
the midwife shall report each case to the proper health authority, 
and affixing a penalty for the failure to do so. As has been intimated, 
however, it is not by any means always under the ministration of 
midwives that these cases occur, and, like all laws behind which is 
not a strong and well-informed public sentiment, this law is rarely 
enforced. A more effective method must be devised. Every 
physician having to do with the parturient woman, every obstet- 
rician, every midwife, must be frequently and constantly advised 
of the dangers and possibilities of this disease, the necessity of 
prevention, and the value of early and correct treatment. They 
must then have placed in their hands, ready for instant use, a safe 
and efficient preparation, issued by the health authorities as a 
guarantee as to its quality and efficiency. 

" An important step was taken in this direction when a resolution 
was passed by the House of Delegates at the annual meeting of the 
New York State Medical Society, requesting the various health 
officers of the state to include ophthalmia neonatorum among 
contagious diseases which must be reported to the local boards of 
health. ..... 

" The second essential, in order that the cause of infantile 
ophthalmia be abolished, is that a solution of the necessary silver 
salt be prepared under the authority of somebody capable of in- 
spiring universal confidence, and that it be distributed by the health 
department of every state gratuitously to every obstetrician, 
physician or midwife qualified to care for the parturient woman. 
The nature of the solution, together with the character of the 
descriptive card which should accompany it, should be determined 
by a committee, chosen by the president of the American Medical 
Association, which should have among its members at least one 
representative ophthalmologist, one obstetrician and one sanitarian; 
The conclusions of this committee should be reported back to the 
House of Delegates, so that the preparation and its text should carry 
with it, on the great authority of this association, the assurance that 
the solution is entirely safe and necessary, and that its use should 
invariably be part of the toilet of every new-born child, lne 
solution, probably silver nitrate, could be put up either by the state 
itself or by some trustworthy pharmacist, at an insignificant cost; 
its purity and sterility should be vouched for by the board of health 
of the state. It should be enclosed in specially prepared receptacles, 



each containing a special quantity, and so arranged that it may 
be used drop by drop. These, properly enclosed, accompanied by a 
brief lucid explanation of the danger of the disease, the necessity of 
this germicide, the method of its employment, and the right subse- 
quent care of the eyes, should be sent to the obstetrician on the 
receipt of each birth certificate. 

" I have said that responsibility for the indifference that is annu- 
ally resulting in such frightful disaster lies primarily with the state, 
the public and the medical profession. 

" The state is already aroused to the necessity of taking effective 
measures to wipe out this controllable plague. Bills have been 
introduced in the legislature of Massachusetts and of New York, 
providing for the appointment of commissions for the blind, one of 
whose duties w i" De to study the causes of unnecessary blindness 
and to suggest preventative measures." 

One of the most common diseases of the eye is trachoma, often 
dalled "granular lids," because the inner surface of the lid 
_ . seems to be covered with little granulations. The 

' disease sometimes lasts for years without causing 
blindness, though it gives rise to great irritation. It is generally 
attended by a discharge, which is highly contagious, producing 
the same disease if it gets into other eyes. Want of cleanliness 
is one of the most important factors in the propagation of 
trachoma, hence its great prevalence in Oriental countries. 
Trachoma is very prevalent in Egypt, where those suffering 
from total or partial blindness are said to amount to 10% 
of the population. During Napoleon's Egyptian campaign, 
nearly every soldier, out of an army of 32,000 men, was affected. 
During the following twenty years the disease spread through 
almost all European armies. In the Belgian army, there was 
one trachomatous soldier out of every five, and up to 1834 no 
less than 4000 soldiers had lost both eyes and 10,000 one eye. 
It is a disease which is very common in workhouse schools, 
orphan asylums and similar establishments. Unlike ophthalmia 
of riew-born children, it is difficult to cure, and a total separation 
of the diseased from the healthy children should be effected. 

About one-half of those who are blinded by injuries lose the 
second eye by sympathetic ophthalmia. It is a constant source 
of danger to those who retain an eye blinded by 
thetic injury. Blindness from this cause can be prevented 

Inflamma- by the removal of the injured eye, but unfortunately 
ilon ' the proposal often meets with opposition from the 


Glaucoma is a disease which almost invariably leads to total 

blindness; but in most cases it can be arrested by 
Glaucoma. . ' . . _ 

a simple operation if the case is seen suffi- 
ciently early. 

Myopia, or " short-sight," makes itself apparent in children 
between the ages of seven and nine. Neglect of a year or two 
may do serious mischief. Short-sight, when not 
inherited, is produced by looking intently and con- 
tinuously at near objects. Children should be 
encouraged to describe objects at a distance, with which they are 
unacquainted, and parents should choose out-door occupations 
and amusements for children who show a tendency to short- 

A report was issued in 1906, by the school board of Glasgow, 
as to an investigation by Dr H. Wright Thomas, ophthalmic 
surgeon, regarding the eyesight of school children, which in- 
cludes the following passage. Dr Wright Thomas states that 
the teachers tested the visual acuteness of 52,493 children, and 
found 18,565, or 35%, to be below what is regarded as the 
normal standard. He examined the 18,565 defectives by retino- 
scopy, and found that 11,209, or 21 % of the whole, had ocular 
defects. The proportion of these cases was highest in the poor 
and closely-built districts and in old schools, and was lowest 
in the better-class schools and those near the outskirts of the 
city. Defective vision, apart from ocular defect, seems to be 
due partly to want of training of the eyes for distant objects 
and partly to exhaustion of the eyes, which is easily induced 
when work is carried on in bad light, or the nutrition of the 
children is defective from bad feeding and unhealthy surround- 
ings. Regarding training of the eyes for distant objects, much 
might be done in the infant department by the total abolition 
of sewing, which is definitely hurtful to such young eyes, and 


the substitution of competitive games involving the recognition 
of small objects at a distance of 20 ft. or more. An annual testing 
by the teachers, followed by medical inspection of the children 
found defective, would soon cause all existing defects to be 
corrected, and would lead to the detection of those which 
develop during school life. 

History of Institutions 

Although there is a record of a hospital established by St Basil 
at Caesarea, Cappadocia, in the 4th century, a refuge by the 
hermit St Lymnee (d. c. 455) at Syr, Syria, in the 5th century, 
and an institution by St Bertrand, bishop of Le Mans, in the 
7th century, the first public effort to benefit the blind was the 
founding of a hospital at Paris, in 1260, by Louis IX., for 300 
blind persons. The common legend is that he founded it as an 
asylum for 300 of his soldiers who had become blinded in the 
crusade in Egypt, but the statutes of the founder are preserved, 
and no mention is made of crusaders. This Hospice des Quinze- 
Vingts, increased by subsequent additions to its funds, still 
assists the adult blind of France. The pensioners are divided 
into two classes — those who are inmates of the hospital (300), and 
those who receive pensions in the form of out -door relief. All 
appointments to inmates or pensions are vested in the minister 
of the Interior, and applicants must be of French nationality, 
totally blind and not less than forty years of age. 

From the time of St Louis to the 18th century, there are 
records of isolated cases of blind persons who were educated, 
and of efforts to devise tangible apparatus to assist them. 

Girolamo Cardan, the 16th-century Italian physician, con- 
ceived the idea that the blind could be taught to read and write 
by means of touch. About 1517 Francesco Lucas in Spain, 
and Rampazetto in Italy, made use of large letters cut in wood 
for instructing the blind. In 1646 a book, on the condition of 
the blind, was written by an Italian, and published in Italian 
and French, under the title of L'Aveugle afflige et consols. In 
1670 a book was written on the instruction of the blind by 
Lana Terzi, the Jesuit. In 1676 Jacques Bernoulli, the Swiss 
savant, taught a blind girl to read, but the means of her in- 
struction were not made known. In 1749 D. Diderot wrote his 
Leltre'sur Us aveugles a I' usage de ceux qui voient, to show how 
far the intellectual and moral nature of man is modified by 
blindness. Dr S. G. Howe, who many years after translated 
and printed the "Letter" in embossed type, characterizes it as 
abounding with errors of fact and inference, but also with 
beauties and suggestions. The heterodox speculations contained 
in his "Letter on the Blind " caused Diderot to be imprisoned 
three months in the Bastille. He was released because his services 
were required for the forthcoming Encyclopaedia. Rousseau 
visited Diderot in prison, and is reported to have suggested a 
system of embossed printing. J. Locke, G. W. Leibnitz, 
Molineau and others discussed the effect of blindness on the 
human mind. In Germany, Weissembourg had used signs in 
relief and taught Mile Paradis. 

Prior to the 18th century, blind beggars existed in such 
numbers that they struggled for standing room in positions 
favourable for asking alms. Their very affliction led to their 
being used as spectacles for the amusement of the populace. 
The degraded state of the masses of the blind in France attracted 
the attention of Valentin Hauy. In 1 771, at the annual fair of 
St Ovid, in Paris, an innkeeper had a group of blind men attired 
in a ridiculous manner, decorated with peacock tails, asses' ears, 
and pasteboard spectacles without glasses, in which condition 
they gave a burlesque concert, for the profit of their employer. 
This sad scene was repeated day after day, and greeted with 
loud laughter by the gaping crowds. Among those who gazed 
at this outrage to humanity was the philanthropist Valentin 
Hauy, who left the disgraceful scene full of sorrow. " Yes," 
he said to himself, " I will substitute truth for this mocking 
parody. I will make the blind to read, and they shall be enabled 
to execute harmonious music." Hauy collected all the infor- 
mation he could gain respecting the blind, and began teaching 
a blind boy who had gained his living by begging at a church 



door. Encouraged by the success of his pupil, Hatty collected 
other blind persons, and in 1785 founded in Paris the first school 
for the blind (the Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles), 
and commenced the first printing in raised characters. In 1786, 
before Louis XVI. and his court at Versailles, he exhibited the 
attainments of his pupils in reading, writing, arithmetic, geo- 
graphy and music, and in the same year published an account 
of his methods, entitled Essai sur V education des aveugles. As 
the novelty wore off, contributions almost came to an end, and 
the Blind School must have ceased to exist, had it not been taken, 
in 1 791, under the protection of the state. 

The emperor of Russia, and later the dowager empress, having 
learned of Hatty's work, invited him to visit St Petersburg 
for the purpose of establishing a similar institution in the Russian 
capital. On his journey Haiiy was invited by the king of 
Prussia to Charlottenburg. He took part in the deliberations 
of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, and as a result a school 
was founded there. 

Edward Rushton, a blind man, was the projector of the first 
institution for the blind in England — the School for the Indigent 
Blind, Liverpool. In 1790 Rushton suggested to the literary 
and philosophical society of which he was a member, the estab- 
lishment of a benefit club for the indigent blind. The idea was 
communicated to his friend, J. Christie, a blind musician, and 
the latter thought the scheme should also include the instruc- 
tion of young blind persons. They circulated letters amongst 
individuals who would be likely to give their assistance, and the 
Rev. Henry Dannett warmly advocated the undertaking. It 
was mainly due to his co-operation and zeal that Messrs Rushton 
and Christie's plan was carried out, and the Liverpool asylum 
was opened in 1791. Thomas Blacklock of Edinburgh, a blind 
poet and scholar, translated Hatty's work on the Education 
of the Blind. He interested Mr David Millar, a blind gentle- 
man, the Rev. David Johnston and others in the subject, and 
after Blacklock's death the Edinburgh Asylum for the Relief 
of the Indigent and Industrious Blind was established (1793). 
Institutions were established in the United Kingdom in the 
following order : — 

School for the Indigent Blind, Liverpool . . . 1791 

Royal Blind Asylum, Edinburgh .... 1793 

Bristol Asylum 1793 

School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark (now 

removed to Leatherhead) 1799 

Norwich Asylum and School 1805 

Richmond Asylum, Dublin 1810 

Aberdeen Asylum 1812 

Molyneux Asylum, Dublin 1815 

Glasgow Asylum and School 1827 

Belfast School 1 83 1 

Wilberforce School, York 1833 

Limerick Asylum 1834 

London Society for Teaching the Blind to Read, St 

John's Wood, N 1838 

Royal Victoria School for the Blind, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne 1838 

West of England Institute for the Blind, Exeter . 1838 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Manchester . . . 1839 

County and City of Cork Asylum .... 1840 

Catholic Asylum, Liverpool. ..... 1841 

Brighton Asylum 1842 

Midland Institute for the Blind, Nottingham . . 1843 

General Institute for the Blind, Birmingham . . 1848 

Macan Asylum, Armagh ...... 1854 

St Joseph's Asylum, Dublin 1858 

St Mary's Asylum, Dublin . . . . . 1858 

Institute for the Blind, Devonport i860 

South Devon and Cornwall Institute for the Blind, 

Plymouth i860 

School for the Blind, Southsea 1864 

Institute for the Blind, Dundee 1865 

South Wales Institute for the Blind, Swansea . 1865 

School for the Blind, Leeds 1866 

College for the Sons of Gentlemen, Worcester . 1866 

Northern Counties Institute for the Blind, Inverness 1866 
Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for the 

Blind, Upper Norwood 1872 

School for the Blind, Sheffield . . . . . 1879 

Barclay Home and School for Blind Girls, Brighton 1893 

Homes for Blind Children, Preston . . . . 1895 
North Stafford School, Stoke-on-Trent . . .1897 

Many of the early institutions were asylums, and to the present 
day schools for the blind are regarded by the public as asylums 
rather than as educational establishments. With nearly all 
these schools workshops were connected. In 1856 Miss Gilbert, 
the blind daughter of the bishop of Chichester, established a 
workshop in Berners Street, London, and since that date 
workshops have been started in many of the provincial 
towns. ...... 

After the beginning of the 19th century, institutions for the 
blind were established in various parts of Europe. The iristitur 
tion at Vienna was founded in 1804 by Dr W; Klein, a blind man, 
and he remained at its head for fifty years. That of Berlin was 
established in 1806, Amsterdam, Prague and Dresden in 1808, 
Copenhagen in 181 1. There are more than 150 on the European 
continent, most of them receiving aid from the government, 
and being under government supervision. 

The first school for the blind in the United States was founded 
in Boston, Mass., chiefly through the efforts of DrJohnD. Fisher, 
a young physician who visited the French school. It was 
incorporated in 1829, and in honour of T.H. Perkins (1764-1854) 
who gave his mansion to the institution was named the Perkins In r 
stitution and Massachusetts Asylum (now School) for the Blind. 
Aid was granted by the state from the beginning. In 183 1 Dr 
Samuel G. Howe (q.v.) was appointed director, and held that 
position for nearly forty-four years, being succeeded by his 
son-in-law Michael Anagnos (d. 1906), who established a kinder- 
garten for the blind at Jamaica Plain, in connexion with the 
Perkins Institution. Dr Howe was interested in many charitable 
and sociological movements, but his life-work was on behalf of 
the blind. One of his most notable achievements was the 
education of Laura Bridgman (q.v.), who was deaf, dumb and 
blind, and this has since led to the education of Helen Keller 
and other blind deaf-mutes. The New York Institution was 
incorporated in 183 1, and the Pennsylvania Institution was 
founded at Philadelphia by the Society of Friends in 1833. The 
Ohio was founded at Columbus in 1837, Virginia at Staunton in 
1839, Kentucky at Louisville in 1842, Tennessee at Nashville 
in 1844, and now every state in the Union makes provision for 
the education of the blind. 


In England and Wales the total number of persons returned 
in 1901 as afflicted with blindness was 25,317, being in the 
proportion of 778 per million living, or 1 blind persdn • 
in every 1285 of the population. The following table England 
shows that the proportion of blind persons to popula- Wahs. ' 
tion has diminished at each successive enumeration 
since 1851, in which year particulars of those afflicted in this 
manner were ascertained for the first time. It will, however, 
be noted that, although the decrease in the proportion of blind 
in the latest intercensal period was still considerable, yet the 
rate of decrease which had obtained between 1871 and 1891 was 
not maintained. - 

Number of 

Blind per Million 

Persons Living to 



of the Population. 

one Blind Person,; 



1 02 1 













.■• 1138 : - 




1236 . 





The following table, which gives the proportions of blind 
per million living at the earlier age-groups, shows that in the 
decennium 1891-1901, as also in recent previous intercensal 
periods, there was a decrease in the proportion of blind children 
in England and Wales generally; it thus lends support to the 
contention, in the General Report for 1891, that the decrease was 
due either to the lesser prevalence, or to the more efficient 
treatment, of purulent ophthalmia and other infantile maladies 
which may result in blindness. 










Under 5 years 









259 } 





, *55 

( 188 

( 290 




Total under 25 







In 1886 a royal commission on the Wind, deaf and dumb was 
appointed by the government, and, after taking much valuable 
evidence, issued an exhaustive and instructive report. Following 
on the practical recommendations submitted by this commission, 
the Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act 1893, 
was passed, under which the education of the blind became for 
the first time compulsory. In terms of this statute, the school 
authorities were made responsible for the provision of suitable 
elementary education for blind children up to sixteen years of 
age, and grants. of £3, 3s. for elementary subjects, and of £2, 2s. 
for industrial training, were contributed by the state towards 
the cost of educating children in schools certified as efficient 
within the meaning of the. Elementary Education Act 1876. 
The principal aim of the Education Act of 1893 was to supply 
education in some useful profession or trade which will enable 
the blind to earn their livelihood and to become useful citizens; 
but the weak spot was that no provision was made therein for 
the completion of their education and industrial training after 
the age of sixteen. 

In England and Wales, in 1907, there were twenty-four 
resident schools and forty-three workshops for the blind. In 
many of the large towns, day classes for the education of blind 
children have been established by local education authorities. 
There are forty-six home teaching societies, who send teachers 
to visit the blind in their homes, to teach adults who wish to 
learn to read, to act as colporteurs, to lend and exchange useful 
books, and to act as Scripture readers to those who are aged and 
infirm. All the home teaching societies for the blind and many 
public . libraries lend embossed books. The public library at 
Oxford has nearly 400 volumes of classical works for the use of 
university students. 

A society was instituted in 1847 by ^ r W. Moon for stereo- 
typing and embossing the Scriptures and other books in 
" Moon " type. The type has been adapted to over 400 
languages and dialects. After Dr Moon's death in 1884 the work 
was carried on by his daughter, Miss Adelaide Moon, and the 
books are much used by the adult blind. 

In 1868 Dr T. R. Armitage, being aware of the great improve- 
ments which had been made in the education of the blind in 
other countries, founded the British and Foreign Blind Associa- 
tion. This association was formed for the purpose of promoting 
the education and employment of the blind, by ascertaining 
what had been done in these respects in various countries, by 
endeavouring to supply deficiencies where these were found to 
exist, and by attempting to bring about greater harmony of 
action between the different existing schools and institutions. 
It gave a new impetus to the education and training of the blind 
in the United Kingdom. At that time their education was in 
a state of chaos. The Bible, or a great part of it, had been 
printed in five different systems. The founders took as an axiom ; 
that the relative merits of .the various methods of education 
through the sense of touch should be decided by those and those 
only who have to rely on this sense. The council, who were all 
totally or partially blind, spent two years in comparing the 
different systems of embossed print. In 1869 and 1870 Dr 
Armitage corresponded with Dr J. R. Russ in regard to the New 
York Point. No trouble was spared to arrive at a right conclu- 
sion. The Braille system was finally adopted, and the association 
at once became a centre for supplying frames for writing Braille, 
printed books, maps, music and other educational apparatus 
for the blind. All books printed by the association are printed 
from stereotyped plates embossed by blind copyists. About 
3000 separate works, varying in length from 1 to 12 volumes, 

have been copied by hand to meet the requirements of public 
libraries and individuals. About 700 ladies, who give their 
services, make the first Braille copy of these books, and they are 
recopied by "blind scribes, chiefly women and girls, who are paid 
for their work. 

The National Lending library, London, was founded in 1882. 
It has over 5500 volumes in Braille and other types. Books are 
forwarded to all parts of the United Kingdom. 

There are fourteen magazines published in embossed type in 
the United Kingdom. ■• 

There are thirty-six pension societies — the principal are 
Hetherington's, Day's, the Qothworkers', the Cordwainers', 
the National Blind Relief Society, Royal Blind Pension Society 
and Indigent Blind Visiting Society. 

The Gardner Trust administers the income of £300,000 left 
by Henry Gardner in 1879. The income is used for in- 
structing the blind in the profession of music, in suitable 
trades, handicrafts and professions other than music, for 
pensions, and free grants to institutions and individuals for 
special purposes. 

According to the census of 1901, Scotland had ^253 (or 727 per 
million) blind persons, as against 2797 in 1891, but in a paper read 
at the conference in Edinburgh, 1906, the superintendent . 

of the Glasgow Mission to the Out-door Blind' stated Scotiana - 
that there were 758 employed or being educated in institutions, and 
3238 known as " out-door blind," making a total of 3996. . There are 
in Scotland ten missions, so distributed as to cover the whole country, 
and regular visits are made as far north as the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands. In carrying on the work, there are twenty-four paid 
missionaries or teachers and a large number of voluntary helpers. 
These societies originated in a desire to teach the blind to read 
in their own homes, and to provide them with the Scriptures and 
other religious books, but the social, intellectual and temporal needs 
of the blind also receive a large share of attention. These teachers 
afford the best means of circulating embossed literature, therefore 
the library committee of the Glasgow corporation has agreed to 
purchase books and place them in the mission library instead of in 
the public library. As the institutions provide for only a small 
number of the blind, strenuous efforts are made by the committee 
and teachers of missions to find some employment for the many 
adults who come under their care. 

In Glasgow, a ladies' auxiliary furnishes work for 150 knitters, 
and takes the responsibility of disposing of their work. In Scotland 
there are five schools for the young blind, and in connexion with 
each is a workshop for adults. In Edinburgh the school is at West 
Craigmillar, and the workshop in the city, but both are under the 
same board of directors. 

According to the census of 1901, there were 4253 totally blind 
persons in Ireland, a proportion of 954 per million, as against 1 135 
in 1891. Of these, 2430 were over 60 years of age and 
II over 100. These figures do not include the partially Ireland. 
blind, who numbered 12 17. The fact that so many aged blind 
persons are to be found in Ireland is doubtless due to an ophthalmic 
epidemic which occurred during the Irish famine. There are twelve 
institutions, a home mission and home teaching society; nine of 
these institutions are asylums, that system having been largely 
adopted in Ireland. The scarcity of manufacturing industries, 
except in a few northern counties, entails a lack of work suited to 
the blind. The Elementary Education Act (Blind and Deaf) does 
not extend to Ireland. 

The following table gives the number of blind in age-groups in 
1901 : — 





Under 5 years 



























37 2 







95 and upwards 




In the Dominion of Canada, South Africa, the states of the 
Australian Commonwealth and New Zealand, provision is made by 
the government for the education of the young blind, and 
in some cases for training the adults in handicrafts. 
Embossed literature is carried free of expense, and on the 
Victorian railways no charge is made for the guide who accompanies 
a blind person. 


6 4 

The following were the census returns for 1901 : — 


. 1082 

Tasmania . 


New South Wales 

. 884 

New Zealand . 

274 (1891) 

South Australia 

• 315 

Natal . . . 



. 209 

Cape Colony . 

2802 (1904) 

West Australia 

. 121 




In Australia there are institutions for the blind at Melbourne, 
Sydney, Adelaide, Brighton, Brisbane and Maylands near Perth. In 
New Zealand the institution is at Auckland. 

InCapeColony, between 1875 and 1891, there was an extraordinary 
increase in blindness, but between 1891 and 1904 the rate per 10,000 
has decreased 23-78 %. There is an institution at 
Worcester for deaf-mutes and blind, founded in 
1 88 1. It is supported by a government grant, 
fees and subscription. 

Schools for the blind were established by the 
Dominion government at Brantford, Ontario 
(1871), and Halifax, Nova Scotia (1867). 

In Montreal there are two private institutions, 
the M'Kay Institute for Protestant Deaf-Mutes 
and Blind, and a school for Roman Catholic 
children under the charge of the Sisters of Char- 

In the United States the education of the 
blind is not regarded as a charity, but forms 

part of the educational system of the 

country, and is carried on at the 

public expense. According to the 
A nnualReporloi the Commissioner of Education 
for 1908, there were 40 state schools, with 
4340 pupils. The value of apparatus, grounds 
and buildings was $9,201,161. For salaries 
and other expenditure, the aggregate was 
$1,460,732. The United States government 
appropriates $10,000 annually for printing em- 
bossed books, which are distributed among the 
different state schools for the blind. Beside 
these state schools, there are workshops for the 
blind subsidized by the state government or the 
municipality. Commissions composed of able 
men have recently been appointed in several 
of the states to take charge of the affairs of 
the blind from infancy to old age. The ex- 
haustive summary of the 12th census enables these commissions 
to communicate with every blind person in their respective states. 
At the 1 2th census a change was made in the plan for securing 
the returns, and the work of the enumerators was restricted to a 
brief preliminary return, showing only the name, sex, age, post 
office address, and nature of the existing defects in all persons 
alleged to be blind or deaf. Dr Alexander Graham Bell, of 
Washington, D.C., was appointed expert special agent of the 
census office for the preparation of a report on the deaf and blind. 
He was empowered to conduct in his own name a correspondence 
relating to this branch of the census inquiry. A circular con- 
taining eighteen questions was addressed to every blind person 
given in the census, and from the data contained in the replies 
the following tables (I., II., III., IV.) have been compiled. 

Table I. — The Blind, by Degree of Blindness and Sex. 


The enumerators reported a total of 101,123 persons alleged to be 
blind as defined in the instructions contained in the schedules, but 
this number was greatly reduced as a result of the correspondence 
directly with the individuals, 8842 reporting that the alleged defect 
did not exist, and 6544 that they were blind only in one eye but 
were able to see with the other, and hence did not come within the 
scope of the inquiry. No replies were received in 19,884 cases in 
which personal schedules were sent, although repeated inquiries 
were made; consequently these cases were dropped. In 380 cases 
the personal schedules returned were too incomplete for use, and 
in 75 cases duplication was discovered. The number of cases 
remaining for statistical treatment, after making the eliminations 

Table II. — The Blind, by Degree of Blindness, Age-Periods, Colour and Nativity. 

Degree of Blindness and 
Age- Period. 

All Classes. 






Number — ■ 
The blind . . 
Under 20 years . 
20 years and over 
Age unknown. 





















The totally blind 
Under 20 years . 
20 years and over 
Age unknown. 





















The partially blind 
Under 20 years . 
20 years and over 
Age unknown. 

















Number per 1 ,000,000 

population of same age — ■ 

The blind .... 

Under 20 years . 

20 years and over 
















The totally blind 
Under 20 years . 
20 years and over 









The partially blind 
Under 20 years . 
20 years and over 


















Number — 






Per cent distribution — 









Number per 1,000,000 population 
of same sex — 






and corrections, was 64,763, representing 35,645 totally blind, and 
29,118 partially blind. This number, however, can be considered 
only as the minimum, as an unknown proportion of the blind were 
not located by the enumerators, and doubtless a considerable 
porportion of the 19,884 persons who failed to return the personal 
schedules should be included in the total. 

" Blindness, either total or partial, is so largely a defect of the 
aged, and occurs with so much greater frequency as the age advances 
and the population diminishes, that in any comparison of the pro- 
portion of the blind in the general population of different classes, 
such as native and foreign-born whites, or white and coloured, the 
age distribution of the population of each class should be constantly 
borne in mind. The differences in this respect account for many of 
the differences in the gross ratios, and it is only when ratios are 
compared for classes of population of identical ages that their relative 
liability to blindness can be properly inferred." 

Table II. shows the classification, by degree of blindness, of the 
blind under twenty years of age, twenty years of age and over, and of 
unknown age, with respect to colour and nativity, with the number 
at the specified ages per million of population in the same age-group. 

The relationship or consanguinity of parents of the 64,763 blind 
was reported in 56,507 cases, in 2527 (or 4-5 %) of which the parents 
were related as cousins. 

In 57,726 cases the inquiry as to the existence of blind relatives 
was answered; 10,967 (or 19%) of this number reported that they 
had blind relatives. 

Of the 2527 blind persons whose parents were cousins, 993 (or 
39-3%) had blind relatives, — 844 having blind brothers, sisters or 
ancestors, and 149 having blind collateral relatives or descendants. 

Of the 53,980 blind whose parents were not related, 9490 (or 
17-6%) had blind relatives, 7395 having blind brothers, sisters or 
ancestors, and 2095 having blind collateral relatives or descendants. 

It was found that, of the 2527 blind whose parents were cousins, 
632 (or 25%) were congenitally blind, of whom 350 (or 55-4%) 
had also blind relatives of the classes specified ; while, among the 
53,980 whose parents were not so related, the number of congenitally 
blind was 3666 (or but 6-8%), of whom only 1023 (or 27-9%) had 
blind relatives. 

In 1883 the number of blind in France was estimated at 32,056, 
the total population of the country being 38,000,000; 2548 of the 



blind were under, and 29,568 above, 21 years of age; of the former 
857 were receiving instruction in 21 schools supported by the state, 
p by the city of Paris, by some of the departments, and by 

P"""*- some religious bodies. The four Parisian institutions 
are the Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles, the Ecole Braille 
(founded in 1883), the Etablissement des Sceurs Aveugles de St Paul 

Table III.— The Blind, by Degree of Blindness and Ag 










Number — 

All ages 




Under 10 years . 




10-19 ,, 












































100 years and over . 




Age unknown 




Number per 1,000,000 population 

of same age — 

All ages 




Under 10 years . 




10-19 .. 




20-29 >. 




30-39 .. • • 




40-49 .. • • 




5o-59 >. • • 




60-69 « ■ 




70-79 .. • • 




80-89 „ . . 




90-99 „ . . 




100 years and over . 




Age unknown 




(founded in 1852), and that of the Freres de Saint Jean de Dieu 
(founded in 1875). 

The number of the blind in Germany was about 39,000, or 870 per 
million in 1885. The number of institutions was 28, nearly all 
being educational, with a total of 2139 pupils. All these 


institutions, except two which are supported entirely by 

private munificence, are largely assisted by the state, the communes 
or the provinces. Seventeen of them derive their entire require- 
ments from the state, so that they are quite inde- 
pendent of private charity, while the remainder 
are only supplemented from public funds so far 
as the private contributions fall short of the 

The following extracts were made from an official 
communication from Hofrath Buttner, director of 
the institution for the blind in Dresden, 
Saxony tQ tne rova | commission, concerning the 
system. care anc j SU p erv ; s ; on (pjirsorge) of the 
blind after their discharge from the institution : — 

" When twenty years of age, the blindare usually 
discharged from the institution. Long experience 
has taught us that the care and supervision of 
the blind after their discharge from the institution 
are quite as important as their education and 
training in the institution. It would, inouropinion, 
be unjust to remove them from their sad surround- 
ings, educate and accustom them to higher wants, 
and then allow them to sink backward into their 
former miserable way of life. After much delibera- 
tion it was decided to remain in connexion with the 
discharged blind, to visit them in their places of 
abode, to learn their wants, to study the difficulties 
which they experienced in supporting themselves 
independently, and, as far as possible, to remove 
their grievances. Director Georgi began this 
work in 1843. Director Reinhard continued it 
from 1867 to 1879, and the present director has 
followed the same path. With the knowledge of 
these difficulties the Fiirsorge (care) for discharged 
blind steadily advanced, and has won the con- 
fidence of the Saxon people. It was decided 
that, on the discharge of the blind person, the director should select 
a trustworthy person, residing in his future place of abode, to give 
him advice and practical help, to protect him from imposition, and 
to keep up communication with the director. If this guardian is 
unable to advise or help, he then writes to the director, who, if 
necessary, comes to the place, and this is all the easier as he travels 

rv. 3 

free on all railways in Saxony. The result of these visits, as well as all 
communications from the guardian, the letters from the blind person, 
and every document relating to him, are entered in a register kept 
at the institution. These guardians are respectable, benevolent, 
practical men, capable of procuring custom for their wards. But 
there was no doubt that, in spite of these arrangements, the dis- 
charged blind were unable to support themselves without the assist- 
ance of capital, whether in money or outfit. The blind man can do 
as good work as the man who can see; but as a rule he does not 
work so quickly, and if the man who is not blind has to use every 
exertion to support himself and his family, the blind man to do 
the same requires some special help, without which he will 
either not be able to compete, or will have to lead a life of great 

" The first difficulty when a blind pupil is starting in life is to 
provide himself with the necessary tools and material. These the 
institution supplies to him, and continues through life to afford him 
moral and material help ; and by this means the greater part of the 
blind are enabled to save money for sickness and old age. Those 
who cannot return to their relations cannot at once meet all their 
expenses, and the weak and old need special help. A part of the 
money for their board and lodging is paid for those who have to be 
settled in other places on account of the death or untrustworthiness 
of their relatives. 

" The fund for the discharged blind is administered by the director 
of the institution. The number of those assisted amounts at present 
to about 400, who live respectably in all parts of Saxony, are almost 
self-supporting, and feel themselves free men. For, just as a son 
does not feel galled by a gift from his father, so they are not ashamed 
to receive assistance from their second paternal ' home, the 

The number of the blind in Holland, according to the census of the 
1st of December 1869, was 1593, or one in every 2247 of the general 
population. The Protestants and Roman Catholics were „ .. 
about equally balanced. No cognizance was taken of the nouaaa. 
blind in the census of 1879. There is only one blind institution, 
that of Amsterdam, with 60 pupils, with a preparatory school at 
Benuchem (with 20 pupils) and an asylum for adults with 52 inmates 
(unmarried). Besides these, there are workshops at Amsterdam, 
Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht and Middelburg. 

According to the census of 1870, there were in Denmark 1249 blind 
(577 males and 672 females), or one blind for every 1428 persons. 
One institution has been established by government, _ 
i.e. the Royal Institution for the Blind, at Copenhagen; Uel " nark - 
100 children, aged 10 and upwards, are here educated. There is a 
preparatory school for blind children under 10 years of age, and an 
asylum for blind females, most of whom are former pupils of the 
royal school. An association for promoting the self-dependence of 
the blind assists not only former pupils of the school but every blind 
man or woman willing and able to work. 

The number of blind persons in Sweden, according to the census 

Table IV. — The Blind, by Consanguinity of Parents, Degree of Blindness, and Blind 

Relatives of Other Classes. 

Consanguinity of Parents. 


Sisters or 


or De- 

No Blind 
or Rela- 
tives by 


All classes — 
The blind 
Totally blind 
Partially blind . 






Parents cousins — 
The blind 

Totally blind . . 
Partially blind . 







Parents not cousins — 
The blind .... 
Totally blind . . 
Partially blind . 








1 122 



Consanguinity of parents 
not stated — • 
The blind 

Totally blind, . . 
Partially blind . 










of December 1880, was 3723, being at the rate of one blind person 
for every 1226 of the general population. At the beginning of the 
year 1879, the instruction of the blind in Sweden was com- 
pletely separated from that of the deaf and dumb, on the weaen. 
grounds that it hindered the intellectual development of the blind — 
a conclusion which experience shows to be tolerably correct. Since 




July 1888 the Royal Institution of the Blind has obtained a new 
building at Tomteboda, near Stockholm. 

The law of the 8th of July 1881, concerning the instruction of 
abnormal children, has imposed on the state the duty of establishing 
Norway. a sufficient number of schools for the blind in Norway, 
as well as for the other abnormal children. All the blind 
of the country, from 9 years of age until the age of 21 , are compelled 
to be educated, with a maximum of 8 years of instruction for each 

The census of 1873 showed that in Finland there were 7959 blind 
in a total population of about 2,000,000 inhabitants, the proportion 
Finland. reaching the very high figure of one for every 251 of the 
total population. Nevertheless there were only 160 of 
school age. For these there are two institutions, one at Helsingfors, 
where the instruction is given in the Swedish language, and where 
there are about 12 pupils, and another at Kuopio, where the in- 
struction is given in the Finnish language, and where the pupils 
number about 30. 

According to information received from the I.R. Central Commis- 
sion for Statistics, the number of blind in the provinces represented 
Austria. m tne Austrian Reichsrath amounted to 15,582 in the year 
1884. Of these, 2345 were children up to 15 years of age, 
namely 433 below 5, 779 from 5 to 10, and 11 13 from 10 to 15 years. 
The total number of institutions for blind children in Austria amounts 
to 8. The blind children of school age who are not placed in special 
institutions are compulsorily taught in the public general free schools, 
as far as practicable. The number of blind in the whole dominion 
of the crown of St Stephen was 208,391; 

The number of blind persons in Italy was 21,718, according to the 

census of 1881, and those of school age were estimated to form 25 % 

Italy. ■ °f the whole, or about 5429 in number. But no special 

; cognizance of the blind is taken in the government census. 

There are 20 institutions, schools and workshops for the blind. 

Statistics with regard to the number and condition of the blind 
in the Russian empire are of a very limited character, and it is only 
Russia. °f l ate y ears that any attempt has been made to draw 
up any accurate returns with regard to them. The total 
number of the blind throughout the ernpire is generally reckoned at 
from 160,000 to 200,000, thus making 1600 to 2000 per million 
inhabitants. In Russia there are 21 institutions for the support of 
the blind. 

"In Egypt the blind are very numerous in comparison with other 
countries, and although no exact statistics are at present obtainable 
tjgypt on this point, it is computed that the proportion is at 
least one totally blind person to every 50 of the population.' 
This is principally the result of acute ophthalmia occurring in infancy, 
and it is fostered by the superstitious observance which prevents the 
mothers from washing their children from the time of birth until' 
they are two years old, at which late date only they are weaned. 
There is also a great deal of infection carelessly and ignorantly 
conveyed direct from eye to eye, by means of unwashed fingers, and 
this is accountable for the occurrence of much more eye-disease than 
any that may be caused by the' proverbial flies. The only employ- 
ment followed by the blind, both Mahommedan and Coptic (or native 
Christian), and' that only to a limited extent, is recitation aloud — 
the former repeating portions of the Koran at funerals, and the latter 
chanting the church-ritual in their services; the blind girls and 
women are without occupation. Practically no edupatioh is given 
to the blind as a class, and anything which they learn has to be 
acquired orally by frequent repetition. The blind were not always 
so completely neglected, as the native ecclesiastical authorities 
(Wakf) gave an annual grant of £2000 for the continued maintenance 
of a school for the blind and the deaf and dumb in Cairo, which taught 
about 80 day-pupils; the latter years of the school were passed 
under the ministry of education, and it was ultimately discontinued. 
Such a condition of affairs appealed to Dr T. R. Armitage, and 
explains his motive in trying to establish some proper means for 
affording the blind in Egypt the necessary scholastic instruction and 
other training. In Egypt, as in other countries, it is occasionally 
very difficult, and takes some time, to start any enterprise such as 
this on a satisfactory and practical footing, and it was left for 
Mrs T. R. Armitage to be the means of successfully carrying out her 
husband's wishes in this particular. In 1900 Mrs Armitage asked 
Dr Kenneth Scott to prepare a scheme for the education and welfare 
of the blind in Egypt, on lines suggested to her. This, through the 
British and Foreign Blind Association, was submitted to Queen 
Victoria, who graciously commanded it to be sent, through the 
foreign office, to the khedive, who in mark of approbation and 
encouragement generously gave a handsome donation towards its 
realization. The Institution for the Blind was established at 
Zeitoun, Cairo, early in the year 1901, through funds provided by 
Mrs T. R. Armitage. The object of the institution, which is wholly 
unsectarian in character, is to educate and train the blind mentally 
and physically and in industrial occupations, and at the same time 
to improve their moral standard, so that eventually they may 
become in great measure, or even completely, self-supporting. 
(Dr Kenneth Scott.) 

India has a large proportion of blind inhabitants, ranging from 
one in 600 in some provinces, to one in 400 in others, with a total 
of more than half a million. Until recently, little had been done in 

the way of organized effort to educate them, though many of the 
missionaries had helped individual cases. At Amritsar a large and 
well-organized work for the blind has been carried on India. 

for many years. This school has now been moved to 
Rajpur, and helps 70 blind women and children. In 1903 a govern- 
ment school and hospital were established at Bombay as a memorial 
to Queen Victoria. Reading, writing, arithmetic, tailoring, type- 
writing, carpentering, lathe-work and carpet-weaving are taught. 
There are small schools at Parantij, Calcutta, Palancottah, Calicut, 
Coorg, Chota-Nagpur, and at Moulmein in Burma. The memorial 
to Queen Victoria in Ceylon took the form of work for the blind. 
J. Knowles, with the help of L. Garthwaite of the Indian Civil 
Service, devised a scheme of oriental Braille, which has been adopted 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society for the production of the 
Scriptures in Eastern languages. 

Blindness is very prevalent in China, and to eye-diseases, neglect 
and dirt, must be added leprosy and smallpox as causes. Blind 
beggars may be seen on every highway, clamouring for china. 
alms. A s i n India their pitiful condition attracted the 
attention of the v missionaries. W. H. Murray, a Scottish missionary 
in Peking, made a simple and ingenious adaptation of the Braille 
symbols to the complicated system of Chinese printing, in which over 
4000 characters are required.' It was necessary to represent at least 
408 sounds, and each one was given a corresponding Braille number. 
When a pupil reads the number he knows instantly the sound for 
which it stands. A school for the blind was established at Peking, 
and the version of the Scriptures printed at Peking can be read in all 
the provinces where the Northern Mandarin dialect is spoken(see Miss 
Gordon Cumming, The Inventor of the Numeral Type for China). 
A Braille code has recently been arranged for Mand.arin, based on a 
system of initials and finals, by Miss Garland of tne China Inland 
Mission. At Foochow there is a large school for boys and girls in 
connexion with the Church Missionary Society. At Ningpo, Amoy, 
Canton and Fukien work for the blind is carried on by the 

The blind in Japan have long been trained in massage, acupuncture 
and music, and until recently, with few exceptions, none but the 
blind engaged in these occupations. From three to five Japan 
years are required to become proficient in massage, but a 
blind person is then able to support himself. In Yokohama, with a 
population of half a million, there are 1000 men and women engaged 
in massage, and all but about 100 of these are blind. In 1878 a 
school for the blind and deaf-mutes was established in Kyoto, and 
soon after one in Tokyo. Japan has four schools for the blind, and 
seven combined schools for the blind and deaf-mutes. 

As in other Eastern countries, blindness is very prevalent in 
Palestine. Ophthalmic hospitals and medical attendance are now 
available in the larger towns, and the missionary schools pj,jg S ti ae . 
have done much to inculcate habits of cleanliness, therefore 
there is a slight decrease in the number of the blind. The home 
and school for blind girls in Jerusalem is the outcome of a day school 
opened in 1896 by an American missionary. There is also a small 
school at Urfa under the auspices of the American mission in that town. ' 


As more sensations are received through the eye than through 
any other organ, the mind of a blind child is vacant* and the 
training should begin early or the mind will degenerate. 
Indirectly the loss of sight results in inaction. If no ^/2w. 
one encourages a blind child to move, he will sit .' 

quietly in a corner, and when he leaves his seat will move timidly 
about. This want of activity produces bad physical effects, and 
further delays mental growth. The blind are often injured, 
some of them ruined for life, through the ignorance and mistaken 
kindness of their friends during early childhood. They should 
be taught to walk, to go up and down stairs, to wash, dress and 
feed themselves. 

They should be carefully taught correct postures and attitudes, 
and to avoid making grimaces. They should be told the require- 
ments of social conventions which a seeing child learns through 
watching his elders. They have no consciousness that their 
habits are disagreeable, and the earlier unsightly mannerisms are 
corrected the better. It is a fallacy to suppose that the other 
senses of the blind are naturally sharper than those of the seeing. 
It is only when the senses of hearing and touch have been 
cultivated that they partially replace sight, and such cultivation 
can begin with very young children. 

Blind children have a stronger claim upon the public for 
education than other children, because they start at a dis- 
advantage in life, they carry a burden in their infirmity, they 
come mostly of poor parents, and without special instruction and 
training they are almost certain to become a public charge 
during life. 



Public authorities should adopt the most efficient plan for 
preparing blind children to become active, independent men 
and women, rather than consider the cheapest and easiest 
method of educating them. We cannot afford to give the blind 
an education that is not the best of its kind in the trade or 
profession they will have to follow. There are many seeing 
persons with little education who are useful citizens and successful 
in various industries, but an uneducated blind person is helpless, 
and must become dependent. 

The surroundings of the blind do not favour the development 
of activity, self-reliance and independence. Parents and friends 
find it easier to attend to the wants and requirements of their 
blind children than to teach them to be self -helpful in the common 
acts of everyday life. A mistaken kindness leads the friends to 
guard every movement and prevent physical exertion. As a rule, 
the vitality of the blind is much below the average vitality of 
seeing persons, and any system of education which does not 
recognize and overcome this defect will be a failure. It is the 
lack of energy and determination, not the want of sight, that 
causes so many failures among the blind. 

A practical system of education, which has for its object to 
make the blind independent and self-sustaining, must be based 

upon a comprehensive course of physical development. 
trailing. A blind man who has received mechanical training, 

general education, or musical instruction, without 
physical development, is like an engine provided with everything 
necessary except motive power. 

Schools for the blind should be provided with well-equipped 
gymnasia, and the physical training should include various kinds 
of mass and apparatus work. Large and suitable playgrounds 
are also essential. Besides a free space where they can run and 
play, it should have a supply of swings, tilts, jumping-boards, 
stilts, chars-a-bancs, skittle-alleys, &c. Any game that allows 
of sides being taken adds greatly to the enjoyment, and is a 
powerful incentive to play. The pupils should be encouraged to 
enter into various competitions, as walking, running, jumping, 
leap-frog, sack-racing, shot-pitching, tug-of-war, &c. Cycling, 
rowing, swimming and roller-skating are not only beneficial but 
most enjoyable. 

The subjects in the school curriculum should be varied 
according to the age and capacity of the pupils, but those 

which cultivate the powers of observation and the 
training, perceptive faculties should have a first place. Object 

lessons or nature study should have a large share of 
attention. Few people realize that a blind child knows nothing 
of the size, shape and appearance of common objects that lie 
beyond the reach of his arm. When he has once been shown how 
to learn their characteristics, he will go on acquiring a knowledge 
of his surroundings unaided by a teacher. Again, a careful drill 
in mental arithmetic, combining accuracy with rapidity, is 
essential. A good command of English should be cultivated 
by frequent exercises in composition, and by committing to 
memory passages of standard prose and poetry. In his secondary 
course, the choice of subjects must depend upon his future 
career. Above all, stimulate a love of good reading. 

From the earliest years manual dexterity should be cultivated 
by kindergarten work, modelling, sewing, knitting and sloyd. 

Blind children who have not had the advantage of 

aI this early handwork find much more difficulty when 

training, they begin a regular course in technical training. 

Early manual training cultivates the perceptive 

faculties, gives activity to the body, and prepares the hands and 

fingers for pianoforte-playing, pianoforte-tuning and handicrafts. 

Besides a good general education, the blind must have careful 

and detailed training in some handicraft, or thorough preparation 

for some profession. The trades and professions open 
C o ceo to t j lem are £ ew anc j jf t jj e y f a jj j n one f thggg they 

Hon. cannot turn quickly to some other line of work. Those 

who have charge of their education should avail 
themselves of the knowledge that has been gained in all countries, 
in order to decide wisely in regard to the trade or occupation 
for which each pupil should be prepared. It may be some kind 

of handicraft, pianoforte-tuning, school-teaching, or the pro- 
fession of music; the talent and ability of each child should be 
carefully considered before finally deciding his future occupation, 
The failure to give the blind a practical education often means 
dependence through life. 

Pianoforte-tuning as an employment for the blind originated 
in Paris. About 1830 Claud Montal and a blind fellow-pupil 
attempted to tune a piano. The seeing tuner in charge 
of the school pianos complained to the director, and ^£°" 
they were forbidden to touch the works, but the two tuning, 
friends procured an old piano and continued their 
efforts. Finally, the director, convinced of their skill, gave 
them charge of all the school pianos, and classes were soon 
started for the other pupils. When Montal left the institution 
he encountered great prejudice, but his skill in tuning became 
known to the professors of the Conservatoire, and his work 
rapidly increased and success was assured. Montal afterwards 
established a manufactory, and remained at its head for many 
years. Tuning is an excellent employment for the blind, and 
one in which they have certain advantages. The seeing who 
excel in the business go through a long apprenticeship, and one 
must give the blind even more careful preparation. They must 
work a number of hours daily, under suitable tuition, for several 
years. After a careful examination by an expert pianoforte- 
tuning authority, every duly qualified tuner should be furnished 
with an official certificate of proficiency, and tuners who cannot 
take the required examinations ought not to be allowed to 
impose upon the public. 

Music in its various branches, when properly taught, is the 
best and most lucrative employment for the blind. To become 
successful in the profession, it is necessary for the 
blind to have opportunities of instruction, practice, training. 
study, and hearing music equal to those afforded the 
seeing, with whom they will have to compete in the open market. 
If the blind musician is to rise above mediocrity, systematic 
musical instruction in childhood is indispensable, and good 
instruction will avail little unless the practice is under constant 
and judicious supervision. The musical instruction, in its 
several branches of harmony, pianoforte, organ and vocal 
culture, must be addressed to the mind, not merely to the ear. 
This is the only possible method by which musical training 
can be made of practical .use to the blind. The blind music 
teacher or organist must have a well-disciplined mind, capable 
of analysing and dealing with music from an intellectual point 
of view. If the mental faculties have not been developed and 
thoroughly disciplined, the blind musician, however well he may 
play or sing, will be a failure as a teacher. The musical in- 
struction must be more thorough, more analytical, more com- 
prehensive, than corresponding instruction given to seeing 
persons. In 187 1 Dr Armitage published a book on the 
education and employment of the blind, in which he stated that 
of the blind musicians trained in the United Kingdom not more 
than one-half per cent were able to support themselves, whereas 
of those trained in the Paris school $0 % supported themselves 
fully, and 30 % partially, by the profession of music. 

To provide a better education and improve the musical 
training of the blind, the Royal Normal College was established 
in 1872. 1 Its object was to afford the young blind 
a thorough general and musical education, to qualify ^ oyaI . 
them to earn a living by various intellectual pursuits, College. 
especially as organists, pianists, teachers and piano- 
forte-tuners. From the first, the founders of the college main- 
tained that the blind could only be made self-sustaining by 
increasing their intelligence, bodily activity and dexterity, 
by inculcating business habits, by arousing their self-respect, 
and by creating in their minds a belief in the possibility 

1 Its principal (responsible, with Dr Armitage, the duke of West- 
minster and others, for its foundation) was Sir F. J. Campbell, 
LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., himself a blind man, who, born in Tennes- 
see, U.S.A., in 1832, and educated at the Nashville school, and after- 
wards in music at Leipzig and Berlin, had from 1858 to 1869 been 
associated with Dr Howe at the Perkins Institution, Boston. He 
was knighted in 1909. 



of future self-maintenance. A kindergarten department was 
opened in 1881. In July 1896 Queen's Scholarship examina- 
tions were held at the Royal Normal College, for the first time, 
for blind students, and the institution recognized by the Educa- 
tion Department as a training college for blind school-teachers. 

From the first day a pupil enters school until he finishes his 
course of training, care must be taken to implant business habits. 
Blind children are allowed to be idle and helpless at 
tioaal home; they do not learn to appreciate the value of 
needs. time, and in after years this is one of the most difficult 
lessons to inculcate. Having drifted through child- 
hood, they are content to drift through life. The important 
habits of punctuality, regularity and precision should be culti- 
vated in all the arrangements and requirements. A great effort 
should be made to lift the blind from pauperism. As soon as 
pupils enter a school, all semblance of pauper origin should be 
removed. They must be inspired with a desire for independence 
and a belief in its possibility. In the public mind blindness has 
been so long and closely associated with dependence and pauper- 
ism that schools for the blind, even the most progressive, have 
been regarded hitherto as asylums rather than educational 
establishments. A sad mistake in the training of the blind is 
the lack of an earnest effort to improve their social condition. 
The fact that their education has been left to charity has helped 
to keep them in the ranks of dependents. 

The question of day-classes versus boarding-schools has been 
much discussed. It is claimed by some that a blind child gains 
more independence if kept at home and educated in a school 
with the seeing. This theory is not verified by practical ex- 
perience. At home its blindness makes the child an exception, 
and often it takes little or no part in the active duties of every- 
day life. Again, in a class of seeing children the blind member 
is treated as an exception. The memory is cultivated at the 
expense of the other faculties, and the facility with which it 
recites in certain subjects causes it to make a false estimate 
of its attainments. The fundamental principles in different 
branches are imperfectly understood, from the failure to follow 
the illustrations of the teacher. In the playgrounds, a few 
irrepressibles join in active games, but most of the blind children 
prefer a quiet corner. 

For the sake of economy, schools for deaf-mutes and the 
blind are sometimes united. As the requirements of the two 
classes are entirely separate and distinct, the union is undesirable, 
whether for general education or industrial training. The plan 
was tried in America, but has been given up in most of the 
states. To meet the difficulty of proper classification with small 
numbers, blind boys and girls are taught in the same classes. 
The acquaintances then made lead to intimacy in later years 
and foster intermarriage among the blind. Intermarriage among 
the blind is a calamity, both for them and for their children; 
some who might have been successful business men are to-day 
begging in the streets in consequence of intermarriage. 

In every school or class there will be a certain number of 
young blind children who, from neglect, want of food, or other 
causes, are feeble in body and defective in intellect; such 
children are a great burden in any class or school, and require 
special treatment and instruction. Educational authorities 
should unite and have one or two schools in a healthful locality 
for mentally defective blind children. 

More and more, in educational work for the seeing, there is 
a tendency to specialize, and thus enable each student to have 
the best possible instruction in the subjects that bear most 
directly on his future calling. To prepare the blind for self- 
maintenance, there should be an equally careful study of the 
ability of each child. 

A scheme of education which has for its object to make 
the blind a self-sustaining class should include: kindergarten 
schools for children from 5 to 8 years of age; preparatory 
schools from 8 to n; intermediate schools from n to 14. At 
14 an intelligent opinion can be formed in regard to the future 
career of the pupils. They will fall naturally into the follow- 
ing categories: — (a) A certain number will succeed better in 

handicraft than in any other calling, and should be drafted into a 
suitable mechanical school. (6) A few will have special gifts for 
general business, and should be educated accordingly, (c) A 
few will have the ability and ambition to prepare for the 
university, and the special college should afford them the most 
thorough preparation for the university examinations, (d) 
Some will have the necessary talent, combined with the requisite 
character and industry, to succeed in the musical profession; 
in addition to a liberal education, these should have musical 
instruction, equal to that given to the seeing, in the best 
schools of music, (e) Some may achieve excellent success as 
pianoforte-tuners, and in a pianoforte-tuning school strict 
business habits should be cultivated, and the same attention 
to work required as is demanded of seeing workmen in well- 
regulated pianoforte factories. 

The United Kingdom stands almost alone in allowing the 
education of the blind to depend upon charity. In the United 
States, each state government not only makes liberal provision 
for the education and training of the blind, but most of them 
provide grounds, buildings and a complete equipment in all de- 
partments. Although it costs much more per capita, from £40 to 
£60 per annum, the blind are as amply provided with the means 
of education as the seeing. The government of the United 
States appropriates $10,000 per annum for printing embossed 
books for the blind. Most of the European countries and the 
English colonies provide by taxation for the education of the blind. 


The earliest authentic records of tangible letters for the blind 
describe a plan of engraving the letters upon blocks of wood, the 
invention of Francesco Lucas, a Spaniard, who dedicated it to 
Philip II. of Spain in the 16th century. In 1640 Pierre Moreau, 
a writing-master in Paris, cast a movable leaden type for the use 
of the blind, but being without means to carry out his plan, 
abandoned it. Pins inserted in cushions were next tried, and 
large wooden letters. After these came a contrivance of Du 
Puiseaux, a blind man, who had metal letters cast and set them 
in a small frame with a handle. Whilst these experiments were 
going on in France, attempts had also been made in Germany. 
R. Weissembourg (a resident of Mannheim), who lost his sight 
when about seven years of age, made use of letters cut in card- 
board, and afterwards pricked maps in the same material. By 
this method he taught Mile Paradis, the talented blind musician 
and the friend of Valentin Haiiy. 

To Haiiy belongs the honour of being the first to emboss paper 
as a means of reading for the blind; his books were embossed in 
large and small italics, from movable type set by his pupils. The 
following is an account of the origin of his discovery. Haiiy's 
first pupil was Francois Lesueur, a blind boy whom he found 
begging at the porch door of St Germain des Pres. While 
Lesueur was sorting the papers on his teacher's desk, he came 
across a card strongly indented by the types in the press. The 
blind lad showed his master he could decipher several letters on 
the card. Immediately Haiiy traced with the handle of his pen 
some signs on paper. The boy read them, and the result was 
printing in relief, the greatest of Haiiy's discoveries. In 1821 
Lady Elizabeth Lowther brought embossed books and types from 
Paris, and with the types her son, Sir Charles Lowther, Bart., 
printed for his own use the Gospel of St Matthew. The work of 
Haiiy was taken up by Mr Gall of Edinburgh, Mr Alston of 
Glasgow, Dr Howe of Boston, Mr Friedlander of Philadelphia, 
and others. In 1827 James Gall of Edinburgh embossed some 
elementary works, and published the Gospel of St John in 1834. 
His plan was to use the common English letter and replace 
curves by angles. 

In 1832 the Edinburgh Society of Arts offered a gold medal for 
the best method of printing for the blind, and it was awarded to 
Dr Edmond Fry of London, whose alphabet consisted of ordinary 
capital letters without their small strokes. In 1836 the Rev. W. 
Taylor of York and John Alston in Glasgow began to print with 
Fry's type. Mr Alston's appeal for a printing fund met with a 
hearty response, and a grant of £400 was made by the treasury; 



in 1838 he completed the New Testament, and at the end of 1840 
the whole Bible was published in embossed print. In 1833 
printing for the blind was commenced in the United States at 
Boston and Philadelphia. Dr S. G. Howe in Boston used small 
English letters without capitals, angles being employed instead 
of curves, while J. R. Friedlander in Philadelphia used only 















































^> , 

— — II -J 


f 3 

3 D 

1 s 






0/ L@vr 

1. — Moon Alphabet. 

Roman capitals. About 1838 T. M. Lucas of Bristol, a shorthand 
writer, and J. H. Frere of Blackheath, each introduced an 
alphabet of simpler forms, and based their systems on steno- 
graphy. In 1847 Dr Moon of Brighton brought out a system 
which partially retains the outline of the Roman letters. This 
type is easily read by the adult blind, and is still much used by 
the home teaching societies. The preceding methods are all 
known as line types, but the one which is now in general use is a 
point type. 

In the early part of the 19th century Captain Charles Barbier, 

right-hand row in which vertical line, of the printed table the 
speech sound is to be found. 

Louis Braille, a pupil and afterwards a professor of the Institu- 
tion Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles, Paris, studied all the various 
methods in which arbitrary characters were used. Barbier's 
letter, although it gave a large number of combinations, was too 
long to be covered by the finger in reading, and Louis Braille 
reduced the number of dots. In 1834 Braille perfected his 
system. Dr Armitage considered it was the greatest advance 
that had ever been made in the education of the blind. 

The Braille alphabet consists of varying combinations of six 
dots in an oblong, of which the vertical side contains three, and the 

horizontal two dots 

e • 



L M 

•- — 


Apparatus for writing Braille. 

a French officer, substituted embossed dots for embossed lines. 
The slate for writing was also invented by him. 

Barbier arranged a table of speech sounds, consisting of six 
lines with six sounds in each line. His rectangular cell contained 
two vertical rows of six points each. The number of points in the 
left-hand row indicates in which horizontal line, and that in the 

There are 63 possible combinations 

of these six dots, and after the letters of the alphabet have been 
supplied, the remaining signs are used for punctuation, con- 
tractions, &c. 

" For writing, a ruler is used, consisting of a metal bed either 
grooved or marked by groups of little pits, each group consisting of 
six; over this bed is fitted a brass guide, punched with oblong 
holes whose vertical diameter is three-tenths of an inch, while the 
horizontal diameter is two-tenths. The pits are arranged in two 
parallel lines, and the guide is hinged on the bed in such a way that 
when the two are locked together the openings in the guide corre- 
spond exactly to the pits in the bed. The brass guide has a double 
row of openings, which enables the writer to write two lines; when 
these are written, he shifts his guide downwards until two little pins, 
which project from the under surface at its ends, drop into corre- 
sponding holes of a wooden board ; then two more lines are written, 
and this operation is repeated until the bottom of the page is reached. 
The paper is introduced between the frame and the metal bed. The 
instrument for writing is a blunt awl, which carries a little cap of 
paper before it into the grooves or pits of the bed, thereby producing 
a series of little pits in the paper on the side next the writer. When 
taken out and turned over, little prominences are felt, corresponding 
to the pits on the other side. The reading is performed from left to 
right, consequently the writing is from right to left ; but this reversal 
presents no practical difficulty as soon as the pupil had caught the 
idea that in reading and writing alike he has to go forwards. 

" The first ten letters, from ' a ' to ' j,' are formed in the upper 
and middle grooves; the next ten, from ' k ' to ' t,' are formed by 
adding one lower back dot to each letter of the first series ; the third 
row is formed from the first by adding two lower dots to each letter; 
the fourth row, similarly, by adding one lower front dot. 

" The first ten letters, when preceded by the prefix for numbers, 

stand for the nine 
numbers and the 
cipher. The same 
signs, written in the 
lower and middle 
grooves, instead of 
the tipperand middle, 
serve for punctua- 
tion. The seven last 
letters of each series 
stand for the seven 
musical notes — the 
first series represent- 
ing quavers, the 
second minims, the 
third semibreves, the 
fourth crotchets. 

Rests, accidentals, 
and every other sign 
used in music can be 
readily and clearly 
expressed without 
having recourse to 
the staff of five lines 
which forms the basis 
of ordinary musical 
notation, and which, 
though it has been 
reproduced for the 
blind, can only be 
considered as serv- 
ing to give them an 
idea of the method employed by the seeing, and cannot, of course, be 
written. By means of this dotted system, a blind man is able to 
keep memoranda or accounts, write his own music, emboss his own 
books from dictation, and carry on correspondence/' 

The Braille system for literature and music was brought into 
general use in England by Dr T. R. Armitage. Through his wise, 





• - 










Q R 

•• •- 
»• •• 

for of 

gh sh th wh ed er 










Braille Alphabet. The black dots represent the raised points of 
the sign in their position in relation to the group of six. 

Fig. 2. 



untiring zeal and noble generosity, every blind man, woman and 
child throughout the English-speaking world can now obtain 
not only the best literature, but the best music. 

In America there are two modifications of the point type, 
known as New York point and American braille. In each of 
these the most frequently recurring letters are represented by 
the least number of dots. 

The original Braille is used by the institutions for the blind in 
the British empire, European countries, Mexico, Brazil and 

Appliances for Educational Work 

The apparatus for writing point alphabets has already been 
described. Frank H. Hall, former superintendent of the School 
for the Blind, Jacksonville, 111., U.S.A., has invented a Braille 
typewriter and stereotype maker; the latter embosses metal plates 
from which any number of copies can be printed. An automatic 
Braille-writer has been brought out in Germany, and William 
B. Wait (principal of the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City) has invented a machine for writing New York point. These 
machines are expensive, but A. Wayne of Birmingham has brought 


J *•••• 
] «•••* 

• **• 

• **• 

• «** 

• *•* 

• ••* 

• *•• 

• ••• 

• •»• 





• «*» 

• «** 

• *»• 

• •*« 

• •»• 

• *** 

• *»* 


9 + - X -s- : :: - 


Fig. 3. — Arithmetic Board, Pin and Characters. A, Shape of 
opening in the board for pin; B and C, pin. 

out a cheap and effective Braille- writer. H. Stainsby, secretary of 
the Birmingham institution, and Wayne have invented a machine 
for writing Braille shorthand. 

Many boards have been constructed to enable the blind to 
work arithmetical problems. The one which is most used was 
invented by the Rev. W. Taylor. The board has star-shaped 
openings in which a square pin fits in eight different positions. 
The pin has on one end a plain ridge and on the other a notched 
ridge; sixteen characters can be formed with the two ends. 
The board is also used for algebra, another set of type furnishing 
the algebraic symbols. 

Books are prepared with raised geometrical diagrams; figures 
can be formed with bent wires on cushions, or on paper with a 
toothed wheel attached to one end of a pair of compasses. 

Geography is studied by means of relief maps, manufactured 
in wood or paper. The physical maps and globes prepared for 
seeing children are used also for the blind. 

Chiefly owing to the unremitting energy and liberality of 
Dr T. R. Armitage, in connexion with the British and Foreign 
Blind Association, all school appliances for the blind have been 
greatly improved and cheapened. 


Reference has been made to the fact that music in its various 
branches furnishes the best and most lucrative employment for 
the blind. But those who have not the ability, or are too old 
to be trained for music or some other profession, must depend 
upon handicrafts for their support. The principal ones taught 
in the various institutions are the making of baskets, brushes, 
mats, sacks, ships' fenders, brooms and mattresses, upholstery, 
wire-work, chair-caning, wood-chopping, &c. Females are 
taught to make fancy baskets and brushes, chair-caning, knitting, 
netting, weaving, sewing — hand and machine — crocheting, &c. 
It is difficult to find employment for blind girls. It is hoped 
that typewriting and massage will prove remunerative. 

The blind, whether educated for the church, trained as teachers, 
musicians, pianoforte-tuners, or for any other trade or occupation, 
generally require assistance at the outset. They need help in 
finding suitable employment, recommendations for establishing 
a connexion, pecuniary assistance in providing outfits of books, 
tools, instruments,. &c, help in the selection and purchase of the 
best materials at the lowest wholesale rates, in the sale of their 
manufactured goods in the best markets, and if overtaken by 
reverses, judicious and timely help towards a fresh start. Every 
institution should keep in touch with its old pupils. The super- 
intendent who carefully studies the successes and failures of his 
pupils when they go into the world, will more wisely direct the 
work and energies of his present and future students. 

Within recent years great improvements have been made in 
some of the progressive workshops for the blind. At the con- 
ference in London in 1902 Mr T. Stoddart gave the following 
information in regard to the work in Glasgow: — " We are build- 
ing very extensive additions to our workshops, which will enable 
us to accommodate 600 blind people. We mean to employ the 
most up-to-date methods, and are introducing electric power 
to drive the machinery and light the workshops. We have to do 
with the average blind adult recently deprived of sight after he 
has attained an age of from 2 5 to 40 or even 50 years. In Glasgow 
we have developed an industry eminently suitable for the 
employment of the blind, namely, the manufacture of new and 
the remaking of old bedding. There are industries which are 
purely local, where certain articles of manufacture largely used 
in one district are useless, or nearly so, in another; but the field 
in which this industry may be promoted is practically without 
limit. It is perhaps the employment par excellence for the blind, 
and among other advantages it has the following to recommend 
it: employment 1 is provided for the blind of both sexes and of 
all ages; there is no accumulation nor deterioration of stock; 
it yields an excellent profit, and its use is universal. We have 
been pushing this industry for years, our annual turnover in 
this particular department having exceeded £7000, and as we 
find it so suited to the capabilities of all grades of blind people, 
it is our intention to provide facilities for doing a turnover of 
three times that amount. Instead of the thirty sewing-machines 
which we have at present running by power, we hope to employ 
100 blind women. At cork-fender-making, also an industry of 
the most suitable kind, we are at present employing about 
thirty workers. It is also our intention to greatly develop and 
extend our mat -making department." 

In the United States many blind persons are engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and some are very successful in com- 
mercial pursuits. When a man loses his sight in adult life, 
if he can possibly follow the business in which he has previously 
been engaged, it is the best course for him. In the present day, 
work in manufactories is subdivided to such an extent that often 
some one portion can be done by a blind person; but it needs 
the interest of some enthusiastic believer in the capabilities of 
the blind to persuade the seeing manager that blind people can 
be safely employed in factories. 

In England, at the time of the royal commission of 1889, 
upwards of 8000 blind persons, above the age of 21, were in 
receipt of relief from the guardians, of whom no less than 3278 
were resident in workhouses or workhouse infirmaries. The 



census returns for 1901 indicate that the number at that time 
was equally large. It would certainly be more economical to 
establish workshops where the able-bodied adult blind can 
be trained in some handicraft and employed. 

The papers read at the various conferences show that, even 
under the most favourable circumstances, some are not able 
to earn enough for their support; nevertheless, employment 
improves their condition; there is no greater calamity than 
to live a life of compulsory idleness in total darkness. The cry 
of the blind is not alms but work. One of the workshops 
in western America has adopted the motto, " Independence 
through Industry," and it should be the aim of every civilized 
country to hasten the time when blindness and pauperism shall 
no longer be synonymous terms. 

It may be interesting, in conclusion, to mention some of the 
names of prominent blind people in history: — 

Timoleon (c. 410-336 B.C.), a Greek general. 

Aufidius, a Roman senator. 

Bela II. (d. 1141), king of Hungary. 

John, king of Bohemia (1296-1346), killed in the battle of Crecy. 

John Zizca (c. 1376-1424), Bohemian general. 

Basil III. (d. 1462), prince of Moscow. 

Shah Alam (d. 1806), the last of the Great Moguls. 

Diodorus, the instructor of Cicero. 

Didymus of Alexandria (c. 308-395), mathematician, theo- 
logian and linguist. 

Nicase of Malines (d. 1492), professor of law in the university 
of Cologne. The degree of doctor of divinity was conferred 
on him by the university of Louvain, and the pope granted 
a dispensation suspending the law of the Church, that he 
might be ordained as a priest. 

Ludovico Scapinelli (b. 1585), professor at the universities of 
Bologna, Modena and Pisa. 

James Schegkius (d. 1587), professor of philosophy and medicine 
at Tubingen. 

Franciscus Salinas, professor of music at the university of 
Salamanca, in the 16th century. - 

Nicholas Bacon (16th century), doctor of laws in the university 
of Brussels. 

Count de Pagan of Avignon (b. 1604), mathematician of note. 

John Milton (1608-1674), the poet. 

Rev. Richard Lucas (1648-1715), prebendary of Westminster. 

Nicholas Saunderson (q.v.; 1682-1739). 

John Stanley (1713-1786), Mus. Bac. Oxon., was born in London 
in 1713. At seven he began to study music, and made such 
rapid progress that he was appointed organist of All-Hallows, 
Bread Street, at the age of eleven. He graduated as Mus. 
Bac. at Oxford when sixteen, and was organist of the 
Temple church at the age of twenty-one. He composed a 
number of cantatas, and after the death of Handel he 
superintended the performance of Handel's oratorios at 
Covent Garden. He received the degree of doctor of 
music, and was master of the king's band. 

Leonard Euler (1707-17S3), -the celebrated mathematician and 

■John Metcalf (b. 1717), road-builder and contractor. 

Sir John Fielding (d. 1780), eminent lawyer and magistrate. 

Thomas Blacklock (q.v. ; 1721-1791), Scottish scholar and poet. 

Francois Huber (1 750-1831), Swiss naturalist, noted for his 
observations on bees. 

Edward Rushton (b. 1756). At six years of age he entered the 
Liverpool free grammar school, and at eleven shipped for 
his first voyage in a West India merchantman. On a later 
voyage he was shipwrecked, and owed his life to the self- 
sacrifice of a negro. Rushton and the black man swam for 
their lives to a floating cask; the negro reached it first, 
saw Rushton about to sink, pushed the cask to the failing 
lad, and struck out for the shore, but never reached it. 
This incident made Rushton an enthusiastic champion 
through life of the cause of the negro. During a voyage to 
Dominica malignant ophthalmia broke out among the slave 
cargo, and Rushton caught the disease by attending them 
in the hold when all others refused help. This attack 
deprived him of sight, and cut short a promising nautical 
career at the age of nineteen. He struggled bravely against 
difficulties, and besides entering successfully into various 
literary engagements, maintained himself and family as a 
bookseller. A volume of his poems containing a memoir 
was published in 1824. 

Marie Therese von Paradis (b. 1759), the daughter of an imperial 
councillor in Vienna. She was a godchild of the empress 
Marie Therese, and as her parents possessed rank and 
wealth, no expense was spared in her education. Weissem- 

bourg, a blind man, was her tutor, and she learned to spell 
with letters cut out of pasteboard, and read words pricked 
upon cards with pins. She studied the piano with Richter 
(of Holland) and Kozeluch. She was a highly esteemed 
pianist, and Mozart wrote a concerto for her; she ako 
attained considerable skill on the organ, in singing and in 
composition. She made a concert tour of Europe, visiting 
the principal courts and everywhere achieving great success. 
She remained four months in England, under the patronage 
of the queen. On her return to Vienna, through Paris, she 
met Valentin Hatiy. Towards the close of her life she 
devoted herself to teaching singing and the pianoforte with 
great success. 
James Holman {q.v.; 1786-1857), traveller. 
William H. Prescott {q.v. ; 1796-1859), the American historian. 
Several early 19th-century musicians held situations as organ- 
ists in London ; among them Grenville, Scott, Lockhart, 
Mather, Stiles and Warne. 
Louis Braille (1809-1852). In 1819 he went to the school fo. 
the blind in Paris. He became proficient on the organ, and 
held a post in one of the Paris churches. While a professor 
at the Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles, he 
perfected his system of point writing. 
Alexander Rodenbach, Belgian statesman. When a member of 
the chamber of deputies, in 1836, he introduced and 
succeeded in establishing by law the right of blind and 
deaf-mute children to an education. 
Dr William Moon (1818-1894), the inventor of the type for the 

blind which bears his name. 
Rev. W. H. Milburn, D.D. (1823-1903), the American chaplain, 
known in the United States as " The Blind Man Eloquent." 
He often travelled from thirty to fifty thousand miles a 
year, speaking and preaching every day. He was three 
times chaplain of the House of Representatives, and in 1893 
was chosen to the chaplaincy of the senate. 
Dr T. R. Armitage (b. 1824). After spending his youth on the 
continent, he became a medical student, first at King's 
College, and afterwards at Paris and Vienna. His career 
promised to be a brilliant one, but at the age of thirty-six 
failing sight caused him to abandon his profession. For 
the rest of his life he devoted his time and fortune to the 
interests of the blind. He reorganized the Indigent Blind 
Visiting Society, endowed its Samaritan fund, founded the 
British and Foreign Blind Association, and, in conjunction 
with the late duke of Westminster and others, founded the 
Royal Normal College. 
Elizabeth Gilbert _(b. 1826), daughter of the bishop of Chichester. 
She lost her sight at the age of three. She was educated at 
home, and took her full share of household duties and cares 
and pleasures. When she was twenty-seven, she began to 
consider the condition of the poor blind of London. She 
saw some one must befriend those who had been taught 
trades, some one who could supply material, give employ- 
ment or dispose of the articles manufactured. In 1854 her 
scheme was started, and work was given to six men in their 
own homes, but the number soon increased. In 1856 a 
committee was formed, a house converted into a factory, 
and the Association for Promoting the General Welfare of 
the Blind was founded. 
Rev. George Matheson, D.D. (b. 1842), preacher and writer of 
the Church of Scotland. The degree of D.D. was conferred 
on him by the university of Edinburgh in 1879, and he was 
appointed Baird Lecturer in 1881, and St Giles' Lecturer 
in 1882. 
Henry Fawcett (1833-1884), professor of political economy at 

Cambridge, and postmaster-general. 
W. H. Churchman of Pennsylvania, who was instrumental in 
establishing the schools for the blind in Tennessee, Indiana 
and Wisconsin. 
H. L. Hall, founder of the workshops and home for the blind 
in Philadelphia; by his energetic management he raised 
the standard of work for the adult blind throughout 
Bibliography. — See also W. H. Levy, Blindness and the Blind 
(1872) ; J. Wilson, Biography of the Blind (1838) ; Dr T. R. Armitage, 
Education and Employment of the Blind (2nd ed., 1882); R. H. Blair, 
Education of the Blind (1868) ; M. Anagnos, Education of the Blind 
(1882); H. J. Wilson, Institutions, Societies and Classes for the Blind 
in England and Wales (1907); Guillie, Instruction and Amusements 
of the Blind (1819); Dr W. Moon, Light for the Blind (1875); R- 
Meldrum, Light on Dark Paths (2nd ed., 1891) ; Dr H. Roth, Preven- 
tion of Blindness (1885), and his Physical Education of the Blind 
(1885); Report of Royal Commission (1889); Gavin Douglas, 
Remarkable Blind Persons (1829); John Bird, Social Pathology 
(1862); M. de la Sizeranne, The Blind in Useful Avocations (Paris, 
1881), True Mission of Smaller Schools (Paris, 1884), The Blind in 
France (Paris, 1885), Two Years' Study and Work for the Blind 
(Paris, 1890), and The Blind as seen by a Blind Man [translated 
by Dr Park Lewis] (Paris, 1893); Dr Emile Javal, The Blind 



Man's World [translated by Ernest Thomson] (Paris, 1904) ; 
Prof. A. Mell, Encyklopddisches Handbuch des Blindenwesens 
(Vienna, 1899). (F. J. C.) 

BLISS, CORNELIUS NEWTON (1833- ), American mer- 
chant and politician, was born at Fall River, Massachusetts, on 
the 26th of January 1833. He was educated in his native city 
and in New Orleans, where he early entered his step-father's 
counting-house. Returning to Massachusetts in 1849, he 
became a clerk and subsequently a junior partner in a prominent 
Boston commercial house. Later he removed to New York 
City to establish a branch of the firm. In 1881 he organized 
and became president of Bliss, Fabyan & Company, one of the 
largest wholesale dry -goods houses in the country. A consistent 
advocate of the protective tariff, he was one of the organizers, 
and for many years president, of the American Protective 
Tariff League. In politics an active Republican, he was chair- 
man of the Republican state committee in 1887 and 1888, and 
contributed much to the success of the Harrison ticket in New 
York in the latter year. He was treasurer of the Republican 
national committee from 1892 to 1904, and was secretary of the 
interior in President McKinley's cabinet from 1897 to 1899. 

BLISTER (a word found in many forms in Teutonic languages, 
cf. Ger. Blase; it is ultimately connected with the same root as 
in "blow," cf. "bladder"), a small vesicle filled with serous 
fluid raised on the skin by a burn, by rubbing on a hard surface, 
as on the hand in rowing, or by other injury; the term is also 
used of a similar condition of the skin caused artificially, as a 
counter-irritant in cases of inflammation, by the application of 
mustard, of various kinds of fly (see Canthaeides) and of 
other vesicatories. Similar small swellings, filled with fluid or 
air, on plants and on the surface of steel or paint, &c, are also 
called" blisters." 

BLIZZARD (origin probably onomatopoeic, cf. " blast," 
"bluster"), a furious wind driving fine particles of choking, 
blinding snow whirling in icy clouds. The conditions to which 
the name was originally given occur with the northerly winds 
in rear of the cyclones crossing the eastern states of America 
during winter. 

BLOCH, MARK ELIEZER (c. 17 23-1 799), German naturalist, 
was born at Ansbach, of poor Jewish parents, about 1723. After 
taking his degree as doctor at Frankfort-on-Oder he established 
himself as a physician at Berlin. His first scientific work of 
importance was an essay on intestinal worms, which gained a 
prize from the Academy of Copenhagen, but he is best known 
by his important work on fishes (see Ichthyology). Bloch 
was fifty-six when he began to write on ichthyological subjects. 
To begin at his time of life a work in which he intended not 
only to give full descriptions of the species known to him from 
specimens or drawings, but also to illustrate each species in a 
style truly magnificent for his time, was an undertaking the 
execution of which most men would have despaired of. Yet he 
accomplished not only this task, but even more than he at first 
contemplated. He died at Carlsbad on the 6th of August 1799. 

BLOCK, MAURICE (1816-1901), French statistician, was 
born in Berlin of Jewish parents on the 18th of February 1816. 
He studied at Bonn and Giessen, but settled in Paris, becoming 
naturalized there. In 1844 he entered the French ministry of 
agriculture, becoming in 1852 one of the heads of the statistical 
department. He retired in 1862, and thenceforth devoted him- 
self entirely to statistical studies, which have gained for him 
a wide reputation. He was elected a member of the Academie 
des Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1880. He died in Paris on 
the gth of January 1901. His principal works are: Dictionnaire 
de I' administration franqaise (1856); Statistique de la France 
(i860); Dictionnaire general de la politique (1862); L' Europe 
politique et sociale (1869); Traile theorique et pratique de statis- 
tique (1878); Les Progres de I'lconomie politique depuis Adam 
Smith (1890); he also edited from 1856 L' Annuaire de Veconomie 
politique et de la statistique, and wrote in German Die Bevolke- 
rung des franzosischen Kaiserreichs (1861); Die Bevolkerung 
Spaniens und Portugals (1861); and Die Machtstellung der 
europdischen Staaten (1862). 

BLOCK (from the Fr. bloc, and possibly connected with an Old 
Ger. Block, obstruction, cf . " baulk ") , a piece of wood. The word 
is used in various senses, e.g. the block upon which people were 
beheaded, the block or mould upon which a hat is shaped, a 
pulley-block, a printing-block, &c. From the sense of a solid 
mass comes the expression, a "block" of houses, i.e. a rect- 
angular space covered with houses and bounded by four streets. 
From the sense of "obstruction" comes a "block" in traffic, a 
block in any proceedings, and the block system of signalling on 

BLOCKADE (Fr. blocus, Ger. Blokade), a term used in 
maritime warfare. Originally a blockade by sea was probably 
nothing more than the equivalent in maritime warfare of a 
blockade or siege on land in which the army investing the 
blockaded or besieged place is in actual physical possession of a 
zone through which it can prevent and forbid ingress and egress. 
An attempt to cross such a zone without the consent of the 
investing army would be an act of hostility against the besiegers. 
A maritime blockade, when it formed part of a siege, would 
obviously also be a close blockade, being part of the military 
cordon drawn round the besieged place. Even from the first, 
however, differences would begin to grow up in the conditions 
arising out of the operations on land and on sea. Thus whereas 
conveying merchandise across military lines would be a deliberate 
act of hostility against the investing force, a neutral ship which 
had sailed in ignorance of the blockade for the blockaded place 
might in good faith cross the blockade line without committing 
a hostile act against the investing force. With the development 
of recognition of neutral rights the involuntary character of the 
breach would be taken into account, and notice to neutral states 
and to approaching vessels would come into use. With the 
employment in warfare of larger vessels in the place of the more 
numerous small ones of an earlier age, notice, moreover, would 
tend to take the place of de facto investment, and at a time when 
communication between governments was still slow and pre- 
carious, such notice would sometimes be given as a possible 
measure of belligerent tactics before the blockade could be 
actually carried out. Out of these circumstances grew up the 
abuse of "paper blockades." 

The climax was reached in the " Continental Blockade " 
decreed by Napoleon in 1806, which continued till it was abolished 
by international agreement in 181 2. This blockade forbade all 
countries under French dominion or allied with France to have 
any communication with Great Britain. Great Britain replied 
in 1807 by a similar measure. The first nation to protest against 
these fictitious blockades was the United States. Already in 
1800 John Marshall, secretary of state, wrote to the American 
minister in Great Britain pointing out objections which have 
since been universally admitted. In the following interesting 
passage he said: — 

" Ports not effectually blockaded by a force capable of completely 
investing them have yet been declared in a state of blockade. . . . 
If the effectiveness of the blockade be dispensed with, then every port 
of the belligerent powers mayat all times be declared in that state, 
and the commerce of neutrals be thereby subjected to universal 
capture. But if this principle be strictly adhered to, the capacity 
to blockade will be limited by the naval force of the belligerent, and, 
in consequence, the mischief to neutral commerce cannot be very 
extensive.^ It is, therefore, of the last importance to neutrals that 
this principle be maintained unimpaired. I observe that you have 
pressed this reasoning on the British minister, who replies that an 
occasional absence of a fleet from a blockaded port ought not to 
change the state of the place. Whatever force this observation may 
be entitled to, where that occasional absence has been produced by 
an accident, as a storm, which for a moment blows off a fleet and 
forces it from its station, which station it immediately resumes, I 
am persuaded that where a part of the fleet is applied, though only 
for a time, to other objects or comes into port, the very principle 
requiring an effective blockade, which is that the mischief can only be 
coextensive with the naval force of the belligerent, requires that 
during such temporary absence the commerce to the neutrals to the 
place should be free." 1 

1 John Marshall, secretary of state, to Rufus King, minister to 
England, 20th of September 1800, Am. State Papers, Class I, For. Rel. 
II, No. 181, J. B. Moore, Digest of International Law, vii. 788. 



Again in 1803 James Madison wrote to the then American 
minister in London : — 

" The law of nations requires to constitute a blockade that there 
should be the presence and position of a force rendering access to 
the prohibited place manifestly difficult and dangerous." ' 

In 1826 and 1827 Great Britain as well as the United States 
asserted that blockades in order to be binding must be effective. 
This became gradually the recognized view, and when in 1856 
the powers represented at the congress of Paris inserted in the 
declaration there adopted that " blockades in order to be 
binding must be effective, that is to say, maintained by a force 
sufficient really to prevent access to the coast of an enemy," they 
were merely enunciating a rule which neutral states had already 
become too powerful to allow belligerents to disregard. 

Blockade is universally admitted to be a belligerent right to 
which under international law neutrals are obliged to submit. It 
is now also universally admitted that the above-quoted rule of 
the Declaration of Paris forms part of international law, in- 
dependently of the declaration. Being, however, exclusively a 
belligerent right, it cannot be exercised except by a belligerent 
force. Even a de facto belligerent has the right to institute a 
blockade binding on neutrals if it has the means of making it 
effective, though the force opposed to it may treat the de facto 
belligerent as rebels. 

It is also admitted that, being exclusively a belligerent right, 
it cannot be exercised in time of peace, but there has been some 
inconsistency in practice (see Pacific Blockade) which will 
probably lead governments, in order to avoid protests of neutral 
powers against belligerent rights being exercised in mere coercive 
proceedings, to exercise all the rights of belligerents and carry on 
de facto war to entitle them to use violence against neutral in- 
fringers. This was done in the case of the blockade of Venezuela 
by Great Britain, Germany and Italy in 1 902-1903. 

The points upon which controversy still arises are as to what 
constitutes an " effective " blockade and what a sufficient 
notice of blockade to warrant the penalties of violation, viz. 
confiscation of the ship and of the cargo unless the evidence 
demonstrates the innocence of the cargo owners. A blockade 
to be effective must be maintained by a sufficient force to 
prevent the entrance of neutral vessels into the blockaded port 
or ports, and it must be duly proclaimed. Subject to these 
principles being complied with, " the question of the legitimacy 
and effectiveness of a blockade is one of fact to be determined in 
each case upon the evidence presented " (Thomas F. Bayard, 
American secretary of state, to Messrs Kamer & Co., 19th of 
February 1889). The British manual of naval prize law sums 
up the cases in which a blockade, validly instituted, ceases to be 
effectively maintained, as follows: — (1) If the blockading force 
abandons its position, unless the abandonment be merely 
temporary or caused by stress of weather, or (2) if it be driven 
away by the enemy, or (3) if it be negligent in its duties, or 
(4) if it be partial in the execution of its duties towards one ship 
rather than another, or towards the ships of one nation rather 
than those of another. These cases, however, are based on 
decisions of the British admiralty court and cannot be relied on 
absolutely as a statement of international law. 

As regards notice the following American instructions were 
given to blockading officers in June 1898 : — 

" Neutral vessels are entitled to notification of a blockade before 
they can be made prize for its attempted violation. The character 
of this notification is not material. It may be actual, as by a vessel 
of the blockading force, or constructive, as by a proclamation of the 
government maintaining the blockade, or by common notoriety. If a 
neutral vessel can be shown to have had notice of the blockade in 
any way, she is good prize, and should be sent in for adjudication; 
but should formal notice not have been given, the rule of constructive 
knowledge arising from notoriety should be construed in a manner 
liberal to the neutral. 

" Vessels appearing before a blockaded port, having sailed without 
notification, are entitled to actual notice by a blockading vessel. 

1 James Madison, secretary of state, to Mr Thornton, 27th of 
October 1803, 14 MS. Dom. Let. 215. Moore, Digest of International 
Law, vii. 789. 

They should be boarded by an officer, who should enter in the ship's 
log the fact of such notice, such entry to include the name of the 
blockading vessel giving notice, the extent of the blockade, the date 
and place, verified by his official signature. The vessel is then to be 
set free; and should she again attempt to enter the same or any 
other blockaded port as to which she has had notice, she is good 
prize. Should it appear from a vessel's clearance that she sailed after 
notice of blockade had been communicated to the country of her 
port of departure, or after the fact of blockade had, by a fair presump- 
tion^ become commonly known at that port, she should be sent in as 
a prize." 

The passages in italics are not in accordance with the views 
held by other states, which do not recognize the binding char- 
acter of a diplomatic notification or of constructive notice from 

The subject was brought up at the second Hague Conference 
(1907) . The Italian and Mexican delegations submitted projects, 
but after a declaration by the British delegate in charge of the 
subject (Sir E. Satow) that blockade not having been included 
in the Russian programme, his government had given him no in- 
structions upon it, the subject, at his suggestion, was dropped. 
A Voeu, however, was adopted in favour of formulating rules 
on all branches of the laws and customs of naval war, and a con- 
vention was agreed to for the establishment of an international 
Prize Court (see Prize). Under Art. 7 of the latter convention 
the Court was to apply the " rules of international law," and in 
their absence the " general principles of justice and equity." 
As soon as possible after the close of the second Hague Con- 
ference the British government took steps to call a special 
conference of the maritime powers, which sat from December 4, 
1908 to February 26, 1909. Among the subjects dealt with 
was Blockade, the rules relating to which are as follow: — 

Art._ 1. A blockademust not extend beyond the ports and coasts 
belonging to or occupied by the enemy. 

Art. 2. In accordance with the Declaration of Paris of 1856, a 
blockade, in order to be binding, must be effective — that is to say, 
it must be maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access 
to the enemy coastline. 

Art. 3. The question whether a blockade is effective is a question 
of fact. 

Art. 4. A blockade is not regarded as raised if the blockading force 
is temporarily withdrawn on account of stress of weather. 

Art. 5. A blockade must be applied impartially to the ships of all 

Art. 6. The commander of a blockading force may give permission 
to a warship to enter, and subsequently to leave, a blockaded port. 

Art. 7. In circumstances of distress, acknowledged by an officer 
of the blockading force, a neutral vessel may enter a place under 
blockade and subsequently leave it, provided that she has neither 
discharged nor shipped any cargo there. 

Art. 8. A blockade, in order to be binding, must be declared in 
accordance with Article 9, and notified in accordance with Articles 
11 and 16. 

Art. 9. A declaration of blockade is made either by the blockading 
power or by the naval authorities acting in its name. It specifies (1) 
the date when the blockade begins; (2) the geographical limits of 
the coastline under blockade; (3) the period within which neutral 
vessels may come out. 

Art. _ 10. If the operations of the blockading power, or of the naval 
authorities acting in its name, do not tally with the particulars, which, 
in accordance with Article 9 (1) and (2), must be inserted in the 
declaration of blockade, the declaration is void, and a new declaration 
is necessary in order to make the blockade operative. 

Art. 11. A declaration of blockade is notified: (1) to neutral 
powers, by the blockading power by means of a communication 
addressed to the governments direct, or to their representatives 
accredited to it ; (2) to the local authorities, by the officer command- 
ing the blockading force. The local authorities will, in turn, inform 
the foreign consular officers at the port or on the coastline under 
blockade as soon as possible. 

Art. 12. The rules as to declaration and notification of blockade 
apply to cases where the limits of a blockade are extended, or where 
a blockade is re-established after having been raised. 

Art. 13. The voluntary raising of a blockade, as also any re- 
striction in the limits of a blockade, must be notified in the manner 
prescribed by Article 11. 

Art. 14. The liability of a neutral vessel to capture for breach of 
blockade is contingent on her knowledge, actual or presumptive, of 
the blockade. 

Art. 15. Failing proof to the contrary, knowledge of the blockade 
is presumed if the vessel left a neutral port subsequently to the 
notification of the blockade to the power to which such port belongs, 
provided that such notification was made in sufficient time. 



Art. 1 6. If a vessel approaching a blockaded port has no know- 
ledge, actual or presumptive, of the blockade, the notification must 
be made to the vessel itself by an officer of one of the ships of the 
blockading force. This notification should be entered in the vessel's 
logbook, and must state the day and hour, and the geographical 
position of the vessel at the time. If through the negligence of the 
officer commanding the blockading force no declaration of blockade 
has been notified to the local authorities, or if in the declaration, as 
notified, no period has been mentioned within which neutral vessels 
may come out, a neutral vessel coming out of the blockaded port 
must be allowed to pass free. 

Art. 17. Neutral vessels may not be captured for breach of 
blockade except within the area of operations of the warships 
detailed to render the blockade effective. 

Art. 18. The blockading forces must not bar access to neutral 
ports or coasts. 

Art. 19. Whatever may be the ulterior destination of a vessel 
or of her cargo, she cannot be captured for breach of blockade, if, at 
the moment, she is on her way to a non-blockaded port. 

Art. 20. A vessel which has broken blockade outwards, or 
which has attempted to break blockade inwards, is liable to capture 
so long as she is pursued by a ship of the blockading force. If 
the pursuit is abandoned, or if the blockade is raised, her capture 
can no longer be effected. 

Art. 21. A vessel found guilty of breach of blockade is liable 
to condemnation. The cargo is also condemned, unless it is 
proved that at the time of the shipment of the goods the shipper 
neither knew nor could have known of the intention to break the 
blockade. (T. Ba.) 

BLOCKHOUSE, in fortification, a small roofed work serving 
as a fortified post for a small garrison. The word, common 
since 1500, is of uncertain origin, and was applied to what is now 
called a fort d'arrct, a detached fort blocking the access to a 
landing, channel, pass, bridge or defile. The modern blockhouse 
is a building, sometimes of two storeys, which is loopholed on all 
sides, and not infrequently, in the case of two-storey blockhouses, 
provided with a m&chicoulis gallery. Blockhouses are built of 
wood, brick, stone, corrugated iron or any material available. 
During the South African War (1899-1902) they were often sent 
from England to the front in ready-made sections. 

BLOEMAERT, ABRAHAM (1564-1651), Dutch painter and 
engraver, was born at Gorinchem, the son of an architect. He 
was first a pupil of Gcrrit Splinter (pupil of Frans Floris) and of 
Joos de Beer, at Utrecht. He then spent three years in Paris, 
studying under several masters, and on his return to his native 
country received further training from Hieronymus Francken. 
In 1591 he went to Amsterdam, and four years later settled 
finally at Utrecht, where he became dean of the Gild of St Luke. 
He excelled more as a colourist than as a draughtsman, was 
extremely productive, and painted and etched historical and 
allegorical pictures, landscapes, still-life, animal pictures and 
flower pieces. Among his pupils are his four sons, Hendrick, 
Frederick, Cornelis and Adriaan (all of whom achieved consider- 
able reputation as painters or engravers), the two Honthorsts 
and Jacob G. Cuyp. 

BLOEMEN, JAN FRANS VAN (1662-1740), Flemish painter, 
was born at Antwerp, and studied and lived in Italy. At Rome 
he was styled Orizonte, on account of his painting of distance 
in his landscapes, which are reminiscent of Gaspard Poussin and 
much admired. His brothers Pieter (1657-1719), styled Stan- 
daart (from his military pictures), and Norbert (1670-1746), 
were also well-known painters. 

BLOEMFONTEIN, capital of the Orange Free State, in 
29 8' S., 26 18' E. It is situated on the open veld, surrounded 
by a few low kopjes, 4518 ft. above the sea, 105 m. by rail E. 
by S. of Kimberley, 750 N.E. by E. of Cape Town, 450 N. by E. 
of Port Elizabeth, and 257 S.W. of Johannesburg. 

Bloemfontein is a very pleasant town, regularly laid out with 
streets running at right angles and a large central market square. 
Many of the houses are surrounded by large wooded gardens. 
Through the town runs the Bloemspruit. After a disastrous 
flood in 1904 the course of this spring was straightened and six 
stone bridges placed across it. There are several fine public 
buildings, mostly built of red brick and a fine-grained white 
stone quarried in the neighbourhood. The Raadzaal, a building 
in the Renaissance style, faces Market Square. Formerly the 
meeting-place of the Orange Free State Raad, it is now the seat 

of the provincial council. In front of the old Raadzaal (used 
as law courts) is a statue of President Brand. In Douglas Street 
is an unpretentious building used in turn as a church, a raadzaal, 
a court-house and a museum. In it was signed (1854) the 
convention which recognized the independence of the Free 
State Boers (see Orange Free State: History). Among 
the churches the most important, architecturally, are the 
Dutch Reformed, a building with two spires, and the Anglican 
cathedral, which has a fine interior. The chief educational 
establishment is Grey University College, built 1 906-1 908 at 
a cost of £125,000. It stands in grounds of 300 acres, a mile 
and a half from the town. In the town is the original Grey 
College, founded in 1856 by Sir George Grey, when governor of 
Cape Colony. The post and telegraph office in Market Square 
is one of the finest buildings in the town. The public library 
fs housed in a handsome building in Warden Street. Opposite 
it is the new national museum. 

Bloemfontein possesses few manufactures, but is the trading 
centre of the province. Having a dry healthy climate, it is a 
favourite residential town and a resort for invalids, being recom- 
mended especially for pulmonary disease. The mean maximum 
temperature is 76-7° Fahr., the mean minimum 45-8°; the mean 
annual rainfall about 24 in. There is an excellent water-supply, 
obtained partly from Bloemspruit, but principally from the 
Modder river at Sanna's Post, 22 m. to the east, and from 
reservoirs at Moches Dam and Magdcpoort. 

The population in 1904 was 33,883, of whom, including the 
garrison of 3487, 15,501 were white, compared with a white 
population of 2077 in 1890. The coloured inhabitants are mostly 
Bechuana and Basuto. Most of the whites are of British origin, 
and English is the common language of all, including the Dutch. 

The spruit or spring which gives its name to the town was 
called after one of the emigrant farmers, Jan Bloem. The town 
dates from 1846, in which year Major H. D. Warden, then 
British resident north of the Orange, selected the site as the 
seat of his administration. When in 1854 independence was 
conferred on the country the town was chosen by the Boers as 
the seat of government. It became noted for the intelligence 
of its citizens, and for the educational advantages it offered at 
the time when education among the Boers was thought of very 
lightly. In 1892 the railway connecting it with Cape Town and 
Johannesburg was completed. During the Anglo-Boer War 
of 1899-1902 it was occupied by the British under Lord Roberts 
without resistance (13th of March 1900), fourteen days after the 
surrender of General Cronje at Paardeberg. In Market Square 
on the 28th of the following May the annexation of the Orange 
Free State to the British dominions was proclaimed. - In 1907 
the first session of the first parliament elected under the con- 
stitution granting the colony self-government was held in 
Bloemfontein. In 1910 when the colony became a province 
of the Union of South Africa under its old designation of Orange 
Free State, Bloemfontein was chosen as the seat of the Supreme 
Court of South Africa. Its growth as a business centre after the 
close of the war in 1902 was very marked. The rateable value 
increased from £709,000 in 1901 to £2,400,000 in 1905. 

BLOET, ROBERT (d. n 23), English bishop, was chancellor 
to William I. and Rufus. From the latter he received the see 
of Lincoln (1093) in succession to Remigius. His private char- 
acter was indifferent; but he administered his see with skill 
and prudence, built largely, and kept a magnificent household, 
which served as a training-school even for the sons of nobles. 
Bloet was active in assisting Henry I. during the rebellion of 
1 102, and became that monarch's justiciar. Latterly, however, 
he fell out of favour, and, although he had been very rich, was 
impoverished by the fines which the king extorted from him. 
Perhaps his wealth was his chief offence in the king's eyes; 
for he was in attendance on Henry when seized with his last 
illness. He was the patron of the chronicler Henry of Hunting- 
don, whom he advanced to an archdeaconry. 

Henry of Huntingdon and W. Malmesbury (De Gestis Pontificum) 
are original authorities. See E. A. Freeman's William. Rufus; Sir 
James Ramsay, The Foundations of England, vol. ii. (H. W. C. D.) 



BLUIS, LOUIS DE (1506-1566), Flemish mystical writer, 
generally known under the name of Blosius, was born in 
October 1506 at the chateau of Donstienne, near Liege, of an 
illustrious family to which several crowned heads were allied. 
He was educated at the court of the Netherlands with the future 
emperor Charles V. of Germany, who remained to the last his 
staunch friend. At the age of fourteen he received the Bene- 
dictine habit in the monastery of Liessies in Hainaut, of which 
he became abbot in 1530. Charles V. pressed in vain upon 
him the archbishopric of Cambrai, but Blosius studiously 
exerted himself in the reform of his monastery and in the com- 
position of devotional works. He died at his monastery on 
the 7th of January 1566. 

Blosius's works, which were written in Latin, have been 
translated into almost every European language, and have 
appealed not only to Roman Catholics, but to many English 
laymen of note, such as W. E. Gladstone and Lord Coleridge. 
The best editions of his collected works are the first edition by 
J. Frojus (Louvain, 1568), and the Cologne reprints (1572, 
1587). His best-known works are: — the Institutio Spiritualis 
(Eng. trans., A Book of Spiritual Instruction, London, 1900); 
Consolatio Pusillanimium (Eng. trans., Comfort for the Faint- 
Hearted, London, 1903); Sacellum Animae Fidelis (Eng. trans., 
The Sanctuary of the Faithful Soul, London, 1905); all these 
three works were translated and edited by Father Bertrand 
Wilberforce, O.P., and have been reprinted several times; 
and especially Speculum Monachorum (French trans, by Felicite 
de Lamennais, Paris, 1809; Eng. trans., Paris, 1676; re-edited 
by Lord Coleridge, London, 1871, 1872, and inserted in " Pater- 
noster " series, 1901). 

See Georges de Blois, Louis de Blois, un Benedictin au XVI ^" e 
Steele (Paris, 1875), Eng. trans, by Lady Lovat (London, 1878, &c.). 

BLOIS, a town of central France, capital of the department 
of Loir-et-Cher, 35 m. S.W. of Orleans, on the Orleans railway 
between that city and Tours. Pop. (1906) 18,457. Situated 
in a thickly-wooded district on the right bank of the Loire, it 
covers the summits and slopes of two eminences between which 
runs the principal thoroughfare of the town named after the 
philosopher Denis Papin. A bridge of the 18th century from 
which it presents the appearance of an amphitheatre, unites 
Blois with the suburb of Vienne on the left bank of the river. 
The streets of the higher and older part of the town are narrow 
and tortuous, and in places so steep that means of ascent is 
provided by flights of steps. The famous chateau of the family 
of Orleans (see Architecture: Renaissance Architecture in 
France), a fine example of Renaissance architecture, stands on 
the more westerly of the two hills. It consists of three main 
wings, and a fourth and smaller wing, and is built round a court- 
yard. The most interesting portion is the north-west wing, 
which was erected by Francis I., and contains the room where 
Henry, duke of Guise, was assassinated by order of Henry III. 
The striking feature of the interior facade is the celebrated spiral 
staircase tower, the bays of which, with their beautifully sculp- 
tured balustrades, project into the courtyard (see Architecture, 
Plate VIII. fig. 84) . The north-east wing, in which is the entrance 
to the castle, was built by Louis XII. and is called after him; 
it contains picture-galleries and a museum. Opposite is the 
Gaston wing, erected by Gaston, duke of Orleans, brother of 
Louis XIII. , which contains a majestic domed staircase. In the 
north corner of the courtyard is the Salle des Etats, which, 
together with the donjon in the west corner, survives from the 
13th century. Of the churches of Blois, the cathedral of St Louis, 
a building of the end of the 17th century, but in Gothic style, 
is surpassed in interest by St Nicolas, once the church of the 
abbey of St Laumer, and dating from the 1 2th and 13th centuries. 
The picturesqueness of the town is enhanced by many old 
mansions, the chief of which is the Renaissance Hotel d'Alluye, 
and by numerous fountains, among which that named after 
Louis XII. is of very graceful design. The prefecture, the law 
court, the corn-market and the fine stud-buildings are among 
the chief modern buildings. 

Blois is the seat of a bishop, a prefect, and a court of assizes. 

It has a tribunal offirst instance, a tribunal of commerce, a board 
of trade arbitration, a branch of the Bank of France, a communal 
college and training-colleges. The town is a market for the 
agricultural and pastoral regions of Beauce and Sologne, and has 
a considerable trade in grain, the wines of the Loire valley, and 
in horses and other live-stock. It manufactures boots and 
shoes, biscuits, chocolate, upholstering materials, furniture, 
machinery and earthenware, and has vinegar-works, breweries, 
leather-works and foundries. 

Though of ancient origin, Blois is first distinctly mentioned by 
Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, and was not of any import- 
ance till the 9th century, when it became the seat of a powerful 
countship (see below). In 1196 Count Louis granted privileges 
to the townsmen; the commune, which survived throughout 
the middle ages, probably dated from this time. The counts of 
the Chatillon line resided at Blois more often than their pre- 
decessors, and the oldest parts of the chateau (13 th century) 
were built by them. In 1429 Joan of Arc made Blois her base 
of operations for the relief of Orleans. After his captivity in 
England, Charles of Orleans in 1440 took up his residence in the 
chateau, where in 1462 his son, afterwards Louis XII., was born. 
In the 1 6th century Blois was often the resort of the French 
court. Its inhabitants included many Calvinists, and it was 
in 1562 and 1567 the scene of struggles between them and the 
supporters of the Roman church. In 1576 and 1588 Henry III., 
king of France, chose Blois as the meeting-place of the states- 
general, and in the latter year he brought about the murders of 
Henry, duke of Guise, and his brother, Louis, archbishop of 
Reims and cardinal, in the chateau, where their deaths were 
shortly followed by that of the queen-mother, Catherine de' 
Medici. From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King 
Henry IV., exiled from the court, lived at the chateau, which 
was soon afterwards given by Louis XIII. to his brother Gaston, 
duke of Orleans, who lived there till his death in 1660. The 
bishopric dates from the end of the 17th century. In 1814 
Blois was for a short time the seat of the regency of Marie Louise, 
wife of Napoleon I. 

See L. de la Saussaye, Blois et ses environs (1873) ; Histoire du 
chateau de Blois (1873); L. Bergevin et A. Dupre, Histoire de Blois 

BLOIS, Countship or. From 865 to about 940 the countship 
of Blois was one of those which were held in fee by the margrave 
of Neustria, Robert the Strong, and by his successors, the abbot 
Hugh, Odo (or Eudes), Robert II. and Hugh the Great. It then 
passed, about 940 and for nearly three centuries, to a new family 
of counts, whose chiefs, at first vassals of the dukes of France, 
Hugh the Great and Hugh Capet, became in 987, by the accession 
of the Capetian dynasty to the throne of France, the direct 
vassals of the crown. These new counts were originally very 
powerful. With the countship of Blois they united, from 940 to 
1044, that of Touraine, and from about 950 to 12 18, and after- 
wards from 1269 to 1286, the countship of Chartres remained in 
their possession. 

The counts of Blois of the house of the Theobalds (Thibauds) 
began with Theobald I., the Cheat, who became count about 940. 
He was succeeded by his son, Odo (Eudes) I., about 975. 
Theobald II., eldest son of Odo I., became count in 996, and 
was succeeded by Odo II., younger son of Odo I., about 1005. 
Odo II. was one of the most warlike barons of his time. With 
the already considerable domains which he held from his 
ancestors, he united the heritage of his kinsman, Stephen I., 
count of Troyes. In 1033 he disputed the crown of Burgundy 
with the emperor, Conrad the Salic, and perished in 1037 while 
fighting in Lorraine. He was succeeded in 103 7 by his eldest son, 
Theobald III., who was defeated by the Angevins in 1044, and 
was forced to give up the town of Tours and its dependencies 
to the count of Anjou. In 1089 Stephen Henry, eldest son of 
Theobald III., became count. He took part in the first crusade, 
fell into the hands of the Saracens, and died in captivity; he 
married Adela, daughter of William I., king of England. In 
1 102 Stephen Henry was succeeded by his son, Theobald IV. 
the Great, who united the countship of Troyes with his domains 

7 6 


in 1128. In 1135, on the death of his maternal uncle, Henry I., 
king of England, he was called to Normandy by the barons of 
the duchy, but soon renounced his claims on learning that his 
younger brother, Stephen, had just been proclaimed king of 
England. In 1 1 52 Theobald V. the Good, second son of Theobald 
IV., became count; he died in 1191 in Syria, at the siege of Acre. 
His son Louis succeeded in 1191, took part in the fourth crusade, 
and after the taking of Constantinople was rewarded with the 
duchy of Nicaea. He was killed at the battle of Adrianople in 
1205, in which year he was succeeded by his son, Theobald VI. 
the Young, who died childless. In 1218 the countship passed 
to Margaret, eldest daughter of Theobald V., and to Walter 
(Gautier) of Avesnes, her third husband. 

The Chatillon branch of the counts of Blois began in 1230 
with Mary of Avesnes, daughter of Margaret of Blois and her 
husband, Hugh of Chatillon, count of St Pol. In 1241 her 
brother, John of Chatillon, became count of Blois, and was 
succeeded in 1279 by his daughter, Joan of Chatillon, who 
married Peter, count of Alencon, fifth son of Louis IX., king of 
France. In 1286 Joan, sold the countship of Chartres to the king 
of France. Hugh of Chatillon, her first-cousin, became count 
of Blois in 1293, and was succeeded by his son, Guy I., in 1307. 
In 1342 Louis II., eldest son of Guy I., died at the battle of 
Crecy, and his brother, Charles of Blois, disputed the duchy of 
Brittany with John of Montfort. Louis III., eldest son of 
Louis II., became count in 1346, and was succeeded by John II., 
second son of Louis II., in 1372. In 1381 Guy II., brother of 
Louis III. and John II., succeeded in 1381, but died childless. 
Overwhelmed with debt, he had sold the countship of Blois to 
Louis I., duke of Orleans, brother *of King Charles VI., who took 
possession of it in 1397. 

In 1498 the countship of Blois was united with the crown by 
the accession of King Louis XII., grandson and second successor 
of Louis I., duke of Orleans. 

See Bernier, Histoire de Blois (1682) ; La Saussaye, Histoire de la 
ville de Blois (1846). (A. Lo.) 

BLOMEFIELD, FRANCIS (1705-1752), English topographer 
of the county of Norfolk, was born at Fersfield, Norfolk, on 
the 23rd of July 1705. On leaving Cambridge in 1727 he was 
ordained, becoming in 1729 rector of Hargham, Norfolk, and 
immediately afterwards rector of Fersfield, his father's family 
living. In 1733 he mooted the idea of a history of Norfolk, for 
which he had begun collecting material at the age of fifteen, and 
shortly afterwards, while, collecting further information for 
his book, discovered some of the famous Paston Letters. By 
1736 he was ready to put some of the results of his researches into 
type. At the end of 1739 the first volume of the History of 
Norfolk was completed. It was printed at the author's own press, 
bought specially for the purpose. The second volume was ready 
in 1745. There is little doubt that in compiling his book Blome- 
field had frequent recourse to the existing historical collections 
of Le Neve, Kirkpatrick and Tanner, his own work being to a 
large extent one of expansion and addition. To Le Neve in 
particular a large share of the credit is due. When half-way 
through his third volume, Blomefield, who had come up to London 
in connexion with a special piece of research, caught smallpox, 
of which he died on the 16th of January 1752. The remainder of 
his work was published posthumously, and the whole eleven 
volumes were republished in London between 1805 and 1810. 

architect, son of Bishop C. J. Blomfield, was born on the 6th of 
March 1829, and educated at Rugby and Trinity, Cambridge. 
He was then articled as an architect to P. C. Hardwick, and 
subsequently obtained a large practice on his own account. He 
became president of the Architectural Association in 1861, and a 
fellow (1867) and vice-president (1886) of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. In 1887 he became architect to the Bank of 
England, and designed the law courts branch in Fleet Street, and 
he was associated with A. E. Street in the building of the law 
courts. In 1889 he was knighted. He died on the 30th of 
October 1899. He was twice married, and brought up two sons, 
Charles J. Blomfield and Arthur Conran Blomfield, to his own 

profession, of which they became distinguished representatives. 
Among the numerous churches which Sir Arthur Blomfield 
designed, his work at St Saviour's, Southwark, is a notable 
example of his use of revived Gothic, and he was highly regarded 
as a restorer. 

BLOMFIELD, CHARLES JAMES (1786-1857), English divine, 
was born on the 29th of May 1786 at Bury St Edmunds. He was 
educated at the local grammar school and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he gained the Browne medals for Latin and 
Greek odes, and carried off the Craven scholarship. In 1808 he 
graduated as third wrangler and first medallist, and in the 
following year was elected to a fellowship at Trinity College. 
The first-fruits of his scholarship was an edition of the Prometheus 
of Aeschylus in 18 10; this was followed by editions of the Septem 
contra Thebas, Persae, Choephorae, and Agamemnon, of Calli- 
machus, and of the fragments of Sappho, Sophron and Alcaeus. 
Blomfield, however, soon ceased to devote himself entirely to 
scholarship. He had been ordained in 1810, and held in quick 
succession the livings of Chesterford, Quarrington, Dunton, Great 
and Little Chesterford, and Tuddenham. In 18 17 he was 
appointed private chaplain to Wm. Howley, bishop of London. 
In 1819 he was nominated to the rich living of St Botolph's, 
Bishopsgate, and in 1822 he became archdeacon of Colchester. 
Two years later he was raised to the bishopric of Chester where he 
carried through many much-needed reforms. In 1828 he was 
translated to the bishopric of London, which he held for twenty- 
eight years. During this period his energy and zeal did much to 
extend the influence of the church. He was one of the best 
debaters in the House of Lords, took a leading position in the 
action for church reform which culminated in the ecclesiastical 
commission, and did much for the extension of the colonial 
episcopate; and his genial and kindly nature made him an, 
invaluable mediator in the controversies arising out of the 
tractarian movement. His health at last gave way, and in 1856 
he was permitted to resign his bishopric, retaining Fulham 
Palace as his residence, with a pension of £6000 per annum. He 
died on the 5th of August 1857. His published works, exclusive 
of those above mentioned, consist of charges, sermons, lectures 
and pamphlets, and of a Manual of Private and Family Prayers. 
He was a frequent contributor to the quarterly reviews, chiefly 
on classical subjects. 

See Memoirs of Charles James Blomfield, D. D., Bishop of London, 
with Selections from his Correspondence, edited by his son, Alfred Blom- 
field (1863) ; G. E. Biber, Bishop Blomfield and his Times (1857). 

classical scholar, brother of Bishop C. J. Blomfield, was born at 
Bury St Edmunds on the 14th of February 1788. Going to 
Caius College, Cambridge, he was thirteenth wrangler in 181 1, 
obtained several of the classical prizes of the university, and 
became a fellow and lecturer at Emmanuel College. In 1813 he 
travelled in Germany and made the acquaintance of some of 
the great scholars of Germany. On his return, he published in 
the Museum Criticum (No. ii.) an interesting paper on " The 
Present State of Classical Literature in Germany." Blomfield is 
chiefly known by his translation of Matthiae's Greek Grammar 
( 1 8 1 9) , which was prepared for the press by his brother. He died 
on the 9th of October 1816, his early death depriving Cambridge 
of one who seemed destined to take a high place amongst her 
most brilliant classical scholars. 

See " Memoir of Edward Valentine Blomfield," by Bishop Monk, 
in Museum Criticum, No. vii. 

BLONDEL, DAVID (1591-1655), French Protestant clergyman, 
was born at Chalons-sur-Marne in 1591, and died on the 6th of 
April 1655. In 1650 he succeeded G. J. Vossius in the professor- 
ship of history at Amsterdam. His works were very numerous; 
in some of them he showed a remarkable critical faculty, as in his 
dissertation on Pope Joan (1647, !657), in which he came to the 
conclusion, now universally accepted, that the whole story is a 
mere myth. Considerable Protestant indignation was excited 
against him on account of this book. 

BLONDEL, JACQUES FRANQOIS (1705-1774), French archi- 
tect, began life as an architectural engraver, but developed 
into an architect of considerable distinction, if of no great 



originality. As architect to Louis XV. from 1755 he necessarily 
did much in the rococo manner, although it would seem that he 
conformed to fashion rather than to artistic conviction. He 
was among the earliest founders of schools of architecture in 
France, and for this he was distinguished by the Academy; but 
he is now best remembered by his voluminous work L' Architecture 
francaise, in which he was the continuator of Marot. The book is 
a precious collection of views of famous buildings, many of which 
have disappeared or been remodelled. 

BLONDIN (1824-1897), French tight-rope walker and acrobat, 
was born at St Omer, France, on the 28th of February 1824. 
His real name was Jean Francois Gravelet. When five years 
old he was sent to the Ecole de Gymnase at Lyons and, after six 
months' training as an acrobat, made his first public appearance 
as " The Little Wonder." His superior skill and grace as well 
as the originality of the settings of his acts, made him a popular 
favourite. He especially owed his celebrity and fortune to his 
idea of crossing Niagara Falls on a tight-rope, n 00 ft. long, 
160 ft. above the water. This he accomplished, first in 1859, 
a number of times, always with different theatric variations: 
blindfold, in a sack, trundling a wheelbarrow, on stilts, carrying 
a man on his back, sitting down midway while he made and ate 
an omelette. In 1861 Blondin first appeared in London, at the 
Crystal Palace, turning somersaults on stilts on a rope stretched 
across the central transept, 170 ft. from the ground. In 1862 
he again gave a series of performances at the Crystal Palace, 
and elsewhere in England, and on the continent. After a period 
of retirement he reappeared in 1880, his final performance 
being given at Belfast in 1896. He died at Ealing, London, 
on the 19th of February 1897. 

BLOOD, the circulating fluid in the veins and arteries of 
animals. The word itself is common to Teutonic languages; 
the 0. Eng. is bldd, cf. Gothic Moth, Dutch bloed, Ger. Blut. It 
is probably ultimately connectefl with the root which appears 
in " blow," " bloom," meaning flourishing or vigorous. The 
Gr. word for blood, at/uct, appears as a prefix haemo- in many 
compound words. As that on which the life depends, as the 
supposed seat of the passions and emotions, and as that part 
which a child is believed chiefly to inherit from its parents, the 
word "blood" is used in many figurative and transferred 
senses; thus " to have his blood," " to fire the blood," " cold 
blood," " blood-royal," " half " or " whole blood," &c. The 
expression " blue blood " is from the Spanish sangre azul. The 
nobles of Castile claimed to be free from all admixture with the 
darker blood of Moors or Jews, a proof being supposed to lie in 
the blue veins that showed in their fairer skins. The common 
English expletive " bloody," used as an adjective or adverb, 
has been given many fanciful origins; it has been supposed to 
be a contraction of " by our Lady," or an adaptation of the oath 
common during the 17th century, " 'sblood," a contraction of 
" God's blood." The exact origin of the expression is not quite 
clear, but it is certainly merely an application of the adjective 
formed from " blood." The New English Dictionary suggests 
that it refers to the use of " blood " for a young rowdy of aristo- 
cratic birth, which was common at the end of the 17th century, 
and later became synonymous with "dandy," "buck," &c; 
" bloody drunk " meant therefore "drunk as a blood," "drunk 
as a lord." The expression came into common colloquial use 
as a mere intensive, and was so used till the middle of the 18th 
century. There can be little doubt that the use of the word 
has been considerably affected by the idea of blood as the vital 
principle, and therefore something strong, vigorous, and parallel 
as an intensive epithet with such expressions as " thundering," 
" awfully " and the like. 

Anatomy and Physiology 
In all living organisms, except the most minute, only a mini- 
mum number of cells can come into immediate contact with the 
general world, whence is to be drawn the food supply for the 
whole organism. Hence those cells — and they are by far the 
most numerous — which do not lie on the food-absorbing surface, 
must gain their nutriment by some indirect means. Further, 

each living cell produces waste products whose accumulation 
would speedily prove injurious to the cell, hence they must be 
constantly removed from its immediate neighbourhood and 
indeed from the organism as a whole. In this instance again, 
only a few cells can lie on a surface whence such materials can 
be directly discharged to the exterior. Hence the main number 
of the cells of the organism must depend upon some mechanism 
by which the waste products can be carried away from them 
to that group of cells whose duty it is to modify them, or dis- 
charge them from the body. These two ends are attained by the 
aid of a circulating fluid, a fluid which is constantly flowing 
past every cell of the body. From it the cells extract the food 
materials they require for their sustenance, and into it they dis- 
charge the waste materials resulting from their activity. This 
circulating medium is the blood. 

Whilst undoubtedly the two functions of this circulating 
fluid above given are the more prominent, there are yet others 
of great importance. For instance, it is known that many tissues 
as a result of their activity produce certain chemical substances 
which are of essential importance to the life of other tissue 
cells. These substances — internal secretions as they are termed 
— are carried to the second tissue by the blood stream. Again, 
many instances are known in which two distant tissues com- 
municate with one another by means of chemical messengers, 
bodies termed hormones {bpixauv, to stir up), which are produced 
by one group of cells, and sent to the other group to excite 
them to activity. Here, also, the path by which such messengers 
travel is the blood stream. A further and most important 
manner in which the circulating fluid is utilized in the life of an 
animal is seen in the way in which it is employed in protecting 
the body should it be invaded by micro-organisms. 

Hence it is clear that the blood is of the most vital importance 
to the healthy life of the body. But the fact that it is present as 
a circulating medium exposes the animal to a great dangef, viz. 
that it may be lost should any vessel carrying it become ruptured. 
This is constantly liable to happen, but to minimize as far as 
possible any such loss, the blood is endowed with the peculiar 
property of clotting, i.e. of setting to a solid or stiff jelly by 
means of which the orifices of the torn vessels become plugged 
and the bleeding stayed. 

The performance of these essential functions depends upon 
the maintenance of a continuous flow past all tissue cells, and 
this is attained by the circulatory mechanism, consisting of a 
central pump, the heart, and a system of ramifying tubes, the 
arteries, through which the blood is forced from the heart to 
every tissue (see Vascular System). A second set of tubes, 
the veins, collects the blood and returns it to the heart. In 
many invertebrates the circulating fluid is actually poured into 
the tissue spaces from the open terminals of the arteries. From 
these spaces it is in turn drained away by the veins. Such a 
system is termed a haemolymph system and the circulating 
fluid the haemolymph. Here the essential point gained is that 
the fluid is brought into direct contact with the tissue cells. 
In all vertebrates, the ends of the arteries are united to the 
commencements of the veins by a plexus of extremely minute 
tubes, the capillaries, consequently the blood is always retained 
within closed tubes and never comes into contact with the tissue 
cells. It is while passing through the capillaries that the blood 
performs its work; here the blood stream is at its slowest and 
is brought nearest to the tissue cell, only being separated from 
it by the extremely thin wall of the capillary and by an equally 
thin layer of fluid. Through this narrow barrier the interchanges 
between cell and blood take place. 

The advantage gained in the vertebrate animal by retaining 
the blood in a closed system of tubes lies in the great diminution 
of resistance to the flow of blood, and the consequent great 
increase in rate of flow past the tissue cells. Hence any food 
stuffs which can travel quickly through the capillary wall to 
the tissue cell outside can be supplied in proportionately greater 
quantity within a given time, without requiring any very great 
increase in the concentration of that substance in the blood. 
Conversely, any highly diffusible substance may be withdrawn 

7 8 


from the tissues by the blood at a similarly increased pace. 
These conditions are more peculiarly of importance for the 
supply of oxygen and the removal of carbonic acid — especially 
for the former, because the amount of it which can be carried 
by the blood is small. But as the rate at which a tissue lives, 
i.e. its activity, depends upon the rate of its chemical reactions, 
and as these are fundamentally oxidative, the more rapidly 
oxygen is carried to a tissue the more rapidly it can live, and the 
greater the amount of work it can perform within a given time. 
The rate of supply is of much less importance in the case of 
the other food substances because they are far more soluble in 
water, so that the supply in sufficient quantity can easily be 
met by a relatively slow blood flow. Hence we find that the 
gradual evolution of the animal kingdom goes hand in hand 
with the gradual development of a greater oxygen-carrying 
capacity of the blood and an increase in the rate of its flow. 

In the groundwork of a tissue are a number of spaces — the 
tissue spaces. They are filled with fluid and intercommunicate 
freely, finally connecting with a number of fine tubes, the 
lymphatics, through which excess of fluid or any solid particles 
present are drained away. The contained fluid acts as an inter- 
mediary between the blood and the cell; from it, the cell takes 
its various food stuffs, these having in the first instance been 
derived from the blood, and into it the cell discharges its waste 
products. On the course of the lymphatics a number of typical 
structures, the lymphatic glands, are placed, and the lymph 
has to pass through these structures where any deleterious 
products are retained, and the fluid thus purified is drained 
away by further lymphatics and finally returned to the blood. 
Thus there is a second stream of fluid from the tissues, but one 
vastly slower than that of the blood. The flow is too slow for it 
to act as the vehicle for the removal of those waste products 
(carbonic acid, &c.) which must of necessity be removed quickly. 
These' must be removed by the blood. The same is true for the 
main number of other waste products, which, however, being 
of small molecular size are readily absorbed into the blood 

But in addition to fluid, the tissue spaces may at times be 
found to contain solid matter in the form of particles, which 
may represent the debris of destroyed cells, or which are, as is 
quite commonly the case, micro-organisms. Apparently such 
material cannot be removed from a tissue by absorption into 
the blood stream — indeed in the case of living organisms such 
an absorption would in many instances rapidly prove fatal, and 
special provision is made to prevent such an accident. These, 
therefore, are made to travel along the lymphatic channels, 
and so, before gaining access to the blood stream and thus to the 
body generally, have to run the gauntlet of the protective 
mechanism provided by the lymphatic glands, where in the major 
number of cases they are readily destroyed. 

Hence we see that first and foremost we have to regard the 
blood as a food-carrier to all the cells of the body; in the second 
place as the vehicle carrying away most if not all the waste 
products; in a third direction, it is acting as a means for trans- 
mitting chemical substances manufactured in one tissue to 
distant cells of the body for whose nutrition or excitation they 
may be essential; and in addition to these important functions 
there is yet another whose value it is almost impossible to over- 
estimate, for it plays the essential role in rendering the animal 
immune to the attacks of invading organisms. The question of 
immunity is discussed elsewhere, and it is sufficient merely 
to indicate the chief means by which the blood subserves this 
essential protective mechanism. Should living organisms find 
their way into the surface cells or within the tissue spaces, the 
body fights them in a number of ways, (i) It may produce one 
or more chemical substances capable of neutralizing the toxic 
material produced by the organism. (2) It may produce chemical 
substances which act as poisons to the micro-organism, either 
paralysing it or actually killing it. Or (3) the organism may be 
attacked and taken up into the body of wandering cells, e.g. 
certain of the leucocytes, and then digested by them. Such cells 
are therefore called phagocytes {4>ayeiv, to eat). Thus, by its 

power of reacting in these ways the body has become capable 
of withstanding the attacks of many different varieties of micro- 
organisms, of both animal and vegetable origin. 

General Properties.— Blood is an opaque, viscid liquid of 
bright red colour possessing a distinct and characteristic odour,' 
especially when warm. Its opacity is due to the presence of a 
very large number of solid particles, the blood corpuscles, having 
a higher refractive index than that of the liquid in which they 
float. The specific gravity in man averages about 1-055. The 
specific gravity of the liquid portion, the plasma (Gr. irKaaixa, 
something formed or moulded, irXaaaav, to mould), is about 
1-027, whilst that of the corpuscles amounts to 1-088. To litmus 
it reacts as a weak alkali. 

Blood Plasma. —The plasma is a solution in water of a varied 
number of substances, and as a solvent it confers on the blood 
its power of acting as a carrier of food stuffs and waste products. 
One important food substance, oxygen, is, however, only partly 
carried in solution, being mainly combined with haemoglobin 
in the red corpuscles. The food stuffs carried by the plasma 
are proteins, carbohydrates, salts and water. The main waste 
products dissolved in it are ammonium carbonate, urea, urates, 
xanthin bases, creatin and small amounts of other nitrogenous 
bodies, carbonic acid as carbonates, other carbon compounds 
such as cholesterin, lecithin and a number of other substances. 
Thus, if we take mammalian blood as a type, the plasma would 
have the following approximate composition: — 

In 1000 grms. plasma — 

Water 901-51 

Substances not vaporizing at 120° C. — 

Fibrin 8-o6 

Other proteins and organic substances 81-92 
Inorganic substances — 

Sulphuric acid 
Phosphoric acid 
Oxygen _ . 






Proteins. — The proteins of the blood plasma belong to the two 
classes of the albumins and the globulins. The globulins present 
are named fibrinogen and serum-globulin; as its name implies, 
the chief physiological property of fibrinogen is that it can give 
rise to fibrin, the solid substance formed when blood clots. It 
possesses the typical properties of a globulin, i.e. it coagulates 
on heating (in this instance at a temperature of 56° C), and is 
precipitated by half saturating its solution with ammonium 
sulphate. It differs from other globulins in that it is less soluble. 
It is only present in very small quantities, 0-4%. The other 
globulin, serum-globulin, is not coagulated until 75 C. is reached, 
and we now know that it is in reality a mixture of several 
proteins, but so far these have not been completely separated 
from one another and obtained in a pure form. On dialysing a 
solution of serum-globulin a part is precipitated, and this portion 
has been termed the eu-globulin fraction, the remainder being 
known, in contradistinction, as the pseudo-globulin. Again, on 
diluting a solution and adding a small amount of acetic acid a 
precipitate is formed which in some respects differs from the 
remainder of the globulin present. Whether in these two 
instances we are dealing with approximately pure substances 
is extremely doubtful. A further important point in connexion 
with the chemistry of the globulins is that dextrose may be 
found among their decomposition products, i.e. that a part of 
it, or possibly the whole, possesses a glucoside character. 

Serum-albumin gives all the typical colour and precipitation 
reactions of the albumins. If plasma be weakly acidified with 
sulphuric acid, then treated with crystals of ammonium sulphate 
until a slight precipitate forms, filtered and the filtrate allowed 
to evaporate very slowly, typical crystals of serum-albumin 
may form. According to many it is a uniform and specific 



substance, but others hold the view that it consists of at least 
three distinct substances, as shown by the fact that if a solution 
be gradually heated coagulation will occur at three different 
temperatures, viz. at 73 , 77 and 84 C. On the other hand the 
close agreement between different analyses of even the amorphous 
preparations points to there being but one serum-albumin. 

When blood clots two new proteins make their appearance in 
the fluid part of the blood, or serum, as it is now called. The first 
of these is fibrin ferment (for its origin see section on Clotting 
below). The other, fibrinoglobulin, possesses all the typical 
characteristics of the globulins and coagulates at 64° C. 

Carbohydrates. — Three several carbohydrates are described 
as occurring in plasma, viz. glycogen, animal gum and dextrose. 
If glycogen is present in solution in the plasma it is there in very 
small quantities only, and has probably arisen from the destruc- 
tion of the white blood corpuscles, since some leucocytes un- 
doubtedly contain glycogen. A small amount of carbohydrate 
having the formula for starch and yielding a reducing sugar on 
hydrolysis with acid has also been described. The constant 
carbohydrate constituent of plasma, however, is dextrose. This 
is present to the approximate amount of 0-15 % in arterial blood. 
The amount may be much greater in' the blood of the portal vein 
during carbohydrate absorption, and according to some observers 
there is less in venous than in arterial blood, but the difference is 
small and falls within the error of observation. The statement 
that when no absorption is taking place the blood of the hepatic 
vein is richer in dextrose than that of the portal vein (Bernard) 
is denied by Pavy. 

Fats. — Plasma or serum is as a rule quite clear, but after a meal 
rich in fats it may become quite milky owing to the presence of 
neutral fats in a very fine state of subdivision. This suspended 
fat rapidly disappears from the blood after fat absorption has 
ceased. To some extent it varies in composition with that of the 
fat absorbed, but usually consists of the glycerides of the common 
fatty acids — palmitic, stearic and oleic. In addition, there is a 
small amount of fatty acid in solution in the plasma. As to the 
form in which this occurs there is some uncertainty. It is 
possibly present as a soap or even as a neutral fat, since a little can 
be dissolved in plasma, the solvent substance being probably 
protein or cholesterin. Fatty acids also appear to be present to 
some extent combined with cholesterin forming cholesterin esters 
(about 0-06%). 

Other Organic Compounds. — In addition to the substances 
above described, belonging to the three main classes of food stuffs, 
there are still other organic bodies present in plasma in small 
amounts, which for convenience we may classify as non-nitro- 
genous and nitrogenous. Among the former may be mentioned 
lactic acid, glycerin, a lipochrome, and probably many other 
substances of a similar type whose separation has not yet been 

The non-protein nitrogenous constituents consist of the 
following: ammonia as carbonate or carbamate (0-2 to o-6%), 
urea (0-02 to 0-05%), creatine, cr;ainine, uric acid, xanthine, 
hypoxanthine and occasionally hippuric acid. Three ferments 
are also described as being present: (1) a glycolytic ferment 
exerting an action upon dextrose; (2) a lipase or fat-splitting 
ferment; and (3) a diastase capable of converting starch into 

Salts. — The saline constituents of plasma comprise chlorides, 
phosphates, carbonates and possibly sulphates, of sodium, 
potassium, calcium and magnesium. The most abundant metal 
is sodium and the most abundant acid is hydrochloric. These 
two are present in sufficient amount to form about 0-65% of 
sodium chloride. The phosphate is present to about 0-02 %. 
Sulphuric acid is always present if the blood has been calcined 
for the purposes of the analysis, and may then be present to about 
0-013 %. This is, however, probably produced during the 
destruction of the protein, since it has been shown that no 
sulphate can be removed from normal plasma by dialysis. The 
amount of potassium present (0-03 %) is less than one-tenth of 
that of the sodium, and the quantities of calcium and magnesium 
are even less. 

Formed Elements. — When viewed under the microscope the 
main number of these are seen to be small yellow bodies of very 
uniform size, size and shape varying, however, in different 
animals. When observed in bulk they have a red colour, their 
presence in fact giving the typical colour to blood. These are the 
red blood corpuscles or erythrocytes (Gr. kpvdpos, red). Mingled with 
them in the blood are a smaller number of corpuscles which possess 
no colour and have therefore been called white blood corpuscles 
or leucocytes ( Gr. XevKos, white) . Lastly, there are present a large 
number of small lens-shaped structures, less in number than the 
red corpuscles, and much more difficult to distinguish. These are 
known as blood platelets. 

Red Corpuscles. — These are present in very large numbers and, 
under normal conditions, all possess exactly the same appearance. 
With rare exceptionstheir shape is that of a biconcave disk with 
bevelled edges, the size varying somewhat in different animals, 
as is seen in the following table which gives their diameters: — 

Man 0-0075 mm. 

Dog _ 0-0073 mm. 

Rabbit 0-0069 mm. 

Cat 0-0065 mm. 

Goat 0-0041 mm. 

The coloured corpuscles of amphibia as well as of nearly all 
vertebrates below mammals are biconvex and elliptical. The 
following are the dimensions of some of the more common: — 

Pigeon . . . 0-0147 mm. long by 0-0065 mm. wide. 

Frog . . 


Proteus . 


Their number also varies as follows 
Man .... 4,000,000 to 

0-0223 >» 


0-0293 ... 


0-0580 „ 


0-0770 ,, 

,, 0-0460 

Birds . 
Frog . 

5,000,000 per cub. mm. 

9,000,000 to 10,000,000 ,, ,, 

13,000,000 to 14,000,000 ,, „ 

1,000,000 to 4,000,000 „ ,, 

250,000 to 2,000,000 ,, „ 
500,000 per cub. mm. 

In mammals they are apparently homogeneous in structure, 
have no nucleus, but possess a thin envelope. Their specific 
gravity is distinctly higher than that of the plasma (1-088), so 
that if clotting has been prevented, blood on standing yields a 
large deposit which may form as much as half the total volume 
of the blood. 

Chemical Composition. — On destruction the red corpuscles 
yield two chief proteins, haemoglobin and a nucleo-protein, and 
a number of other substances similar to those usually obtained 
on the break-down of any cellular tissue, such for instance as 
lecithin, cholesterin and inorganic salts. The most important 
protein is the haemoglobin. To it the corpuscle owes its dis- 
tinctive property of acting as an oxygen carrier, for it possesses 
the power of combining chemically with oxygen and of yielding 
up that same oxygen whenever there is a decrease in the con- 
centration of the oxygen in the solvent. Thus in a given solution 
of haemoglobin the amount of it which is combined with oxygen 
depends absolutely on the oxygen concentration. The greatest 
dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin occurs as the oxygen tension falls 
from about 40 to 20 mm. of mercury. That the oxygen forms a 
definite compound with the haemoglobin is proved by the fact 
that haemoglobin thoroughly saturated with oxygen (oxy- 
haemoglobin) has a definite absorption spectrum showing two 
bands between the D and E lines, whilst haemoglobin from which 
the oxygen has been completely removed only gives one band 
between those lines. In association with this, oxyhaemoglobin 
has a typical bright red colour, whereas haemoglobin is dark 
purple. A further striking characteristic of haemoglobin is that 
it contains iron in its molecule. The amount present, though 
small bears a perfectly definite quantitative relation to the 
amount of oxygen with which the haemoglobin is capable of 
combining (two atoms of oxygen to one of iron). One gram of 
haemoglobin crystals can combine with 1-34 cc. of oxygen. On 
destruction with an acid or alkali, haemoglobin yields a pigment 
portion, haematin, and a protein portion, globin, the latter 
belonging to the group of the histones (Gr. lards, web, tissue). 



In this cleavage the iron is found in the pigment. By the use of 
a strong acid, it may be made to yield iron-free pigment, the 
remainder of the molecule being much further decomposed. 

Destruction and Formation. — In the performance of their work 
the corpuscles gradually deteriorate. They are then destroyed, 
chiefly in the liver, but whether the whole of this process is 
effected by the liver alone is not decided. It is proved, however, 
that the destruction of the haemoglobin is entirely effected there. 
It was for a long time considered to be one of the functions of the 
spleen to examine the red corpuscles and to destroy or in some 
way to mark those no longer fitted for the performance of their 
work. It is proved that the destruction of the haemoglobin is 
entirely effected in the liver, since both the main cleavage products 
may be traced to this organ, which discharges the pigmentary 
portion as the bile pigment, but retains the iron-protein moiety 
at any rate for a time. The amount of bile pigment eliminated 
during the day indicates that the destruction must be consider- 
able, and since the number of corpuscles does not vary there must 
be an equivalent formation of new ones. This takes place in the 
red bone-marrow, where special cells are provided for their 
continuous production. In embryonic life their formation is 
effected in another way. Certain mesodermic cells, resembling 
those of the connective tissue, collect masses of haemoglobin, and 
from these elaborate red blood corpuscles which thus come to 
lie in the fluid part of the cell. By a canalization of the branches 
of these cells which unite with branches of other cells the pre- 
cursors of the blood capillaries are formed. 

White Blood Corpuscles. — These constitute the second import- 
ant group of formed elements in the blood, and number about 
1 2,000 to 20,000 per cubic mm. They are typical wandering cells 
carried to all parts of the body by the blood stream, but often 
leave that stream and gain the tissue spaces by passing through 
the capillary wall. They exist in many varieties and were first 
classified according as, under the microscope, they presented a 
granular appearance or appeared clear. The cells were also 
distinguished from one another according as they possessed fine 
or coarse granules. The granules are confined to the protoplasm 
of the cell, and it has been shown that they differ chemically, 
because their staining properties vary. Thus, some granules 
select an acid stain, and the cells containing them are then 
designated acidophile or eosinophile; 1 other granules select a basic 
stain and are called basophile, while yet others prefer a neutral 
stain (neuirophile). 

In human blood the following varieties of leucocytes may be 
distinguished: — 

1. The Polymorphonuclear Cell. — This possesses a nucleus of 
very complicated outline and a fair amount of protoplasm filled 
with numbers of fine granules which stain with eosin. They vary 
in size but are usually about o-oi mm. in diameter. They are 
highly amoeboid and phagocytic, and form about 70% of the 
total number of leucocytes. 

2. The Coarsely Granular Eosinophile Cell. — These large cells 
contain a number of well-defined granules which stain deeply 
with acid dyes. The nucleus is crescentic. The cells amount to 
about 2 % of the total number of leucocytes, though the propor- 
tion varies considerably. They are actively amoeboid. 

3. The Lymphocyte. — This is the smallest leucocyte, being 
only about 0-0065 mm. in diameter. It has a large spherical 
nucleus with a small rim of clear protoplasm surrounding it. 
It forms from 1 5 to 40 % of the number of leucocytes, and is less 
markedly amoeboid than the other varieties. 

4. The Hyaline (Gr. va'ki.vos, glassy, crystalline, vaXos, glass) 
cell or macrocyte (Gr. /xa/cpos, long or large). — This is a cell 
similar to the last with a spherical, oval or indented nucleus, but 
it has much more protoplasm. It constitutes about 4 % of all 
the leucocytes and is highly amoeboid and phagocytic. 

5. The Basophile Cell. — This possesses a spherical nucleus and 
the protoplasm contains a small number of granules staining 

1 The suffix -phile, Greek 4>i\dv, to love, prefer, is in scientific 
terminology frequently applied to substances that exhibit such 
preference for particular stains or reagents, the names of which form 
the first part of the word. 

deeply with basic dyes. It is rarely found in the blood of adults 
except in certain diseases. 

Functions. — These cells act as scavengers or as destroyers of 
living organisms that may have gained access to the tissue 
spaces. They play an important part in the chemical processes 
underlying the phenomena of immunity, and some at least are 
of importance in starting the process of clotting. 

They are constantly suffering destruction in the performance 
of their work. Many, too, are lost to the body by their passage 
through the different mucous surfaces. Their origin is still 
obscure in many points. The lymphocytes are derived from 
lymphoid tissue, wherever it exists in the different parts of the 
body. The polymorphonuclear and eosinophile cells are derived 
from the bone-marrow, each by division of specific mother cells 
located in that tissue. The macrocyte is believed by many to 
represent a further stage in the development of the lymphocyte. 
Their rate of formation may be influenced by a variety of 
conditions — for instance, they are found to vary in number 
according to the diet and also, to a considerable extent, in 

Platelets. — The platelets or thrombocytes (Gr. 0p6,uj3os, clot) 
are the third class of formed elements occurring in mammalian 
blood. There are still, however, many observers who consider 
that platelets are not present in the normal circulating blood, 
but only make their appearance after it has been shed or other- 
wise injured. They are minute lens-shaped structures, and may 
amount to as many as 800,000 per cubic mm. Under certain 
conditions, examination has shown that they are protoplasmic 
and amoeboid, and that each one contains a central body of 
different staining properties from the remainder of the structure. 
This has been regarded by some as a nucleus. On being brought 
into contact with a foreign surface they adhere to it firmly, very 
rapidly passing through a number of phases resulting ultimately 
in the formation of granular debris. In shed blood they tend to 
collect into groups, and during clotting, fibrin filaments may be 
observed to shoot out from these clumps. 

Variations in the Blood of different Animals. — If we contrast 
the blood of different animals of the vertebrate class we find 
striking differences both in microscopic appearances and in 
chemical properties. In the first place, the corpuscles vary in 
amount and in kind. Thus, whilst in a mammal the corpuscles 
form 40 to 50 % of the total volume of the blood, in the lower 
vertebrates the volume is much less, e.g. in frogs as low as 25 % 
and in fishes even lower. The deficiency is chiefly in the red 
corpuscles, the ratio of white to red increasing as we examine the 
blood from animals lower in the scale. The corpuscles themselves 
are also found to vary, especially the red ones. In the mammal 
they are biconcave disks with bevelled edges, they do not contain 
a nucleus so that they are not cells. In the bird they are larger, 
ellipsoidal in shape and have a large nucleus in the centre of 
the cell. In reptiles and amphibia the red corpuscles are also 
nucleated, but the stroma portion containing the haemoglobin 
is arranged in a thickened annular part encircling the nucleus. 
When seen from the flat they are oval in section. In fishes the 
corpuscles show very much the same structure. A further very 
significant difference to be observed between the bloods of 
different vertebrates is in the amount of haemoglobin they 
contain; thus in the lower classes, fishes and amphibia, not only 
is the number of red corpuscles small but the amount of haemo- 
globin each corpuscle contains is relatively low. The concentra- 
tion of the haemoglobin in the corpuscles attains its maximum 
in the mammal and the bird. Since the haemoglobin is practically 
the same from whatever animal it is obtained and can only com- 
bine with the same amount of oxygen, the oxygen-capacity of the 
blood of any vertebrate is in direct proportion to the amount of 
haemoglobin it contains. Therefore we see that as we ascend 
the scale in the vertebrate series the oxygen-carrying capacity 
of the blood rises. This increase was a natural preliminary 
condition for the progress of evolution. In order that a more 
active animal might be developed the main essential was that 
the chemical processes of the cell should be carried out more 
rapidly, . and as these processes are fundamentally oxidative, 



increased activity entails an increased rate of supply of oxygen. 
This latter has been brought about in the animal kingdom in 
two ways, first by an increase in the concentration of the haemo- 
globin of the blood effected by an increase both in the number of 
corpuscles and in the amount of haemoglobin contained in each, 
and secondly by an increase in the rate at which the blood has 
been made to pass through the tissues. In the lower vertebrates 
the blood pressure is low and the haemoglobin content of the 
blood is low, consequently both rate of blood-flow and oxygen- 
content are low. In contrast with this, in higher vertebrates the 
blood pressure is high and the haemoglobin content of the blood 
is high, consequently both rate of blood-flow and oxygen-content 
are high. We must associate with this important step in evolu- 
tion the means employed for the more rapid absorption of 
oxygen and for its increased rate of discharge to the tissues, the 
most important features of which are a diminution in the size of 
the corpuscle and the attainment of its peculiar shape, both 
resulting in the production of a relatively enormous corpuscular 
surface in a unit volume of blood. 

Variations are also found in the white corpuscles as well as in 
the red, but these differences are not so striking and lie chiefly 
in unimportant details of structure of individual cells. Enormous 
variations are to be found in different species of mammals, but 
the cells generally conform to the types of secreting cells or 

The platelets also differ in the different species. In the frog, 
for instance, many are spindle-shaped and contain a nucleus-like 
structure. Birds' blood is stated to contain no platelets. The 
variations in number of these bodies have not. been satisfactorily 
ascertained on account of the difficulties involved in any attempt 
to preserve them and to render them visible under the microscope. 
Differences are also found in the chemical composition of the 
plasma. The chief variation is in the amount of protein present, 
which attains its maximum concentration in birds and mammals, 
while in reptiles, amphibia and fishes it is much less. The 
bloods of the latter two classes are much more watery than that 
of the mammal. Moreover, it has been proved that there are 
specific differences in the chemical nature of the various proteins 
present even between different varieties of mammals. Thus the 
ratio of the globulin fraction to the albumin fraction may vary 
considerably, and again, one or other of the proteins may be 
quite specific for the animal from which it is derived . 

Clotting. — If a sample of blood be withdrawn from an animal, 
within a short time it undergoes a series of changes and becomes 
converted into a stiff jelly. It is said to clot. If the process is 
watched it is seen to start first from the surfaces where it is in 
contact with any foreign body; thence it extends through the 
blood until the whole mass sets solid. A short time elapses 
before this process commences — a time dependent upon two 
chief conditions, viz. the temperature at which the blood is kept 
and the extent of foreign surface with which it is brought into 
contact. Thus in a mammal the blood clots most quickly at a 
temperature a little above body temperature, while if the blood 
be cooled quickly the clotting is considerably delayed and in the 
case of some animals altogether prevented. For example, human 
blood kept at body temperature clots in three minutes, while if 
allowed to cool to room temperature the first sign of clotting may 
not make its appearance until eight minutes after its removal 
from the body. The process of clotting is also considerably 
accelerated by making the blood flow in a thin stream over a 
wide surface. The full completion of the process occupies some 
time if the blood be kept quiet, but ultimately the whole mass 
of the blood becomes converted into a solid. At this stage the 
containing vessel may be inverted without any drop of fluid 
escaping. A short time after this stage has been reached drops 
of a yellow fluid appear upon the surface and, increasing in size 
and number, run together to form a layer of fluid separated from 
the clot. This fluid is termed serum; its appearance is due to the 
contraction of the clot, which thus squeezes out the fluid from 
between its solid constituents. Contraction continues for about 
twenty-four hours, at the end of which time a large quantity 
(one-third or more of the total volume) of serum may have 

been separated. The clot contracts uniformly, thus preserving 
throughout the same general shape as that of the vessel in which 
the blood has been collected. Finally the clot swims freely in 
the serum which it has expressed. 

The cause of the clot formation has been found to be the 
precipitation of a solid from the liquid plasma of the blood. 
This solid is in the form of very minute threads and hence is 
termed fibrin. The threads traverse the mass of blood in every 
possible direction, interlacing and thus confining in their meshes 
all the solid elements of the blood. Soon after their deposition 
they begin to contract, and as the meshwork they form is very 
minute they carry with them all the corpuscles of the blood. 
These with the fibrin form the shrunken clot. 

If the rate at which blood clots be retarded either by cooling 
or by some other process the corpuscles may have time to settle, 
partially or completely, in which case distinct layers may form. 
The lowermost of these contains chiefly the red corpuscles, the 
second layer may be grey owing to the high percentage of leuco- 
cytes present, while a third, marked by opalescence only, may 
be very rich in platelets. Above these a clear layer of fluid 
may be found. This is plasma. The formation of these layers 
depends solely upon the rate of sedimentation of these elements, 
the rate depending partly upon differences in specific gravity, 
and partly upon the tendency the corpuscles have to run into 
clumps. Horse's blood offers one of the best instances of the 
clumping of red corpuscles, and in this animal sedimentation 
of the red corpuscles is most rapid. 

If now such a sedimented blood is allowed to clot the process 
is found to start in the middle two layers, i.e. in those 
containing the white corpuscles and platelets. From these 
layers it spreads through the rest of the liquid, being most 
retarded, however, in the red corpuscle layer, and particularly 
so if the sedimentation has been very complete. Not only does 
the clotting process start from the layers containing the leuco- 
cytes and platelets, but in them it also proceeds more quickly. 
These observations clearly indicate that the clotting process is 
initiated by some change starting from these elements. 

The object of the clotting of the blood is quite clear. It is 
to prevent, as far as possible, any loss of blood when there is 
an injury to an animal's vessels. The shed blood becomes con- 
verted into a solid, and this, extending into the interior of the 
ruptured vessel, forms a plug and thus arrests the bleeding. 
It is found that clotting is especially accelerated whenever 
the blood touches a foreign tissue, for instance, the outer layers 
of a torn blood-vessel wall, muscle tissue, &c, i.e. in exactly 
those conditions in which rapid clotting becomes of the greatest 
importance. Yet another very pregnant fact in connexion 
with clotting is that if an animal be bled rapidly and the blood 
collected in successive samples it is found that those collected 
last clot most quickly. Hence the more excessive the haemor- 
rhage in any case, the greater becomes the onset of the natural 
cure for the bleeding, viz. clotting. 

When we begin to inquire into the nature of clotting we have 
to determine in the first place whence the fibrin is derived. 
It has long been known that two chemical substances at least 
are requisite for its production. Thus certain fluids are known, 
e.g. some samples of hydrocele or pericardial fluid, which will 
not clot spontaneously, but will clot rapidly when a small 
quantity of serum or of an old blood-clot is added to it. The 
constituent substance which is present in the first-named fluids 
is known as fibrinogen, and that present in the serum or the 
clot is known as fibrin-ferment or thrombin. 

Fibrinogen is present in living blood dissolved in the plasma; 
it is also present in such fluids as hydrocele or pericardial effusions, 
which, though capable of clotting, do not clot spontaneously. 
Thrombin, on the other hand, does not exist in living blood, but 
only makes its appearance there after blood is shed. It is not 
yet certain what is the nature of the final reaction between 
fibrinogen and thrombin. The possibilities are, that thrombin 
may act — (i) by acting upon fibrinogen, which it in some way 
converts into fibrin, (2) by uniting with fibrinogen to form fibrin, 
or (3) by yielding part of itself to the fibrinogen which thus 



becomes converted into fibrin. The experimental study of the 
rate of fibrin formation, when different strengths of thrombin 
solutions are allowed to act upon a fibrinogen solution, leads 
us to the probable conclusion that the first of these three possi- 
bilities is the correct one, and that thrombin therefore exerts 
a true ferment action upon fibrinogen. It is known that in the 
reaction, in addition to the formation of fibrin, yet another 
protein makes its appearance. This is known as fibrinoglobulin, 
and apparently it arises from the fibrinogen, so that the change 
would be one of cleavage into fibrin and fibrinoglobulin. It 
is very noteworthy that although the amount of fibrin formed 
during the clotting appears very bulky, yet the actual weight 
is extremely small, not more than 0-4 grms. from 100 cc. of 

Having ascertained that the clotting is due to the action of 
thrombin upon fibrinogen, we now see that the next step to be 
explained is the origin of thrombin. It has been shown that the 
final step in its formation consists in the combination of another 
substance, termed prothrombin, with calcium. Any soluble 
calcium salt is found to be effective in this respect, and con- 
versely the removal of soluble calcium (e.g. by sodium oxalate) 
will prevent the formation of thrombin and therefore of clotting. 

In the next place it can be proved that prothrombin does not 
exist as such in circulating blood, so that the problem becomes 
an inquiry as to the origin of prothrombin. Experiment has 
shown that in its turn prothrombin arises from yet another 
precursor, which is named thrombogen, and that thrombogen 
also is not to be found in circulating blood but only makes its 
appearance after the blood is shed. The conversion of throm- 
bogen into prothrombin has been proved to be due to the action 
of a second ferment which has been named thrombokinase, and 
this latter is again absent from living blood. Hence the question 
arises, whence are derived thrombogen and thrombokinase? 
In the study of this question it has been found that if the blood 
of birds be collected direct from an artery through a perfectly 
clean cannula into a clean and dust-free glass vessel, it does not 
clot spontaneously. The plasma collected from such blood is 
found to contain thrombogen but no thrombokinase. A some- 
what similar plasma may be prepared from a mammal's blood 
by collecting samples of blood from an artery into vessels which 
have been thoroughly coated with paraffin, though in this instance 
thrombogen may be absent as well as thrombokinase. If 
plasma containing thrombogen but no thrombokinase be treated 
with a saline extract of any tissues it will soon clot. The saline 
extract contains thrombokinase. This ferment can therefore 
be derived from most tissues, including also the white blood 
corpuscles and the platelets. Thrombogen is produced from the 
leucocytes, but it is not yet certain whether it is also formed 
from the platelets. The discovery of the origin of the throm- 
bokinase from tissue cells explains a fact that has long been 
known, namely, that if in collecting blood, it is allowed to flow 
over cut tissues, clotting is most markedly accelerated. The 
fact that birds' blood if very carefully collected will not clot 
spontaneously tends to prove that thrombokinase is not derived 
from the leucocytes, and makes probable its origin from the 
platelets, for it is known that birds' blood apparently does not 
contain platelets, at any rate in the form in which they are 
found in mammalian blood. When examining the general 
properties of platelets, attention was drawn to the remarkably 
rapid manner in which they undergo change on coming into 
contact with a foreign surface. It is apparently the actual 
contact which initiates these changes, changes which are funda- 
mentally chemical in character, resulting in the production of 
thrombokinase and possibly also of thrombogen. 

Thus as our knowledge at present stands the following 
statement gives a recapitulated account of the changes which 
constitute the many phases of clotting. When blood escapes 
from a blood-vessel it comes into contact with a foreign surface, 
either a tissue or the damaged walls of the cut vessel. Very 
speedily this contact results in the discharge of thrombogen and 
thrombokinase, the former from the white blood corpuscles and 
also possibly from the platelets, the latter from the platelets 

or from the tissue with which the blood comes in contact. The 
interaction of these two bodies next results in the formation of 
prothrombin, which, combining with the calcium of any soluble 
lime salt present, forms thrombin or fibrin-ferment. The last 
step in the change is the action of thrombin upon fibrinogen 
to form fibrin, and the clot is complete. 

The intrinsic value to the animal of these changes is quite 
plain. The power of clotting and thus stopping haemorrhage 
is of essential importance, and yet this clotting must not occur 
within the living blood-vessels, or it would speedily result in 
death. That the tissues should be able to accelerate the process 
is of very obvious value. That the inner lining of the blood- 
vessels does not act as a foreign tissue is possibly due to the 
extreme smoothness of their surface. 

Further, an animal must always be exposed to a possible 
danger in the absorption of some thrombin from a mass of clotted 
blood still retained within the body, and we know that if a 
quantity of active ferment be injected into the blood-stream 
intravascular clotting does result. Under all usual conditions 
this is obviated, the protective mechanism being of a twofold 
character. First, it is found that thrombin becomes converted 
very quickly into an inactive modification. Serum, for instance, 
very quickly loses its power of inducing clotting in fibrinogen 
solutions. Secondly, the body has been found to possess the 
power of making a substance, antithrombin, which can combine 
with thrombin forming a substance which is quite inactive as 
far as clotting is concerned. Finally, there is evidence that 
normal blood contains a small quantity of this substance, 
antithrombin, and that under certain conditions the amount 
present may be enormously increased. (T. G. Br.) 

Pathology of the Blood. 

The changes in the blood in disease are probably as numerous 
and varied as the diseases which attack the body, for the blood 
is not only the medium of respiration, but also of nutrition, of 
defence against organisms and of many other functions, none 
of which can be affected without corresponding alterations 
occurring in the circulating fluid. The immense majority of 
these changes are, however, so subtle that they escape detection 
by our present methods. But in certain directions, notably 
in regard to the relations with micro-organisms, changes in the 
blood-plasma can be made out, though they are not associated 
in all cases with changes in the formed elements which float in 
it, nor with any obvious microscopical or chemical alterations. 

The phenomena of immunity to the attacks of bacteria or 
their toxins, of agglutinative action, of opsonic action, of the 
precipitin tests, and of haemolysis, are all largely f mmunity 
dependent on the inherent or acquired characters 
of the blood serum. It is a commonplace that different 
people vary in their susceptibility to the attacks of different 
organisms, and different species of animals also vary greatly. 
This " natural immunity " is due partly to the power possessed 
by the leucocytes or white blood corpuscles of taking into their 
bodies and digesting or holding in an inert state organisms which 
reach the blood — phagocytosis, — partly to certain bodies in 
the blood serum which have a bactericidal action, or whose 
presence enables the phagocytes to deal more easily with the 
organisms. This natural immunity can be heightened when 
it exists, or an artificial immunity can be produced in various 
ways. Doses of organisms or their toxins can be injected on 
one or several occasions, and provided that the lethal dose 
be not reached, in most cases an increased power of resistance is 
produced. The organisms may be injected alive in a virulent 
condition, or with their virulence lessened by heat or cold, 
by antiseptics, by cultivation in the presence of oxygen, or by 
passage through other animals, or they may first be killed, or 
their toxins alone injected. The method chosen in each case 
depends on the organism dealt with. The result of this treat- 
ment is that in the animal treated protective substances appear 
in the serum, and these substances can be transferred to the 
serum of another animal or of man; in other words the active 
immunity of the experimental animal can be translated into 



the passive immunity of man. According to the nature of the 
substances injected into the former, its serum may be antitoxic, 
if it has been immunized against any particular toxin, or anti- 
bacterial, if against an organism. Familiar examples of these 
are, of the former diphtheria antitoxin, of the latter anti-plague 
and anti-typhoid sera. An antitoxin exerts its effects by actual 
combination with the respective toxin, the combination being 
inert. It is probable that the ultimate source of the antitoxin is 
to be found in the living cells of the tissues and that it passes 
from them into the blood. The action of an antibacterial serum 
depends on the presence in it of a substance known as " immune- 
body," which has a special affinity and power of combining 
with the bacterium used. In order that it may exert this power 
it requires the presence of a substance normally present in the 
serum known as " complement." The development of these 
" anti-bodies," though jt has been studied mainly in connexion 
with bacteria and their toxins, is not confined to their action, 
but can be demonstrated in regard to many other substances, 
such as ferments, tissue cells, red corpuscles, &c. In some 
animals, for example, the blood serum has the power of dissolv- 
ing the red corpuscles of an animal of different species; e.g. the 
guinea-pig's serum is " haemolytic " to the red corpuscles of 
the ox. This haemolytic power (haemolysis) can be increased 
by repeated injections of red corpuscles from the other animal, 
in this case also, as in the bacterial case, by the production and 
action of immune-body and complement. The antiserum pro- 
duced in the case of the red corpuscles may sometimes, if injected 
into the first animal, whose red corpuscles were used, cause 
extensive destruction of its red corpuscles, with haemo- 
globinuria, and sometimes a fatal result. 

Opsonic action depends on the presence of a substance, the 
" opsonin," in the serum of an immunized animal, which makes 
the organism in question more easily taken up by the phagocytes 
(leucocytes) of the blood. The opsonin becomes fixed to the 
organisms. It is present to a certain extent in normal serum, 
but can be greatly increased by the process of immunization; 
and the " opsonic index," or relation between the number of 
organisms taken up by leucocytes when treated with the serum 
of a healthy person or " control," and with the serum of a 
person affected with any bacterial disease and under treatment 
by immunization, is regarded by some as representing the degree 
of immunity produced. 

Agglutinative action is evidence of the presence in a serum 
of a somewhat similar set of substances, known as " agglutinins." 
When a portion of an antiserum is added to an emulsion of the 
corresponding organism, the organisms, if they are motile, cease 
to move, and in any case become gathered together into clumps. 
In all probability several different bodies are concerned in this 
process. This reaction, in its practical applications at least, 
may be regarded as a reaction of infection rather than of im- 
munization as oidinarily understood, for it is found that the 
blood serum of patients suffering from typhoid, Malta fever, 
cholera, and many other bacterial diseases, agglutinates the 
corresponding organisms. This fact has come to be of great 
importance in diagnosis. 

The precipitin test depends on a somewhat analogous reaction. 
If the serum of an animal be injected repeatedly into another 
animal of different species, a " precipitin " appears in the serum 
of the animal treated, which causes a precipitate when added 
to the serum of the first animal. The special importance of this 
fact is that it can be utilized as a method of distinguishing 
between human blood and that of animals, which is often of 
importance in medical jurisprudence. 

In this summary the facts adduced are practically all biological, 
and are due to the extraordinary activity with which the study 
of bacteriology (<?.».) has been pursued in recent years. The 
chemistry of the blood has not hitherto been found to give 
information of clinical or diagnostic importance, and nothing 
need here be added to what is said above on the physiology of 
the blood. Enough has been said, however, to show the extra- 
ordinary complexity of the apparently simple blood serum. 

The methods at present employed in examining the blood 


clinically are: the enumeration of the red and white corpuscles 
per cubic millimetre; the estimation of the percentage of 
haemoglobin and of the specific gravity of the blood; the micro- 
scopic examination of freshly-drawn blood and of blood films 
made upon cover-glasses, fixed and stained. In special cases the 
alkalinity and the rapidity of coagulation may be ascertained, 
or the blood may be examined bacteriologically. We have no 
universally accepted means of estimating, during life, the total 
amount of blood in the body, though the method of J. S. Haldane 
and J. Lorrain Smith, in which the total oxygen capacity of the 
blood is estimated, and its total volume worked out from that 
datum, has seemed to promise important results {Journ. of 
Physiol, vol. xxv. p. 331, 1900). After death the amount df 
blood sometimes seems to be increased, and sometimes, as in 
" pernicious anaemia," it is certainly diminished. But the high 
counts of red corpuscles which are occasionally reported as 
evidence of plethora or increase of the total blood are really only 
indications of concentration of the fluid except in certain rare 
cases. It is necessary, therefore, in examining blood diseases, 
to confine ourselves to the study of the blood-unit, which is 
always taken as the cubic millimetre, without reference to the 
number of units in the body. • 

Anaemia is often used as a generic term for all blood diseases, 
for in almost all of them the haemoglobin is diminished, either 
as a result of diminution in the number of the red 
corpuscles in which it is contained, or because the 
individual red corpuscles contain a smaller amount of haemo- 
globin than the normal. As haemoglobin is the medium of 
respiratory interchange, its diminution causes obvious symptoms, 
which are much more easily appreciated by the patient than 
those caused by alterations in the plasma or the leucocytes. It 
is customary to divide anaemias into " primary " and " second- 
ary ": the primary are those for which no adequate cause has 
as yet been discovered; the secondary, those whose cause is 
known. Among the former are usually included chlorosis, 
pernicious anaemia, and sometimes the leucocythaemias; 
among the latter, the anaemias due to such agencies as malignant 
disease, malaria, chronic metallic poisoning, chronic haemor- 
rhage, tubercle, Bright's disease, infective processes, intestinal 
parasites, &c. As our knowledge advances, however, this dis- 
tinction will probably be given up, for the causes of several 
of the primary anaemias have been discovered. For example, 
the anaemia due to bothriocephalus, an intestinal parasite, is 
clinically indistinguishable from the other forms of pernicious 
anaemia with which it used to be included, and leucocythaemia 
has been declared by Lowit, though probably erroneously, to 
be due to a blood parasite closely related to that of malaria. 
In all these conditions there is a considerable similarity in the 
symptoms produced and in the pathological anatomy. The 
general symptoms are pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, 
weakness and lassitude, shortness of breath, palpitation, a 
tendency to fainting, and usually also gastro-intestinal disturb- 
ance, headache and neuralgia. The heart is often dilated, and 
on auscultation the systolic murmurs associated with that 
condition are heard. In fatal cases the internal organs are 
found to be pale, and very often their cells contain an excessive 
amount of fat. In many anaemias there is a special tendency 
to haemorrhage. Most of the above symptoms and organic 
changes are directly due to diminished respiratory interchange 
from the loss of haemoglobin, and to its effect on the various 
organs involved. The diagnosis depends ultimately in all cases 
upon the examination of the blood. 

Though the relative proportions of the leucocytes are probably 
continually undergoing change even in health, especially as the 
result of taking food, the number of red corpuscles remains much 
more constant. Through the agency of some unknown mechan- 
ism, the supply of fresh red corpuscles from the bone-marrow 
keeps pace with the destruction of effete corpuscles, and in 
health each corpuscle contains a definite and constant amount 
of haemoglobin. The disturbance of this arrangement in 
anaemia may be due to loss or to increased destruction of cor- 
puscles, to the supply of a smaller number of new ones, to a 

8 4 


diminution of the amount of haemoglobin in the individual 
new corpuscles, or to a combination of these causes. It is most 
easy to illustrate this by describing what happens after a haemor- 
rhage. If this is small, the loss is replaced by the fully-formed 
corpuscles held in reserve in the marrow, and there is no dis- 
turbance. If it is larger, the amount of fluid lost is first made up 
by fluid drawn from the tissues, so that the number of corpuscles 
is apparently diminished by dilution of the blood; the erythro- 
blasts, or formative red corpuscles, of the bone-marrow are 
stimulated to proliferation, and new corpuscles are quickly 
thrown into the circulation. These are apt, however, to be small 
and to contain a subnormal amount of haemoglobin, and it is 
only after some time that they are destroyed and their place 
taken by normal corpuscles. If the loss has been very great, 
nucleated red corpuscles may even be carried into the blood- 
stream. The blood possesses a great power of recovery, if time 
be given it, because the organ (bone-marrow) which forms so 
many of its elements never, in health, works at high pressure. 
Only a part of the marrow, the so-called red marrow, is normally 
occupied by erythroblastic tissue, the rest of the medullary 
cavity of the bones being taken up by fat. If any long-continued 
demand for red corpuscles is made, the fat is absorbed, and its 
place gradually taken by red marrow. This compensatory change 
is found in all chronic anaemias, no matter what their cause may 
be, except in some rare cases in which the marrow does not react. 

It is often very difficult, especially in " secondary " anaemias, 
to say which of the above processes is mainly at work. In acute 
anaemias, such as those associated with septicaemia, there is no 
doubt that blood destruction plays the principal part. But if 
the cause of anaemia is a chronic one, a gastric cancer, for 
instance, though there may possibly be an increased amount of 
destruction of corpuscles in some cases, and though there is often 
loss by haemorrhage, the cancer interferes with nutrition, the 
blood is impoverished and does not nourish the erythroblasts 
in the marrow sufficiently, and the new corpuscles which are 
turned out are few and poor in haemoglobin. In chronic 
anaemias, regeneration always goes on side by side with destruc- 
tion, and it is important to remember that the state of the blood 
in these conditions gives the measure, not of the amount of 
destruction which is taking place so much as of the amount of 
regeneration of which the organism is capable. The evidence of 
destruction has often to be sought for in other organs, or in 
secretions or excretions. 

Of the so-called primary anaemias the most common is 
chlorosis, an anaemia which occurs only in the female sex, 
between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five as a rule. Its 
symptoms are those caused by a diminution of haemoglobin, 
and though it is never directly fatal, and is extremely amenable 
to treatment with iron preparations, its subjects very frequently 
suffer from relapses at varying intervals after the first attack. 
Its causation is probably complex. Bad hygienic conditions, 
over-fatigue, want of proper food, especially of the iron-contain- 
ing proteids of meat, the strain put upon the blood and blood- 
forming organs by the accession of puberty and the occurrence 
of menstruation, all probably play a part in it. It has also been 
suggested that internal secretions may be concerned in stimulat- 
ing the bone-marrow, and that in the female sex in particular 
the genital organs may act in this way. Imperfect assumption 
of function by these organs at puberty, caused perhaps by some 
of the above-mentioned conditions, might lead to sluggishness 
in the bone-marrow, and to the supply to the blood of the 
poorly-formed corpuscles deficient in haemoglobin which are 
characteristic of the disease. Chlorosis is the type of anaemias 
from imperfect blood-formation. Lorrain Smith has produced 
evidence to show that the total amount of haemoglobin in the 
body is not diminished in this disease, but that the blood-plasma 
is greatly increased in amount, so that the haemoglobin is diluted 
and the amount in each blood-unit greatly lessened. 

Pernicious anaemia is a rarer disease than chlorosis, occurs 
usually later in life, and is distributed nearly equally between 
the two sexes. But it is of great importance because of its 
almost uniformly fatal termination, though its downward course 

is generally broken by temporary improvement on one or more 
occasions. The symptoms are those of a progressive anaemia, 
in which gastro-intestinal disturbance usually plays a large part, 
and nervous symptoms are common, and they become at last 
much more severe than those of any secondary anaemia. The 
patient may die in the first attack, but more usually, when things 
seem to be at their worst, improvement sets in, either spon- 
taneously or as the result of treatment, and the patient slowly 
regains apparent health. This remission may be followed by a 
relapse, that again by a remission, and so on, but as a rule the 
disease is fatal within, at the outside, two or three years. 

The prime cause of the disease is not known. It seems probable 
indeed that the causal factors are numerous. Severe malarial 
infection, syphilis, pregnancy, chronic gastro-intestinal disease, 
chronic gas-poisoning, are all, in different cases, known to have 
been causally associated with it, and it is probable that a con- 
genital weakness of the bone-marrow has often to do with its 
production, as in many cases a family or hereditary history of 
the disease can be obtained. The condition is now regarded as 
a chronic toxaemia, partly because of the clinical symptoms 
and pathological appearances, partly because analogous con- 
ditions can be produced experimentally by such poisons as 
saponin and toluylendiamin, and partly because of the facts of 
bothriocephalus anaemia. The site of production of the toxin, 
or toxins, for it is possible that several may have the same effect 
on the blood, is possibly not always the same, but must often 
be the alimentary canal, as bothriocephalus anaemia proves. 
Not all persons affected with this intestinal tapeworm contract 
the disease, but only those in whose intestines the worm is dead 
and decomposing or sometimes only " sick." The expulsion 
of the worm puts an end to the absorption of the toxin and the 
patients recover. No adequate explanation of the formation 
of the toxin in the immense majority of the cases, in which there 
is no tapeworm, has yet been given. It is certain that no 
organism as yet known is concerned. 

This toxaemia affects the marrow and through it the blood, 
the gastro-intestinal apparatus and the nervous system, especi- 
ally the spinal cord, in different proportions in different cases. 
The effect upon the marrow is to alter the type of red corpuscle 
formation, causing a reversion to the embryonic condition, in 
which the nucleated red corpuscles are large (megaloblasts), and 
the corpuscles in the blood formed from them are also large, are 
apparently ill suited to the needs of the adult, and easily break 
down, as the deposits of iron in the liver, spleen, kidneys and 
marrow prove. Whether this reversion is due to an exhaustion 
of the normal process or to an inhibition of it is not definitely 
known. The result is that the circulating red corpuscles are 
enormously diminished; it is usual to find 1,000,000 or less in 
the cubic millimetre instead of the normal 5,000,000. Though 
the haemoglobin is of course absolutely diminished, it is always, 
in severe cases, present in relatively higher percentage than the 
red corpuscles, because the average red corpuscle is larger and 
contains more haemoglobin than the normal. The large 
nucleated red corpuscles (megaloblasts) with which the marrow 
is crowded, often appear in the blood. 

Other anaemias, such 'as those known as lymphadenoma, or 
Hodgkin's disease, splenic anaemia, chloroma, leucanaemia and 
the anaemia pseudo-leucaemica of children, need not be described 
here, as they are either rare or their occurrence or nature is still 
too much under discussion. 

The number and nature of the leucocytes in the blood bears 
no constant or necessary relation to the number or condition 
of the red corpuscles, and their variations depend 
on entirely different conditions. The number in the cytosl's. 
cubic millimetre is usually about 7000, but may vary 
in health from 5000 to 10,000. A diminution in their number 
is known as leucopenia, and is found in starvation, in some 
infective diseases, as for example in typhoid fever, in malaria 
and Malta fever, and in pernicious anaemia. An increase is 
very much more frequent, and is known as leucocytosis, though 
in this term is usually connoted a relative increase in the 
proportion of the polymorphonuclear neutrophile leucocytes. 



Leucocytosis occurs under a great variety of conditions, normally 
to a slight extent during digestion, during pregnancy, and after 
violent exercise, and abnormally after haemorrhage, in the course 
of inflammations and many infective diseases, in malignant 
disease, in such toxic states as uraemia, and after the ingestion 
of nuclein and other substances. It does not occur in some 
infective diseases, the most important of which are typhoid fever, 
malaria, influenza, measles and uncomplicated tuberculosis. 
In all cases where it is sufficiently severe and long continued, 
the reserve space in the bone-marrow is filled up by the active 
proliferation of the leucocytes normally found there, and is used 
as a nursery for the leucocytes required in the blood. In many 
cases leucocytosis is known to be associated with the defence of 
the organism from injurious influences, and its amount depends 
on the relation between the severity of the attack and the power 
of resistance. There may be an increase in the proportions 
present in the blood of lymphocytes (lymphocytosis), and of 
eosinophile cells (eosinophilic,). This latter change is associated 
specially with some forms of asthma, with certain skin diseases, 
and with the presence of animal parasites in the body, such as 
ankylostoma and filaria. 

The disease in which the number of leucocytes in the blood 
is greatest is leucocythaemia or leucaemia. There are two main 
Leucaemia. f° rms °f tms disease, in both of which there are 
anaemia, enlargement of the spleen and lymphatic 
glands, or of either of them, leucocytic hypertrophy of the 
bone-marrow, and deposits of leucocytes in the liver, kidney 
and other organs. The difference lies in the kind of leucocytes 
present in excess in the blood, blood-forming organs and 
deposits in, v the tissues. In the one form these are lymphocytes, 
which areAmnd in health mainly in the marrow, the blood itself, 
the lymph glands and in the lymphatic tissue round the ali- 
mentary canal; in the other they are the kinds of leucocytes 
normally found in the bone-marrow — myelocytes, neutrophile, 
basophile and eosinophile, and polymorphonuclear cells, also 
neutrophile, basophile and eosinophile. The clinical course of 
the two forms may differ. The first, known as lymphatic 
leucaemia or lymphaemia, may be acute, and prove fatal in a 
few weeks or even days with rapidly advancing anaemia, or 
may be chronic and last for one or two years or longer. The 
second, known as spleno-myelogenous leucaemia or myelaemia, 
is almost always chronic, and may last for several years. Re- 
covery does not take place, though remissions may occur. The 
use of the X-rays has been found to influence the course of this 
disease very favourably. The most recent view of the pathology 
of the disease is that it is due to an overgrowth of the bone- 
marrow leucocytes, analogous in some respects to tumour 
growth and caused by the removal of some controlling mechanism 
rather than by stimulation. The anaemia accompanying the 
disease is due partly to the leucocyte overgrowth, which takes 
up the space in the marrow belonging of right to red corpuscle 
formation and interferes with it. (G.L.G.) 

BLOOD-LETTING. There are certain morbid conditions when 
a patient may obtain marked relief from the abstraction of a 
certain amount of blood, from three or four ounces up to twenty 
or even thirty in extreme cases. This may be effected by vene- 
section, or the application of leeches, or more rarely by cupping 
(q.v.). Unfortunately, in years gone by, blood-letting was used to 
such excess, as a cure for almost every known disease, that public 
opinion is now extremely opposed to it. In certain pathological 
conditions, however, it brings relief and saves life when no other 
means would act with sufficient promptness to take its place. 

Venesection, in which the blood is usually withdrawn from 
the median-basilic vein of the arm, has the disadvantage that it 
can only be performed by the medical man, and that the patient's 
friends are generally very much opposed to the idea. But the 
public are not nearly so prejudiced against the use of leeches; 
and as the nurse in charge can be instructed to use these if 
occasion arises, this is the form of blood-letting usually practised 
to-day. From one to twelve leeches are applied at the time, 
the average leech withdrawing some two drachms of blood. 
Should this prove insufficient, as much again can be abstracted 

by the immediate application of hot fomentations to the wounds. 
They should always be applied over some bony prominence, 
that pressure may be effectively used to stop the haemorrhage 
afterwards. They should never be placed over superficial veins, 
or where there is much loose subcutaneous tissue. If, as is often 
the case, there is any difficulty in making them bite, the skin 
should be pricked at the desired spot with the point of a sterilized 
needle, and the leech will then attach itself without further 
trouble. Also they must be left to fall off of their own accord, 
the nurse never dragging them forcibly off. If cold and pressure 
fail to stop the subsequent haemorrhage, a little powdered alum 
or other styptic may be inserted in the wound. The following are 
the main indications for their use, though in some cases they are 
better replaced by venesection. (1) For stagnation of blood on 
the right side of the heart with constant dyspnoea, cyanosis, &c. 
In acute lung disease, the sudden obstruction to the passage of 
blood through the lungs throws such an increased strain on the 
right ventricle that it may dilate to the verge of paralysis; but 
by lessening the total volume of blood, the heart's work is 
lightened for a time, and the danger at the moment tided over. 
This is a condition frequently met with in the early stages of 
acute pneumonia, pleurisy and bronchitis, when the obstruction 
is in the lungs, the heart being normal. But the same result is 
also met with as a result of failure of compensation with back 
pressure in certain forms of heart disease (q.v.). (2) To lower 
arterial tension. In the early stages of cerebral haemorrhage 
(before coma has supervened), when the heart is working 
vigorously and the tension of the pulse is high, a timely vene- 
section may lead to arrest of the haemorrhage by lowering the 
blood pressure and so giving the blood in the ruptured vessel 
an opportunity to coagulate. (3) In various convulsive attacks, 
as in acute uraemia. 

BLOOD-MONEY, colloquially, the reward for betraying a 
criminal to justice. * More strictly it is used of the money-penalty 
paid in old days by a murderer to the kinsfolk of his victim. 
These fines completely protected the offender from the vengeance 
of the injured family. The system was common among the 
Scandinavian and Teutonic races previous to the introduction of 
Christianity, and a scale of payments, graduated according to 
the heinousness of the crime, was fixed by laws, which further 
settled who could exact the blood-mone}', and who were entitled 
to share it. Homicide was not the only crime thus expiable: 
blood-money could be exacted for all crimes of violence. Some 
acts, such as killing any one in a church or while asleep, or within 
the precincts of the royal palace, were " bot-less "; and the 
death penalty was inflicted. Such a criminal was outlawed, and 
his enemies could kill him wherever they found him. 

BLOODSTONE, the popular name of the mineral heliotrope, 
which is a variety of dark green chalcedony or plasma, with 
bright red spots, splashes and streaks. The green colour is due 
to a chloritic mineral; the red to haematite. Some coarse kinds 
are opaque, resembling in this respect jasper, and some writers 
have sought to restrict the name "bloodstone" to green jasper, 
with red markings, thus making heliotrope a translucent and 
bloodstone an opaque stone, but, though convenient, such a 
distinction is not generally recognized. A good deal of bloodstone 
comes from India, where it occurs in the Deccan traps, and is cut 
and polished at Cambay. The stone is used for seals, knife- 
handles and various trivial ornaments. Bloodstone is not very 
widely distributed, but is found in the basaltic rocks of the Isle 
of Rum in the west of Scotland, and in a few other localities. 
Haematite (Gr. al/xa, blood), or native peroxide of iron, is also 
sometimes called " bloodstone." 

BLOOM (from A.S. bloma, a flower), the blossom of flowering 
plants, or the powdery film on the skin of fresh-picked fruit; 
hence applied to the surface of newly-minted coins or to a cloudy 
appearance on the varnish of painting due to moisture; also, 
in metallurgy, a term used of the rough billets of iron and steel, 
which have undergone a preliminary hammering or rolling, and 
are ready for further working. 

BLOOMER, AMELIA JENKS (1818-1894), American dress- 
reformer and women's rights advocate, was born at Homer, New 



York, on the 27th of May 1818. After her marriage in 1840 she 
established a periodical called The Lily, which had some success. 
In 1849 sne t0 °k up the idea — previously originated by Mrs 
Elizabeth Smith Miller — of a reform in woman's dress, and the 
wearing of a short skirt, with loose trousers, gathered round the 
ankles. The name of " bloomers " gradually became popularly 
attached to any divided-skirt or knickerbocker dress for women. 
Until her death on the 30th of December 1894 Mrs Bloomer took 
a prominent part in the temperance campaign and in that for 
woman's suffrage. 

BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE (1855- ), American Sanskrit 
scholar, was born on the 23rd of February 1855, in Bielitz, 
Austrian Silesia. He went to the United States in 1867, and ten 
years later graduated from Furman University, Greenville, South 
Carolina. He then studied Sanskrit at Yale, under W. D. 
Whitney, and at Johns Hopkins, to which university he returned 
as associate professor in 1881 after a stay of two years in Berlin 
and Leipzig, and soon afterwards was promoted professor of 
Sanskrit and comparative philology. His papers in the American 
Journal of Philology number a few in comparative linguistics, 
such as those on assimilation and adaptation in congeneric 
classes of words, and many valuable " Contributions to the 
Interpretation of the Vedas," and he is best known as a student 
of the Vedas. He translated, for Max-Miiller's Sacred Books of 
the East,the Hymns of the Atharva-Veda (1897) ; contributed to 
the Buhler-Kielhorn Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie und 
Altertumskunde the section " The Atharva-Veda and the Gopatha 
Brahmana " (1899); was first to edit the Kaucika-Sutra (1890), 
and in 1907 published, in the Harvard Oriental series, A Vedic 
Concordance. In 1905 he published Cerberus, the Dog of Hades, a 
study in comparative mythology. 

BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT (1766-1823), English poet, was born 
of humble parents at the village of Honington, Suffolk, on the 3rd 
of December 1766. He was apprenticed at the age of eleven to a 
farmer, but he was too small and frail for field labour, and four 
years later he came to London to work for a shoemaker. The 
poem that made his reputation, The Farmer's Boy, was written 
in a garret in Bell Alley. The manuscript, declined by several 
publishers, fell into the hands of Capell Lofft, who arranged for 
its publication with woodcuts by Bewick in 1800. The success of 
the poem was remarkable, over 25,000 copies being sold in the 
next two years. His reputation was increased by the appearance 
of his Rural Tales (1802), News from the Farm (1804), Wild 
Flowers (1806) and The Banks of the Wye (1811). Influential 
friends attempted to provide for Bloomfield, but ill-health and 
possibly faults of temperament prevented the success of these 
efforts, and the poet died in poverty at Shefford, Bedfordshire, 
on the 19th of August 1823. His Remains in Poetry and Verse 
appeared in 1824. 

BLOOMFIELD, a town of Essex county, New Jersey, U.S.A., 
about 12 m. W. of New York, and directly adjoining the city of 
Newark on the N. Pop. (1900) 9668, of whom 2267 were foreign- 
born; (1905, statecensus) 11,668; (1910), 15,070. Area, 5 -42 sq.m. 
Bloomfield is served by the Erie, and the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western railways, and by several electric lines connect- 
ing with Newark, Montclair, Orange, East Orange and other 
neighbouring places. It is a residential suburb of Newark and 
New York, is the seat of a German theological school (Presby- 
terian, 1869) and has the Jarvie Memorial library (1902). There 
is a Central Green, and in 1908 land was acquired for another 
park. Among the town's manufactures are silk and woollen 
goods, paper, electric elevators, electric lamps, rubber goods, 
safety pins, hats, cream separators, brushes and novelties. The 
value of the town's factory products increased from $3,370,924 
in 1900 to $4,645,483 in 1905, or 37-8%. First settled about 
1670-1675 by the Dutch and by New Englanders from the 
Newark colony, Bloomfield was long a part of Newark, the 
principal settlement at first being known as Wardsesson. In 
1796 it was named Bloomfield in honour of General Joseph 
Bloomfield (1753-1823), who served (1775-1778) in the War of 
American Independence, reaching the rank of major, was 
governor of New Jersey in 1801-1802 and 1803-1812, brigadier- 

general in the United States army during the War of 181 2, and 
a Democratic representative in Congress from 181 7 to 1821. 
The township of Bloomfield was incorporated in 181 2. From it 
were subsequently set off Belleville (1839), Montclair (1868) and 
Glen Ridge (1895). 

BLOOMINGTON, a city and the county-seat of McLean 
county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the central part of the state, about 
125 m. S.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1890) 20,484; (1900) 23,286, 
of whom 361 1 were foreign-born, there being a large German 
element; (1910 census) 25,768. The city is served by the 
Chicago & Alton, the Illinois Central, the Cleveland, Chicago, 
Cincinnati & St Louis, and the Lake Erie & Western railways, 
and by electric inter-urban lines. Bloomington is the seat of 
the Illinois Wesleyan University (Methodist Episcopal, co- 
educational, founded in 1850), which comprises a college of 
liberal arts, an academy, a college of law, a college of music and 
a school of oratory, and in 1907 had 1350 students. In the town 
of Normal (pop. in 1900, 3795), 2 m. north of Bloomington, are 
the Illinois State Normal University (opened at Bloomington 
in 1857 and removed to its present site in i860), one of the first 
normal schools in the Middle West, and the state soldiers' 
orphans' home (1869). Bloomington has a public library, and 
Franklin and Miller parks; among its principal buildings are 
the court house, built of marble, and the Y.M.C.A. building. 
Among the manufacturing establishments are foundries arid 
machine shops, including the large shops of the Chicago & Alton 
railway, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, flour 
and grist mills, printing and publishing establishments, a caramel 
factory and lumber factories. The value of the city's factory 
products increased from $3,011,899 in 1900 to $5,777,000 in 
1905, or 91-8%. There are valuable coal mines Jfc and near 
the city, and the city is situated in a fine farming region. 
Bloomington derives its name from Blooming Grove, a small 
forest which was crossed by the trails leading from the Galena 
lead mines to Southern Illinois, from Lake Michigan to St Louis, 
and from the Eastern to the far Western states. The first settle- 
ment was made in 1822, but the town was not formally founded 
until 1 83 1, when it became the county-seat of McLean county. 
The first city charter was obtained in 1850, and in 1857 the 
public school system was established. In 1856 Bloomington 
was the meeting place of a state convention called by the Illinois 
editors who were opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Bill (see 
Decatur). This was the first convention of the Republican 
party in Illinois; among the delegates were Abraham Lincoln, 
Richard Yates, John M. Palmer and Owen Lovejoy. The city 
has been the residence of a number of prominent men, including 
David Davis (1815-1886), an associate justice of the United 
States Supreme Court in 1862-1877, a member of the United 
States Senate in 1877-1883, and president pro tempore of the 
Senate in 1881-1883; Governor John M. Hamilton (184 7-1905), 
Governor Joseph W. Fifer (b. 1840); and Adlai Ewing 
Stevenson (b. 1835), a Democratic representative in Congress in 
1875-1877 and 1879-1881, and vice-president of the United 
States in 1893-1897. Bloomington's prosperity increased after 
1867, when coal was first successfully mined in the vicinity. 

In the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 
1905 may be found a paper, " The Bloomington Convention of 1856 
and Those Who Participated in it." 

BLOOMINGTON, a city and the county-seat of Monroe county, 
Indiana, U.S.A., about 45 m. S. by W. of Indianapolis. Pop. 
(1890) 4018; (1900) 6460, including 396 negroes; (1910) 8838. 
It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville and the 
Indianapolis Southern (Illinois Central) railways. Bloomington 
is the seat of the Indiana University (co-educational since 1868), 
established as a state seminary in 1820, and as Indiana College 
in 1828, and chartered as the State university in 1838; in 1907- 
1908 it had 80 instructors, 2051 students, and a library of 65,000 
volumes; its school of law was established in 1842, suspended 
in 1877 and re-established in 1889; its school of medicine was 
established in 1903; but most of the medical course is given 
in Indianapolis; a graduate school was organized in 1904; and 
a summer school (or summer term of eleven weeks) was first 



held in 1905. Dr David Starr Jordan was the first president of 
the university in 1885-1891, when it was thoroughly reorganized 
and its curriculum put on the basis of major subjects and depart- 
ments. The university's biological station is on Winona Lake, 
Kosciusko county. Among the manufactures of Bloomington 
are furniture and wooden ware. There are valuable limestone 
quarries in the vicinity. The city was first settled about 1818. 

BLOOMSBURG, a town and the county-seat of Columbia 
county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on Fishing Creek, 2 m. from its 
confluence with the Susquehanna, and about 40 m. S.W. of 
Wilkes-Barre. Pop. (1890) 4635; (1900) 6170 (213 foreign- 
born); (1910) 7413. It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna 
& Western, the Philadelphia & Reading, and the Bloomsburg 
& Sullivan and the Susquehanna, Bloomsburg & Berwick 
railways (the last two only 30 m. and 39 m. long respectively); 
and is connected with Berwick, Catawissa and Danville by 
electric lines. The town is built on a bluff commanding ex- 
tensive views. Among the manufactures of Bloomsburg are 
railway cars, carriages, silk and woollen goods, furniture, carpets, 
wire-drawing machines and gun carriages. Iron ore was for- 
merly obtained from the neighbouring hills. The town is the 
seat of a state normal school, established as such in 1869. 
Bloomsburg was laid out as a town in 1802, became the county- 
seat in 1846, and was incorporated in 1870. 

BLOUNT, CHARLES (1654-1693), English author, was born 
at Upper Holloway on the 27th of April 1654. His father, 
Sir Henry Blount (1602-1682), was the author of a Voyage to 
the Levant, describing his own travels. He gave his son a careful 
education, and is said to have helped him in his Anima Mundi; 
or An Historical Narration of the Opinions of the Antients concern- 
ing Man's Soul after his Life, according to unenlightened Nature 
(1679), which gave great offence by the sceptical views expressed 
in it. It was suppressed by order of the bishop of London, and 
even burnt by some over-zealous official, but a re-issue was 
permitted. Blount was an admirer of Hobbes, and published 
his "Last Sayings" (1679), a pamphlet consisting of extracts 
from The Leviathan. Great is Diana of the Ephesians, or the 
Original of Idolatry, together with the Political Institution of the 
Gentiles' Sacrifices (1680) attracted severe criticism on the ground 
that in deprecating the evils of priestcraft Blount was attacking 
Christianity itself. His best-known book, The Two First Books 
of Philostratus concerning the Life of Apollonius Tyaneus , , . 
(1680), is said to have been prohibited in 1693, chiefly on account 
of the notes, which are stated by Bayle (note, s.v. Apollonius) to 
have been taken mainly from a MS. of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. 
Blount contributed materially to the removal of the restrictions 
on the freedom of the press, with two pamphlets (1693) by 
" Philopatris," mainly derived from Milton's Areopagitica. 
He also laid a successful trap for the censor, Edmund Bohun. 
Under the name of " Junius Brutus " he wrote a pamphlet 
entitled " King William and Queen Mary Conquerors." The 
title-page set forth the theory of the justice of title by conquest, 
which Blount knew to be agreeable to Bohun. It was duly 
licensed, but was ordered by the House of Commons to be 
burnt by the common hangman, as being diametrically opposed 
to the attitude of William's government on the subject. These 
proceedings showed the futility of the censorship, and hastened 
its overthrow. 

Blount had fallen in love with his deceased wife's sister, and, 
in despair of overcoming her scruples as to the legality of such 
a marriage, shot himself in the head. He survived for some 
time, refusing help except from his sister-in-law. Alexander 
Pope asserted (Epilogue to the Satires, Note, i. 124) that he 
wounded himself in the arm, pretending to kill himself, and that 
the result was fatal contrary to his expectations. He died in 
August 1693. 

Shortly before his death a collection of his pamphlets and private 
papers was printed with a preface by Charles Gildon, under the title 
of the Oracles of Reason. His Miscellaneous Works (1695) is a fuller 
edition by the same editor. 

BLOUNT (or Blunt), EDWARD (b. 1565?), the printer, in 
conjunction with Isaac Jaggard, of Mr William Shakespeares 

Comedies, Histories and Tragedies. Published according to the 
true Originall Copies (1623), usually known as the first folio of 
Shakespeare. It was produced under the direction of John 
Heming (d. 1630) and Henry Condell (d. 1627), both of whom 
had been Shakespeare's colleagues at the Globe theatre, but as 
Blount combined the functions of printer and editor on other 
occasions, it is fair to conjecture that he to some extent edited 
the first folio. The Stationers' Register states that he was the 
son of Ralph Blount or Blunt, merchant tailor of London, and 
apprenticed himself in 1578 for ten years to William Ponsonby, a 
stationer. He became a freeman of the Stationers' Company in 
1588. Among the most important of his publications are 
Giovanni Florio's Italian-English dictionary and his translation 
of Montaigne, Marlowe's Hero and Leander, and the Sixe Court 
Comedies of John Lyly. He himself translated Ars Aulica, or the 
Courtier's Arte (1607) from the Italian of Lorenzo Ducci, and 
Christian Policie (1632) from the Spanish of Juan de Santa 

BLOUNT, THOMAS (1618-1679), English antiquarian, was the 
son of one Myles Blount, of Orleton in Herefordshire. He was 
born at Bordesley, Worcestershire. Few details of his life are 
known. It appears that he was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple, but, beingazealous Roman Catholic, his religioninterfered 
considerably with the practice of his profession. Retiring to his 
estate at Orleton, he devoted himself to the study of the law as 
an amateur, and also read widely in other branches of knowledge. 
He died at Orleton on the 26th of December 1679. His principal 
works are Glossographia; or, a dictionary interpreting the hard 
•words of whatsoever language, now used in our refined English 
tongue (1656, reprinted in 1707), which went through several 
editions and remains most amusing and instructive reading; 
Nomolexicon: a law dictionary interpreting such difficult and 
obscure words and terms as are found either in our common or 
statute, ancient or modern lawes (1670; third edition, with 
additions by W. Nelson, 1717); and Fragmenta Antiquitatis: 
Ancient Tenures of land, and jocular customs of some mannors 
(1679; enlarged by J. Beckwith and republished, with additions 
by H. M. Beckwith, in 1815; again revised and enlarged by 
W. C. Hazlitt, 1874). Blount's Boscobel (1651), giving an account 
of Charles II.'s preservation after Worcester, with the addition of 
the king's own account dictated to Pepys, has been edited with 
a bibliography by C. G. Thomas (1894). 

BLOUNT, SIR THOMAS POPE (1649-1697), English author, 
eldest son of Sir Henry Blount and brother of Charles Blount 
iff. v.), was born at Upper Holloway on the 12th of September 
1649. He succeeded to the estate of Tittenhanger on his mother's 
death in 1678, and in the following year was created a baronet. 
He represented the borough of St Albans in the two last parlia- 
ments of Charles II. and was knight of the shire from the revolu- 
tion till his death. He married Jane, daughter of Sir Henry 
Caesar, by whom he had five sons and nine daughters. He died 
at Tittenhanger on the 30th of June 1697. His Censura cele- 
brorum authorum sive iractalus in quo varia virorum doctorum de 
clarissimis cujusque seculi scriptoribus judicia traduntur (1690) 
was originally compiled for Blount's own use, and is a dictionary 
in chronological order of what various eminent writers have said 
about one another. This necessarily involved enormous labour 
in Blount's time. It was published at Geneva in 1694 with all 
the quotations from modern languages translated into Latin, 
and again in 17 10. His other works are A Natural History, 
containing many not common observations extracted out of the best 
modern writers (1693), De re poetica, or remarks upon Poetry, with 
Characters and Censures of the most considerable Poets . . .(1694), 
and Essays on Several Occasions (1692). It is on this last work 
that his claims to be regarded as an original writer rest. The 
essays deal with the perversion of learning, a comparison between 
the ancients and the moderns (to the advantage of the latter), 
the education of children, and kindred topics. In the third 
edition (1697) he added an eighth essay, on religion, in which 
he deprecated the multiplication of ceremonies. He displays 
throughout a hatred of pedantry and convention, which makes 
his book still interesting. 



See A. Kippis, Biographia Britannica (1780), vol. ii. For an 
account of Blount's family see Robert Clutterbuck. History and 
Antiquities of the County of Hertford (1815), vol. i. pp. 207-212. 

BLOUNT, WILLIAM (1 749-1800), American politician, was 
born in Bertie county, North Carolina, on the 26th of March 1 749. 
He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1 783-1 784 and 
again in 1786-1787, of the constitutional convention at Phil- 
adelphia in 1787, and of the state convention which ratified the 
Federal constitution for North Carolina in 1789. From 1790 
until 1796 he was, by President Washington's appointment, 
governor of the " Territory South of the Ohio River," created 
out of land ceded to the national government by North Carolina 
in 1789. He was also during this period the superintendent of 
Indian affairs for this part of the country. In 1791 he laid out 
Knoxville (Tennessee) as the seat of government. He presided 
over the constitutional convention of Tennessee in 1796, and, on 
the state being admitted to the Union, became one of its first 
representatives in the United States Senate. In 1797 his 
connexion became known with a scheme, since called " Blount's 
Conspiracy," which provided for the co-operation of the American 
frontiersmen, assisted by Indians, and an English force, in the 
seizure on behalf of Great Britain of the Floridas and Louisiana, 
then owned by Spain, with which power England was then at 
war. As this scheme, if carried out, involved the corrupting of 
two officials of the United States, an Indian agent and an 
interpreter, a breach of the neutrality of the United States, and 
the breach of Article V. of the treaty of San Lorenzo el Real 
(signed on the 27th of October 1795) between the United States 
and Spain, by which each power agreed not to incite the Indians 
to attack the other, Blount was impeached by the House of 
Representatives on the 7th of July 1797, and on the following 
day was formally expelled from the Senate for " having been 
guilty of high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public 
trust and duty as a senator." On the 29th of January 1798 
articles of impeachment were adopted by the House of Repre- 
sentatives. On the 14th of January 1799, however, the Senate, 
sitting as a court of impeachment, decided that it had no jurisdic- 
tion, Blount not then being a member of the Senate, and, in the 
Senate's opinion, not having been, even as a member, a civil 
officer of the United States, within the meaning of the con- 
stitution. The case is significant as being the first case of 
impeachment brought before the United States Senate. " In a 
legal point of view, all that the case decides is that a senator of 
the United States who has been expelled from his seat is not after 
such expulsion subject to impeachment " (Francis Wharton, State 
Trials). In effect, however, it also decided that a member of 
Congress was not in the meaning of the constitution a civil officer 
of the United States and therefore could not be impeached. 
The " conspiracy " was disavowed by the British government, 
which, however, seems to have secretly favoured it. Blount 
was enthusiastically supported by his constituents, and upon his 
return to Tennessee was made a member and the presiding officer 
of the state senate. He died at Knoxville on the 21st of March 

For a defence of Blount, see General Marcus J. Wright's Account 
of the Life and Services of William Blount (Washington, D. C, 1884). 

BLOUSE, a word (taken from the French) used for any loosely 
fitting bodice belted at the waist. In France it meant originally 
the loose upper garment of linen or cotton, generally blue, worn 
by French workmen to preserve their clothing, and, by trans- 
ference, the workman himself. 

BLOW, JOHN (1648-1708), English musical composer, was 
born in 1648, probably at North Collingham in Nottinghamshire. 
He became a chorister of the chapel royal, and distinguished 
himself by his proficiency in music; he composed several 
anthems at an unusually early age, including Lord, Thou hast 
been our refuge; Lord, rebuke me not; and the so-called " club 
anthem," / will always give thanks, the last in collaboration with 
Pelham Humphrey and William Turner, either in honour of a 
victory over the Dutch in 1665, or — more probably — simply to 
commemorate the friendly intercourse of the three choristers. 
To this time also belongs the composition of a two-part setting 

of Herrick's Goe, perjtir'd man, written at the request of Charles 
II. to imitate Carissimi's Bite, cieli. In ^669 Blow became 
organist of Westminster Abbey. In 1673 he was made a gentle- 
man of the chapel royal, and in the September of this year he 
was married to Elizabeth Braddock, who died in childbirth ten 
years later. Blow, who by the year 1678 was a doctor of music, 
was named in 1685 one of the private musicians of James II. 
Between 1680 and 1687 he wrote the only stage composition by 
him of which any record survives, the Masque for the Entertain- 
ment of the King: Venus and Adonis. In this Mary Davies 
played the part of Venus, and her daughter by Charles II., Lady 
Mary Tudor, appeared as Cupid. In 1687 he became master of 
the choir of St Paul's church; in 1695 he was elected organist of 
St Margaret's, Westminster, and is said to have resumed his post 
as organist of Westminster Abbey, from which in 1680 he had 
retired or been dismissed to make way for Purccll. In 1699 he 
was appointed to the newly created post of composer to the 
chapel royal. Fourteen services and more than a hundred 
anthems by Blow are extant. In addition to his purely ecclesi- 
astical music Blow wrote Great sir, the joy of all our hearts, an ode 
for New Year's day 1681-1682; similar compositions for 1683, 
1686, 1687, 1688, 1689, 1693 (?), 1694 and 1700; odes, &c, for 
the celebration of St Cecilia's day for 1684, 1691, 1695 and 1700; 
for the coronation of James II. two anthems, Behold, God, our 
Defender, and God spake sometimes in visions; some harpsichord 
pieces for the second part of Playford's Musick's Handmaid 
(1689); Epicedium for Queen Mary (1695); Ode on the Death of 
Purcell (1696). In 1700 he published his Amphion Anglicus, a 
collection of pieces of music for one, two, three and four voices, 
with a figured-bass accompaniment. A famous page in Burney's 
History of Music is devoted to illustrations of " Dr Blow's 
Crudities," most of which only show the meritorious if immature 
efforts in expression characteristic of English music at the time, 
while some of them (where Burney says " Here we are lost ") 
are really excellent. Blow died on the 1st of October 1708 at his 
house in Broad Sanctuary, and was buried in the north aisle of 
Westminster Abbey. 

BLOW-GUN, a weapon consisting of a long tube, through 
which, by blowing with the mouth, arrows or other missiles can 
be shot accurately to a considerable distance. Blow-guns are 
used both in warefare and the chase by the South American 
Indian tribes inhabiting the region between the Amazon and 
Orinoco rivers, and by the Dyaks of Borneo. In the 18th century 
they were also known to certain North American Indians, 
especially the Choctaws and Cherokees of the lower Mississippi. 
Captain Bossu, in his Travels through Louisiana (1756), says of 
the Choctaws: " They are very expert in shooting with an instru- 
ment made of reeds about 7 ft. long, into which they put a little 
arrow feathered with the wool of the thistle (wild cotton?)." 
The blow-guns of the South American Indians differ in style and 
workmanship. That of the Macusis of Guiana, called pucuna, is 
the most perfect. It is made of two tubes, the inner of which, 
called oorah, is a light reed | in. in diameter which often grows 
to a length of 1 5 ft. without a joint. This is enclosed, for protec- 
tion and solidity, in an outer tube of a variety of palm (Iriartella 
setigera). The mouth-piece is made of a circlet of silk-grass, and 
the farther end is feruled with a kind of nut, forming a sight. A 
rear open sight is formed of two teeth of a small rodent. The 
length of the pucuna is about 11 ft. and its weight i| ft>. The 
arrows, which are from 12 to 18 in. long and very slender, are 
made of ribs of the cocorite palm-leaf. They are usually feathered 
with a tuft of wild cotton, but some have in place of the cotton a 
thin strip of bark curled into a cone, which, when the shooter 
blows into the pucuna, expands and completely fills the tube, 
thus avoiding windage. Another kind of arrow is furnished 
with fibres of bark fixed along the shaft, imparting a rotary 
motion to the missile, a primitive example of the theory of the 
rifle. The arrows used in Peru are only a few inches long and as 
thin as fine knitting-needles. All South American blow-gun 
arrows are steeped in poison. The natives shoot very accurately 
with the pucuna at distances up to 50 or 60 yds. 

The blow-gun of the Borneo Dyaks, called sumpitan, is from 



6 to 7 ft. long and made of ironwood. The bore, of \ in., is made 
with, a long pointed piece of iron. At the muzzle a small iron 
hook is affixed, to serve as a sight, as well as a spear-head like a 
bayonet and for the same purpose. The arrows used with the 
sumpitan are about 10 in. long, pointed with fish-teeth, and 
feathered with pith. They are also envenomed with poison. 

Poisoned arrows are also used by the natives of the Philippine 
island of Mindanao, whose blow-pipes, from 3 to 4 ft. long and 
made of bamboo, are often richly ornamented and even jewelled. 

The principle of the blow-gun is, of course, the same as that 
of the common " pea-shooter." 

See Sport with Rod and Gun in American Woods and Waters, by 
A. M. Mayer, vol. ii. (Edinburgh, 1884) ; Wanderings in South 
America, &c, by Charles Waterton (London, 1828); The Head 
Hunters of Borneo, by Carl Bock (London, 1881). 

(1825-1903), Anglo-French journalist, was born, according to the 
account given in his memoirs, at his father's chateau in Bohemia 
on the 28th of December 1825. At the age of fifteen he left home, 
and travelled over Europe for some years in company with a 
young professor of philology, acquiring a thorough knowledge 
of French, German and Italian and a mixed general education. 
The finances of his family becoming straitened, young Blowitz 
was on the point of starting to seek his fortune in America, when 
he became acquainted in Paris with M. de Falloux, minister of 
public instruction, who appointed him professor of foreign 
languages at the Tours Lycee, whence, after some years, he was 
transferred to the Marseilles Lycee. After marrying in 1859 he 
resigned his professorship, but remained at Marseilles, devoting 
himself to literature and politics. In 1869 information which he 
supplied to a legitimist newspaper at Marseilles with regard to 
the candidature of M. de Lesseps as deputy for that city led to 
a demand for his expulsion from France. He was, however, 
allowed to remain, but had to retire to the country. In 1870 his 
predictions of the approaching fall of the Empire caused the 
demand for his expulsion to be renewed. While his case was 
under discussion the battle of Sedan was fought, and Blowitz 
effectually ingratiated himself with the authorities by applying 
for naturalization as a French subject. Once naturalized, he 
returned to Marseilles, where he was fortunately able to render 
considerable service to Thiers, who subsequently employed him 
in collecting information at Versailles, and when this work was 
finished offered him the French consulship at Riga. Blowitz was 
on the point of accepting this post when Laurence Oliphant, 
then Paris correspondent of The Times, for which Blowitz had 
already done some occasional work, asked him to act as his 
regular assistant for a time, Frederick Hardman, the other Paris 
correspondent of The Times, being absent. Blowitz accepted 
the offer, and when, later on, Oliphant was succeeded by Hardman 
he remained as assistant correspondent. In 1873 Hardman died, 
and Blowitz became chief Paris correspondent to The Times. 
In this capacity he soon became famous in the world of journalism 
and diplomacy. In 1875 the due de Decazes, then French 
foreign minister, showed Blowitz a confidential despatch from 
the French ambassador in Berlin (in which the latter warned his 
government that Germany was contemplating an attack on 
France), and requested the correspondent to expose the German 
designs in The Times. The publication of the facts effectually 
aroused European public opinion, and any such intention was 
immediately thwarted. Blowitz's most sensational journalistic 
feat was achieved in 1878, when his enterprise enabled The 
Times to publish the whole text of the treaty of Berlin at the 
actual moment that the treaty was being signed in Germany. 
In 1877 and again in 1888 Blowitz rendered considerable service 
to the French government by his exposure of internal designs 
upon the Republic. He died on the 18th of January 1903. 
My Memoirs, by H. S. de Blowitz, was published in 1903. 
BLOWPIPE, in the arts and chemistry, a tube for directing 
a jet of air into a fire or into the flame of a lamp or gas jet, for 
the purpose of producing a high temperature by accelerating 
the combustion. The blowpipe has been in common use from 
the earliest times for soldering metals and working glass, but 
its introduction into systematic chemical analysis is to be 

ascribed to A. F. Cronstedt, and not to Anton Swab, as has been 
maintained (see J. Landauer, Ber. 26, p. 898). The first work 
on this application of the blowpipe was by G. v. Engestrom, 
and was published in 1770 as an appendix to a treatise on 
mineralogy. Its application has been variously improved at 
the hands of T. O. Bergman, J. G. Gahn, J. J. Berzelius, 
C. F. Plattner and others, but more especially by the two last- 
named chemists. 

The simplest and oldest form of blowpipe is a conical brass 
tube, about 7 in. in length, curved at the small end into a right 
angle, and terminating in a small round orifice, which is applied 
to the flame, while the larger end is applied to the mouth. 
Where the blast has to be kept up for only a few seconds, this 
instrument is quite serviceable, but in longer chemical operations 
inconvenience arises from the condensation of moisture exhaled 
by the lungs in the tube. Hence most blowpipes are now made 
with a cavity for retaining the moisture. Cronstedt placed a 
bulb in the centre of his blowpipe. Dr Joseph Black's instru- 
ment consists of a conical tube of tin plate, with a small brass 
tube, supporting the nozzle, inserted near the wider end, and 
a mouth-piece at the narrow end. 

The sizes of orifice recommended by Plattner are 0-4 and 
0-5 mm. A trumpet mouth-piece is recommended from the 
support it gives to the cheeks when inflated. The mode of 
blowing is peculiar, and requires some practice; an uninterrupted 
blast is kept up by the muscular action of the cheeks, while the 
ordinary respiration goes on through the nostrils. 

If the flame of a candle or lamp be closely examined, it will 
be seen to consist of four parts — (a) a deep blue ring at the base, 
(b) a dark cone in the centre, (c) a luminous portion round this, 
and (d) an exterior pale blue envelope (see Flame). In blow- 
pipe work only two of these four parts are made use of, viz. 
the pale envelope, for oxidation, and the luminous portion, for 
reduction. To obtain a good oxidizing flame, the blowpipe is held 
with its nozzle inserted in the edge of the flame close over the 
level of the wick, and blown into gently and evenly. A conical 
jet is thus produced, consisting of an inner cone, with an outer 
one commencing near its apex — the former, corresponding to 
(a) in the free flame, blue and well defined; the latter corre- 
sponding to id), pale blue and vague. The heat is greatest just 
beyond the point of the inner cone, combustion being there 
most complete. Oxidation is better effected (if a very high 
temperature be not required) the farther the substance is from 
the apex of the inner cone, for the air has thus freer access. To 
obtain a good reducing flame (in which the combustible matter, 
very hot, but not yet burned, is disposed to take oxygen from 
any compound containing it), the nozzle, with smaller orifice, 
should just touch the flame at a point higher above the wick, 
and a somewhat weaker current of air should be blown. The 
flame then appears as a long, narrow, luminous cone, the end 
being enveloped by a dimly visible portion of flame correspond- 
ing to that which surrounds the free flame, while there is also a 
dark nucleus about the wick. The substance to be reduced is 
brought into the luminous portion, where the reducing power 
is strongest. 

Various materials are used as supports for substances in the 
blowpipe flame; the principal are charcoal, platinum and glass 
or porcelain. Charcoal is valuable for its infusibility and low 
conductivity for heat (allowing substances to be strongly heated 
upon it), and for its powerful reducing properties; so that it is 
chiefly employed in testing the fusibility of minerals and in 
reduction. The best kind of charcoal is that of close-grained 
pine or alder; it is cut in short prisms, having a flat smooth 
surface at right angles to the rings of growth. In this a shallow 
hole is made for receiving the substance to be held in the flame. 
Gas-carbon is sometimes used, since it is more permanent in 
the flame than wood charcoal. Platinum is employed in oxi- 
dizing processes, and in the fusion of substances with fluxes; 
also in observing the colouring effect of substances on the blow- 
pipe flame (which effect is apt to be somewhat masked by char- 
coal). Most commonly it is used in the form of wire, with a 
small bend or loop at the end. 



The mouth blowpipe is unsuitable for the production of a 
large flame, and cannot be used for any lengthy operations; 
hence recourse must be made to types in which the air-blast 
is occasioned by mechanical means. The laboratory form in 
common use consists of a bellows worked by either hand or 
foot, and a special type of gas burner formed of two concentric 
tubes, one conveying the blast, the other the gas; the supply 
of air and gas being regulated by stopcocks. The hot blast blow- 
pipe of T. Fletcher, in which the blast is heated by passing 
through a copper coil heated by a separate burner, is only of 
service when a pointed flame of a fairly high temperature is 
required. Blowpipes in which oxygen is used as the blast 
have been manufactured by Fletcher, Russell & Co., and have 
proved of great service in conducting fusions which require a 
temperature above that yielded by the air-blowpipe. 

For the applications of the blowpipe in chemical analysis see 
Chemistry : Analytical. 

Prussian general field marshal, prince of Wahlstadt in Silesia, 
was born at Rostock on the 16th of December 1742. In his 
fourteenth year he entered the service of Sweden, and in the 
Pomeranian campaign of 1760 he was taken prisoner by the 
Prussians. He was persuaded by his captors to enter the 
Prussian service. He took part in the later battles of the Seven 
Years' War, and as a hussar officer gained much experience of 
light cavalry work. In peace, however, his ardent spirit led him 
into excesses of all kinds, and being passed over for promotion 
he sent in his resignation, to which Frederick replied, " Captain 
Bliicher can take himself to the devil " (1773). He now settled 
down to farming, and in fifteen years he had acquired an honour- 
able independence. But he was unable to return to the army until 
after the death of Frederick the Great. He was then reinstated 
as major in his old regiment, the Red Hussars. He took part 
in the expedition to Holland in 1787, and in the following year 
became lieutenant-colonel. In 1789 he received the order pour 
le merile, and in 1794 he became colonel of the Red Hussars. In 
1793 and 1794 he distinguished himself in cavalry actions against 
the French, and for his success at Kirrweiler he was made a 
major-general. In 1801 he was promoted lieutenant-general. 

He was one of the leaders of the war party in Prussia in 
1805-1806, and served as a cavalry general in the disastrous 
campaign of the latter year. At Auerstadt Bliicher repeatedly 
charged at the head of the Prussian cavalry, but without success. 
In the retreat of the broken armies he commanded the rearguard 
of Prince Hohenlohe's corps, and upon the capitulation of the 
main body of Prenzlau he carried off a remnant of the Prussian 
army to the northward, and in the neighbourhood of Liibeck 
he fought a series of combats, which, however, ended in his 
being forced to surrender at Ratkau (November 7, 1806). His 
adversaries testified in his capitulation that it was caused by 
" want of provisions and ammunition." He was soon exchanged 
for General Victor, and was actively employed in Pomerania, 
at Berlin, and at Konigsberg until the conclusion of the war. 
After the war, Bliicher was looked upon as the natural leader 
of the patriot party, with which he was in close touch during 
the period of Napoleonic domination. His hopes of an alliance 
with Austria in the war of 1809 were disappointed. In this 
year he was made general of cavalry. In 181 2 he expressed 
himself so openly on the alliance of Russia with France that he 
was recalled from his military governorship of Pomerania and 
virtually banished from the court. 

When at last the Napoleonic domination was ended by the 
outbreak of the War of Liberation in 1813, Bliicher of course 
was at once placed in high command, and he was present at 
Liitzen and Bautzen. During the armistice he worked at the 
organization of the Prussian forces, and when the war was 
resumed Bliicher became commander-in-chief of the Army of 
Silesia, with Gneisenau and Muffling as his principal staff officers, 
and 40,000 Prussians and 50,000 Russians under his control. 
The autumn campaign of 1813 will be found described in the 
article Napoleonic Campaigns, and it will here be sufficient 
to say that the most conspicuous military quality displayed by 

Bliicher was his unrelenting energy. The irresolution and 
divergence of interests usual in allied armies found in him a 
restless opponent, and the knowledge that if he could not induce 
others to co-operate he was prepared to attempt the task in hand 
by himself often caused other generals to follow his lead. He 
defeated Marshal Macdonald at the Katzbach, and by his victory 
over Marmont at Mockern led the way to the decisive overthrow 
of Napoleon at Leipzig, which place was stormed by Bliicher's 
own army on the evening of the last day of the battle. On the 
day of Mockern (October 16, 1813) Bliicher was made a general 
field marshal, and after the victory he pursued the routed French 
with his accustomed energy. In the winter of 1813-1814 
Bliicher, with his chief staff officers, was mainly instrumental 
in inducing the allied sovereigns to carry the war into France 
itself. The combat of Brienne and the battle of La Rothiere 
were the chief incidents of the first stage of the celebrated 
campaign of 1814, and they were quickly followed by the victories 
of Napoleon over Bliicher at Champaubert, Vauxchamps and 
Montmirail. But the courage of the Prussian leader was un- 
diminished, and his great victory of Laon (March 9 to 10) 
practically decided the fate of the campaign. After this Bliicher 
infused some of his own energy into the operations of Prince 
Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia, and at last this army and 
the Army of Silesia marched in one body direct upon Paris. 
The victory of Montmartre, the entry of the allies into the French 
capital, and the overthrow of the First Empire were the direct 
consequences. Bliicher was disposed to make a severe retaliation 
upon Paris for the calamities that Prussia had suffered from 
the armies of France had not the allied commanders intervened 
to prevent it. Blowing up the bridge of Jena was said to be one 
of his contemplated acts. On the 3rd of June 1814 he was made 
prince of Wahlstadt (in Silesia on the Katzbach battlefield), 
and soon afterwards he paid a visit to England, being received 
everywhere with the greatest enthusiasm. 

After the peace he retired to Silesia, but the return of Napoleon 
soon called him to further service. He was put in command of 
the Army of the Lower Rhine with General Gneisenau as his 
chief of staff (see Waterloo Campaign). In the campaign of 
181 5 the Prussians sustained a very severe defeat at the outset 
at Ligny (June 16), in the course of which the old field marshal 
was ridden over by cavalry charges, his life being saved only 
by the devotion of his aide-de-camp, Count Nostitz. He was 
unable to resume command for some hours, and Gneisenau drew 
off the defeated army. The relations of the Prussian and the 
English headquarters were at this time very complicated, and it 
is uncertain whether Bliicher himself was responsible for the 
daring resolution to march to Wellington's assistance. This 
was in fact done, and after an incredibly severe march Bliicher's 
army intervened with decisive and crushing effect in the battle 
of Waterloo. The great victory was converted into a success 
absolutely decisive of the war by the relentless pursuit of the 
Prussians, and the allies re-entered Paris on the 7th of July. 
Prince Bliicher remained in the French capital for some months, 
but his age and infirmities compelled him to retire to his Silesian 
residence at Krieblowitz, where he died on the 12th of September 
1819, aged seventy-seven. He retained to the end of his life 
that wildness of character and proneness to excesses which had 
caused his dismissal from the army in his youth, but however 
they may be regarded, these faults sprang always from the ardent 
and vivid temperament which made Bliicher a dashing leader of 
horse. The qualities which made him a great general were his 
patriotism and the hatred of French domination which inspired 
every success of the War of Liberation. He was twice married, 
and had, by his first marriage, two sons and a daughter. Statues 
were erected to his memory at Berlin, Breslau and Rostock. 

Of the various lives of Prince Bliicher, that by Varnhagen von 
Ense (1827) is the most important. His war diaries of 1793-1794, 
together with a memoir (written in 1805) on the subject of a national 
army, were edited by Golz and Ribbentrop (Campagne Journal 
1793-4 von Gl. Lt. v. Bliicher). 

BLUE (common in different forms to most European 
languages), the name of a colour, used in many colloquial 


phrases. From the fact of various parties, political and other, 
having adopted the colour blue as their badge, various classes of 
people have come to be known as " blue " or " blues"; thus 
" true blue " meant originally a staunch Presbyterian, the 
Covenanters having adopted blue as their colour as opposed to 
red, the royal colour; similarly, in the navy, there was in the 
18th century a " Blue Squadron," Nelson being at one time 
" Rear-Admiral of the Blue "; again, in 1690, the Royal Horse 
Guards were called the "Blues" from their blue uniforms, or, 
from their leader, the earl of Oxford, the "Oxford Blues"; 
also, from the blue ribbon worn by the knights of the Garter 
comes the use of the phrase as the highest mark of distinction 
that can be worn, especially applied on the turf to the winning 
of the Derby. The " blue Peter " is a rectangular blue flag, with 
a white square in the centre, hoisted at the top of the foremast 
as a signal that a vessel is about to leave port. At Oxford and 
Cambridge a man who represents his university in certain 
athletic sports is called a " blue " from the " colours " he is 
then entitled to wear, dark blue for Oxford and light blue for 

BLUEBEARD, the monster of Charles Perrault's tale of Barbe 
Bleue, who murdered his wives and hid their bodies in a locked 
room. Perrault's tale was first printed in his Histoires et contes 
du terns passe (1697). The essentials of the story — Bluebeard's 
prohibition to his wife to open a certain door during his absence, 
her disobedience, her discovery of a gruesome secret, and her 
timely rescue from death — are to be found in other folklore 
stories, none of which, however, has attained the fame of 
Bluebeard. A close parallel exists in an Esthonian legend of a 
husband who had already killed eleven wives, and was prevented 
from killing the twelfth, who had opened a secret room, by a 
gooseherd, the friend of her childhood. In " The Feather Bird " 
of Grimm's Hausmarchen, three sisters are the victims, the third 
being rescued by her brothers. Bluebeard, though Perrault 
does not state the number of his crimes, is generally credited 
with the murder of seven wives. His history belongs to the 
common stock of folklore, and has even been ingeniously fitted 
with a mythical interpretation. In France the Bluebeard legend 
has its local habitation in Brittany, but whether the existing 
traditions connecting him with Gilles de Rais (q.v.) or Comorre 
the Cursed, a Breton chief of the 6th century, were anterior 
to Perrault's time, we have no means of determining. The 
identification of Bluebeard with Gilles de Rais, the bite ^exter- 
mination of Michelet's forcible language, persists locally in the 
neighbourhood of the various castles of the baron, especially at 
Machecoul and Tiffauges, the chief scenes of his infamous crimes. 
Gilles de Rais, however, had only one wife, who survived him, 
and his victims were in the majority of cases young boys. The 
traditional connexion may arise simply from the not improbable 
association of two monstrous tales. The less widespread identi- 
fication of Bluebeard with Comorre is supported by a series of 
frescoes dating only a few years later than the publication of 
Perrault's story, in a chapel at St Nicolas de Bieuzy dedicated 
to St Tryphine, in which the tale of Bluebeard is depicted as 
the story of the saint, who in history was the wife of Comorre. 
Comorre or Conomor had his original headquarters at Carhaix, 
in Finistere. He extended his authority by marriage with the 
widow of Iona, chief of Domnonia, and attempted the life of 
his stepson Judwal, who fled to the Frankish court. About 547 
or 548 he obtained in marriage, through the intercession of 
St Gildas, Tryphine, daughter of Weroc, count of Vannes. The 
pair lived in peace at Castel Finans for some time, but Comorre, 
disappointed in his ambitions in the Vannetais, presently 
threatened Tryphine. She took flight, but her husband found 
her hiding in a wood, when he gave her a wound on the skull and 
left her for dead. She was tended and restored to health by 
St Gildas, and after the birth of her son retired to a convent of 
her own foundation. Eventually Comorre was defeated and 
slain by Judwal. In legend St Tryphine was decapitated and 
miraculously restored to life by Gildas. Alain Bouchard (Grandes 
croniques, Nantes, 1531) asserts that Comorre had already put 
several wives to death before he married Tryphine. In the 

Legendes bretonnes of the count d'Amezeuil the church legend 
becomes a charming fairy tale. 

See also E. A. Vizetclly, Bluebeard (1902) ; E. Sidney Hartland, 
"The Forbidden Chamber," in Folklore, vol. iii. (1885); and the 
editions of the Contes of Charles Perrault (q.v.). Cf. A. France, 
Les Sept Femmes de Barbe Bleue (1909). 

BLUE-BOOK, the general name given to the reports and 
other documents printed by order of the parliament of the 
United Kingdom, so called from their being usually covered 
with blue paper, though some are bound in drab and others have 
white covers. The printing of its proceedings was first adopted 
by the House of Commons in 1681, and in 1836 was commenced 
the practice of selling parliamentary papers to the public. All 
notices of questions, resolutions, votes and proceedings in both 
Houses of Parliament are issued each day during the session; 
other publications include the various papers issued by the 
different government departments, the reports of committees 
and commissions of inquiry, public bills, as well as returns, 
correspondence, &c, specially ordered to be printed by either 
house. The papers of each session are so arranged as to admit 
of being bound up in regular order, and are well indexed. The 
terms upon which blue-books, single papers, &c, are issued 
to the general public are one halfpenny per sheet of four pages, 
but for an annual subscription of £20 all the parliamentary 
publications of the year may be obtained ; but subscriptions can 
be arranged so that almost any particular class of publication 
can be obtained — for example, the daily votes and proceedings 
can be obtained for an annual subscription of £3, the House 
of Lords papers for £10, or the House of Commons papers for 
£15. Any publication can also be purchased separately. 

Most foreign countries have a distinctive colour for the binding 
of their official publications. That of the United States varies, 
but foreign diplomatic correspondence is bound in red. The 
United States government publications are not only on sale (as a 
rule) but are widely supplied gratis, with the result that important 
publications soon get out of print, and it is difficult to obtain ac- 
cess to many valuable reports or other information, except at a 
public library. German official publications are bound in white ; 
French, in yellow; Austrian, in red; Portuguese, in white; Italian, 
in green; Spanish, in red; Mexican, in green; Japanese, in grey; 
Chinese, in yellow. 

BLUESTOCKING, a derisive name for a literary woman. 
The term originated in or about 175°, when Mrs Elizabeth 
Montagu (q.v.) made a determined effort to introduce into 
society a healthier and more intellectual tone, by holding 
assemblies at which literary conversation and discussions were 
to take the place of cards and gossip. Most of those attending 
were conspicuous by the plainness of their dress, and a Mr 
Benjamin Stillingfleet specially caused comment by always 
wearing blue or worsted stockings instead of the usual black 
silk. It was in special reference to him that Mrs Montagu's 
friends were called the Bluestocking Society or Club, and the 
women frequenting her house in Hill Street came to be known 
as the " Bluestocking Ladies " or simply " bluestockings." As 
an alternative explanation, the origin of the name is attributed 
to Mrs Montagu's deliberate adoption of blue stockings (in 
which fashion she was followed by all her women friends) as 
the badge of the society she wished to form. She is said to have 
obtained the idea from Paris, where in the 17th century there 
was a revival of a social reunion in 1590 on the lines of that 
formed in 1400 at Venice, the ladies and men of which wore 
blue stockings. The term had been applied in England as early 
as 1653 to the Little Parliament, in allusion to the puritanically 
plain and coarse dress of the members. 

BLUFF (a word of uncertain origin; possibly connected with 
an obsolete Dutch word, blaf, broad), an adjective used of a 
ship, meaning broad and nearly vertical in the bows; similarly, 
of a cliff or shore, presenting a bold and nearly perpendicular 
front; of a person, good-natured and frank, with a rough or 
abrupt manner. Another word "bluff," perhaps connected 
with German verbliifen, to baffle, meant originally a horse's 
blinker, the corresponding verb meaning to blindfold: it survives 

9 2 

as a term in such games as poker, where " to bluff " means 
to bet heavily on a hand so as to make an opponent believe it 
to be stronger than it is; hence such phrases as " the game of 
bluff,"" a policy of bluff." 

BLUM, ROBERT FREDERICK (1857-1903), American artist, 
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 9th of July 1857. He was 
employed for a time in a lithographic shop, and studied at the 
McMicken Art School of Design in Cincinnati, and at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, but he was 
practically self-taught, and early showed great and original 
talent. He settled in New York in 1879, and his first published 
sketches — of Japanese jugglers — appeared in St Nicholas. His 
most important work is a large frieze in the Mendelssohn Music 
Hall, New York, " Music and the Dance " (1895). His pen-and- 
ink work for the Century magazine attracted wide attention, as 
did his illustrations for Sir Edwin Arnold's Japonica. In the 
country and art of Japan he had been interested for many years. 
" A Daughter of Japan," drawn by Blum and W. J. Baer, was 
the cover of Scribner's Magazine for May 1893, and was one of 
the earliest pieces of colour-printing for an American magazine. 
In Scribner's for 1893 appeared also his " Artist's Letters from 
Japan." He was an admirer of Fortuny, whose methods some- 
what influenced his work. Blum's Venetian pictures, such as 
"A Bright Day at Venice" (1882), had lively charm and 
beauty. He died on the 8th of June 1903 in New York City. 
He was a member of the National Academy of Design, being 
elected after his exhibition in 1892 of " The Amcya "; and 
was president of the Painters in Pastel. Although an excellent 
draughtsman and etcher, it was as a colourist that he chiefly 

physiologist and anthropologist, was born at Gotha on the nth 
of May 1752. After studying medicine at Jena, he graduated 
doctor at Gottingen in 1775, and was appointed extraordinary 
professor of medicine in 1776 and ordinary professor in 1778. 
He died at Gottingen on the 22nd of January 1840. He was 
the author of Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and of a Hand- 
buch der vergleichcnden Anatomie (1804), both of which were 
very popular and went through many editions, but he is best 
known for his work in connexion with anthropology, of which 
science he has been justly called the founder. He was the first 
to show the value of comparative anatomy in the study of man's 
history, and his craniometrical researches justified his division 
of the human race into several great varieties or families, of 
which he enumerated five — the Caucasian or white race, the 
Mongolian or yellow, the Malayan or brown race, the Negro or 
black race, and the American or red race. This classification has 
been very generally received, and most later schemes have been 
modifications of it. His most important anthropological work 
was his description of sixty human crania published originally 
in fasciculi under the title Collcclionis suae craniorum diver sarum 
gentium illustratae decades (Gottingen, 1790-1828). 

BLUMENTHAL, LEONHARD, Count von (1810-1900), 
Prussian field marshal, son of Captain Ludwig von Blumenthal 
(killed in 18 13 at the battle of Dennewitz), was born at Schwedt- 
on-Oder on the 30th of July 1810. Educated at the military 
schools of Culm and Berlin, he entered the Guards as 2nd lieu- 
tenant in 1827. After serving in the Rhine provinces, he joined 
the topographical division of the general staff in 1846. As 
lieutenant of the 31st foot he took part in 1848 in the suppression 
of the Berlin riots, and in 1849 was promoted captain on the 
general staff. The same year he served on the staff of General 
von Bonin in the Schleswig-Holstein campaign, and so distin- 
guished himself, particularly at Fredericia, that he was appointed 
chief of the staff of the Schleswig-Holstein army. In 1850 he 
was general staff officer of the mobile division under von Tietzen 
in Hesse-Cassel. He was sent on a mission to England in that 
year (4th class of Red Eagle), and on several subsequent occa- 
sions. Having attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he was 
appointed personal adjutant to Prince Frederick Charles in 1859. 
In i860 he became colonel of the 31st, and later of the 71st, 
regiment. He was chief of the staff of the III. army corps when, 


on the outbreak of the Danish War of 1864, he was nominated 
chief of the general staff of the army against Denmark, and 
displayed so much ability, particularly at Diippel and the 
passage to Alsen island, that he was promoted major-general 
and given the order pour le merite. In the war of 1866 Blumen- 
thal occupied the post of chief of the general staff to the crown 
prince of Prussia, commanding the 2nd army. It was upon 
this army that the brunt of the fighting fell, and at Koniggratz 
it decided the fortunes of the day. Blumcnthal's own part in 
these battles and in the campaign generally was most con- 
spicuous. On the field of Koniggratz the crown prince said to 
his chief of staff, " I know to whom I owe the conduct of my 
army," and Blumenthal soon received promotion to lieutenant- 
general and the oak-leaf of the order pour le merite. He was also 
made a knight of the Hohenzollern Order. From 1866 to 1870 
he commanded the 14th division at Diisseldorf. In the Franco- 
German War of 1870-71 he was chief of staff of the 3rd army 
under the crown prince. Blumenthal's soldierly qualities and 
talent were never more conspicuous than in the critical days 
preceding the battle of Sedan, and his services in the war have 
been considered as scarcely less valuable and important than 
those of Moltke himself. In 187 1 Blumenthal represented 
Germany at the British manoeuvres at Chobham, and was given 
the command of the IV. army corps at Magdeburg. In 1873 he 
became a general of infantry, and ten years later he was made a 
count. In 1888 he was made a general field marshal, after which 
he was in command of the 4th and 3rd army inspections. He 
retired in 1896, and died at Quellendorf near Kothen on the 21st 
of December 1900. 

Blumenthal's diary of 1866 and 1870-1871 has been edited by 
his son, Count Albrecht von Blumenthal [Tagebuch des G.F.M. von 
Blumenthal), 1902; an English translation (Journals of Count von 
Blumenthal) was published in 1903. 

BLUNDERBUSS (a corruption of the Dutch donder, thunder, 
and the Dutch bus; cf. Ger. Biichse, a box or tube, hence a 
thunder-box or gun), an obsolete muzzle-loading firearm with 
a bell-shaped muzzle. Its calibre was large so that it could 
contain many balls or slugs, and it was intended to be fired at 
a short range, so that some of the charge was sure to take effect. 
The word is also used by analogy to describe a blundering and 
random person or talker. 

BLUNT, JOHN HENRY (1823-1884), English divine, was born 
at Chelsea in 1823, and before going to the university of Durham 
in 1 8 50 was for some years engaged in business as a manufacturing 
chemist. He was ordained in 1852 and took his M.A. degree 
in 1855, publishing in the same year a work on The Atonement. 
He held in Succession several preferments, among them the 
vicarage of Kennington near Oxford (1868), which he vacated 
in 1873 for the crown living of Beverston in Gloucestershire. 
He had already gained some reputation as an industrious 
theologian, and had published among other works an annotated 
edition of the Prayer Book (1867), a History of the English 
Reformation (1868), and a Book of Church Law (1872), as well as 
a useful Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology (1870). 
The continuation of these labours was seen in a Dictionary of 
Sects and Heresies (1874), an Annotated Bible (3 vols., 1878-1879), 
and a Cyclopaedia of Religion (1884), and received recognition 
in the shape of the D.D. degree bestowed on him in 1882. He 
died in London on the nth of April 1884. 

BLUNT, JOHN JAMES (1794-1855), English divine, was born 
at Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, and educated at 
St John's College, Cambridge, where he took his degree as 
fifteenth wrangler and obtained a fellowship (1816). He was 
appointed a Wort's travelling bachelor 1818, and spent some 
time in Italy and Sicily, afterwards publishing an account of his 
journey. He proceeded M.A. in 1819, B.D. 1826, and was 
Hulsean Lecturer in 1 831-183 2 while holding a curacy in Shrop- 
shire. In 1834 he became rector of Great Oakley in Essex, and 
in 1839 was appointed Lady Margaret professor of divinity at 
Cambridge. In 1854 he declined the see of Salisbury, and he 
died on the 18th of June 1855. His chief book was Undesigned 
Coincidences in the Writings both of the Old and New Testaments 



(1833; fuller edition, 1847). Some of his writings, among them 
the History of the Christian Church during the First Three Centuries 
and the lectures On the Right Use of the Early Fathers, were 
published posthumously. 

A short memoir of him appeared in 1856 from the hand of William 
Selwyn, his successor in the divinity professorship. 

BLUNT, WILFRID SCAWEN (1840- ), English poet and 
publicist, was born on the 17th of August 1840 at Petworth 
House, Sussex, the son of Francis Scawen Blunt, who served in 
the Peninsular War and was wounded at Corunna. He was 
educated at Stonyhurst and Oscott, and entered the diplomatic 
service in 1858, serving successively at Athens, Madrid, Paris and 
Lisbon. In 1867 he was sent to South America, and on his 
return to England retired from the service on his marriage with 
Lady Anne Noel, daughter of the earl of Lovelace and a grand- 
daughter of the poet Byron. In 1872 he succeeded, by the death 
of his elder brother, to the estate of Crabbet Park, Sussex, where 
he established a famous stud for the breeding of Arab horses, 
Mr and Lady Anne Blunt travelled repeatedly in northern Africa, 
Asia Minor and Arabia, two of their expeditions being described 
in Lady Anne's Bedouins of the Euphrates (2 vols., 1879) and A 
Pilgrimage to Nejd (2 vols., 1881). Mr Blunt became known as 
an ardent sympathizer with Mahommedan aspirations, and in 
his Future of Islam (1888) he directed attention to the forces 
which afterwards produced the movements of Pan-Islamism and 
Mahdism. Hs was a violent opponent of the English policy in 
the Sudan, and in The Wind and the Whirlwind (in verse, 1883) 
prophesied its downfall. He supported the national party in 
Egypt, and took a prominent part in the defence of Arabi Pasha. 
Ideas about India (1885) was the result of two visits to that 
country, the second in 1883-1884. In 1885 and 1886 he- stood 
unsuccessfully for parliament as a Home Ruler; and in 1887 he 
was arrested in Ireland while presiding over a political meeting in 
connexion with the agitation on Lord Clanricarde's estate, and 
was imprisoned for two months in Kilmainham . His best-known 
volume of verse, Love Sonnets of Proteus (1880), is a revelation of 
his real merits as an emotional poet. The Poetry of Wilfrid Blunt 
(1888), selected and edited by W. E. Henley and Mr George 
Wyndham, includes these sonnets, together with " Worth 
Forest, a Pastoral," " Griselda " (described as a " society novel 
in rhymed verse"), translations from the Arabic, and poems 
which had appeared in other volumes. 

BLUNTSCHLI, JOHANN KASPAR (1808-1881), Swiss jurist 
and politician, was born at Zurich on the 7th of March 1808, the 
son of a soap and candle manufacturer. From school he passed 
into the Politische Institut (a seminary of law and political 
science) in his native town, and proceeding thence to the uni- 
versities of Berlin and Bonn, took the degree of doctor juris in the 
latter in 1829. Returning to Zurich in 1830, he threw himself 
with ardour into the political strife which was at the time 
unsettling all the cantons of the Confederation, and in this year 
published Uber die Verfassung der Stadt Ziirich (On the Con- 
stitution of the City of Zurich) . This was followed by Das Volk 
und der Souveran (1830), a work in which, while pleading for 
constitutional government, he showed his bitter repugnance of 
the growing Swiss radicalism. Elected in 1837 a member of the 
Grosser Rath (Great Council), he became the champion of the 
moderate conservative party. Fascinated by the metaphysical 
views of the philosopher Fricdrich Rohmer (1814-1856), a man 
who attracted little other attention, he endeavoured in Psycho- 
logische Studien uber Staat und Kirche (1844) to apply them to 
political science generally, and in particular as a panacea for the 
constitutional troubles of Switzerland. Bluntschli, shortly before 
his death, remarked, " I have gained renown as a jurist, but 
my greatest desert is to have comprehended Rohmer." This 
philosophical essay, however, coupled with his uncompromising 
attitude towards both radicalism and ultramontanism, brought 
him many enemies, and rendered his continuance in the council, 
of which he had been elected president, impossible. He resigned 
his seat, and on the overthrow of the Sonderbund in 1847, 
perceiving that all hope of power for his party was lost, took 
leave of Switzerland with the pamphlet Stimme eines Schweizers 

uber die Bundesreform (1847), and settled at Munich, where he 
became professor of constitutional law in 1848. 

At Munich he devoted himself with energy to the special work 
of his chair, and, resisting the temptation to identify himself 
with politics, published Allgemeines Staalsrecht (1851-1852); 
Lehre vom modernen Staat (1875-1876); and, in conjunction with 
Karl Ludwig Theodor Brater (1819-1869), Deuisches Staats- 
worterbuch (n vols., 1857-1870; abridged by Edgar Loening in 
3 vols., 1860-1875). Meanwhile he had assiduously worked at his 
code for the canton of Zurich, Privatrechlliches Gesetzbuch fur den 
Kanton Ziirich (4 vols., 1854-1856), a work which was much 
praised at the time, and which, particularly the section devoted 
to contracts, served as a model for codes both in Switzerland and 
other countries. In 1861 Bluntschli received a call to Heidelberg 
as professor of constitutional law (Staatsrecht), where he again 
entered the political arena, endeavouring in his Geschichte des 
allgcmeinen Staatsrcchts und der Politik (1864) " to stimulate," 
as he said, " the political consciousness of the German people, to 
cleanse it of prejudices and to further it intellectually." In his 
new home, Baden, he devoted his energies and political influence, 
during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, towards keeping the 
country neutral. From this time Bluntschli became active in 
the field of international law, and his fame as a jurist belongs 
rather to this province than to that of constitutional law. His 
Das moderne Kriegsrecht (1866); Das moderne Volkerrecht 
(1868), and Das Beutcrecht im Krieg (1878) are likely to remain 
invaluable text-books in this branch of the science of juris- 
prudence. He also wrote a pamphlet on the "Alabama " case. 

Bluntschli was one of the founders, at Ghent in 1873, of the 
Institute of International Law, and was the representative of the 
German emperor at the conference on the international laws of 
war at Brussels. During the latter years of his life he took a 
lively interest in the Protestantenvcrein, a society formed to 
combat reactionary and ultramontane views of theology. He 
died suddenly at Karlsruhe on the 21st of October 1881. His 
library was acquired by Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore, 

Among his works, other than those before mentioned, may be 
cited Deutsches Privatrecht (1853-1854); Deutsche Staatslehre 
filr Gebildete (1874); and Deutsche Staatslehre und die heutige 
Slaatenwelt (1880). 

For notices of Bluntschli's life and works see his interesting 
autobiography, Denkwurdiges aus meinem Leben (1884); von 
Holtzendorff, Bluntschli und seine Verdienste urn die Staatswissen- 
schaften (1882); Brockhaus, Konversations-Lexicon (1901); and a 
biography by Meyer von. Kronau, in All gemeine deutsche Biographic 

BLYTH, a market town and seaport of Northumberland, 
England, in the parliamentary borough of Morpeth, 9 m. E.S.E. 
of that town, at the mouth of the river Blyth, on a branch of the 
North Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5472. 
This is the port for a considerable coal-mining district, and its 
harbour, on the south side of the river, is provided with 
mechanical appliances for shipping coal. There are five dry 
docks, and upwards of i| m. of quayage. Timber is largely 
imported. Some shipbuilding and the manufacture of rope, 
sails and ship-fittings are carried on, and the fisheries are 
valuable. Blyth is also in considerable favour as a watering- 
place; there are a pleasant park, a pier, protecting the harbour, 
about 1 m. in length, and a sandy beach affording sea-bathing. 
The river Blyth rises near the village of Kirkheaton, and has an 
easterly course of about 25 m. through a deep, well- wooded and 
picturesque valley. 

B'NAI B'RITH (or Sons of the Covenant), INDEPENDENT 
ORDER OF, a Jewish fraternal society. It was founded at New 
York in 1843 by a number of German Jews, headed by Henry 
Jones, and is the oldest as well as the largest of the Jewish 
fraternal organizations. Its membership in 1908 was 35,870, 
its 481 lodges and 10 grand lodges being distributed over the 
United States, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Rumania, Egypt 
and Palestine. Its objects are to promote a high morality among 
Jews, regardless of differences as to dogma and ceremonial 
customs, and especially to inculcate the supreme virtues of 



charity and brotherly love. Political and religious discussions 
were from the first excluded from the debates of the order. In 
1851 the first grand lodge was established at New York; in 1856, 
the number of district lodges having increased, the supreme 
authority was vested in a central body consisting of one member 
from each lodge; and by the present constitution, adopted in 
1868, this authority is vested in a president elected for five years, 
an executive committee and court of appeals (elected as before). 
The first lodge in Germany was instituted at Berlin in 1883. A 
large number of charitable and other public institutions have 
been established in the United States and elsewhere by the order, 
of which may be mentioned the large orphan asylum in Cleveland, 
the home for the aged and infirm at Yonkers, N.Y., the National 
Jewish hospital for consumptives at Denver, and the Maimonides 
library in New York City. The B'nai B'rith society has also 
co-operated largely with other Jewish philanthropic organizations 
in succouring distressed Israelites throughout the world. 

See the Jewish Encyclopaedia (1902), s.v. 

BOA, a name formerly applied to all large serpents which, 
devoid of poison fangs, kill their prey by constriction; but now 
confined to that subfamily of the Boidae which are devoid of 
teeth in the praemaxilla and are without supraorbital bones. 
The others are known as pythons (q.v.). The true boas comprise 
some forty species; most of them are American, but the genus 
Eryx inhabits North Africa, Greece and south-western Asia; 
the. genus Enygrus ranges from New Guinea to the Fiji; Casarea 
dussumieri is restricted to Round Island, near Mauritius; and 
two species of Boa and one of Corallus represent this subfamily 
in Madagascar, while all the other boas live in America, chiefly 
in tropical parts. All Boidae possess vestiges of pelvis and hind 
limbs, appearing externally as claw-like spurs on each side of the 
vent, but they are so small that they are practically without 
function in climbing. The usually short tail is prehensile. 

One of the commonest species of the genus Boa is the Boa 
constrictor, which has a wide range from tropical Mexico to 
Brazil. The head is covered with small scales, only one of the 
preoculars being enlarged. The general colour is a delicate pale 
brown, with about a dozen and a half darker cross-bars, which are 
often connected by a still darker dorso-lateral streak, enclosing 
large oval spots. On each side is a series of large dark brown 
spots with light centres. On the tail the markings become 
bolder, brick red with black and yellow. The under parts are 
yellowish with black dots. This species rarely reaches a length 
of more than 10 ft. It climbs well, prefers open forest in the 
neighbourhood of water, is often found in plantations where it 
retires into a hole in the ground, and lives chiefly on birds and 
small mammals. Like most true boas, it is of a very gentle 
disposition and easily domesticates itself in the palm or reed 
thatched huts of the natives, where it hunts the rats during the 

The term* " boa " is applied by analogy to a long article of 
women's dress wound round the neck. 

80ABDIL (a corruption of the name Abu Abdullah), the last 
Moorish king of Granada, called el chico, the little, and also el 
zogoybi, the unfortunate. A son of Muley Abu'l Hassan, king of 
Granada, he was proclaimed king in 1482 in place of his father, 
who was driven from the land. Boabdil soon after sought to 
gain prestige by invading Castile. He was taken prisoner at 
Lucena in 1483, and only obtained his freedom by consenting to 
hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under Ferdinand and 
Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon. The next few 
years were consumed in struggles with his father and his 
uncle Abdullah ez Zagal. In 1491 Boabdil was summoned by 
Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, and 
on his refusal it was besieged by the Castilians. Eventually, in 
January 1492, Granada was surrendered, and the king spent 
some time on the lands which he was allowed to hold in Andalusia. 
Subsequently he crossed to Africa, and is said to have been 
killed in battle fighting for his kinsman, the ruler of Fez. The 
spot from which Boabdil looked for the last time on Granada is 
still shown, and is known as " the last sigh of the Moor " (el 
ultimo suspire del Moro). 

See J. A. Conde, Domin&eion de los Arabes en Espana (Paris, 
1840), translated into English by Mrs J. Foster (London, 1854- 
i855) ; Washington Irving, The Alhambra (New York, ed. 1880). 

BOADICEA, strictly Boudicca, a British queen in the time 
of the emperor Nero. Her husband Prasutagus ruled the Iceni 
(in what is now Norfolk) as an autonomous prince under Roman 
suzerainty. On his death (a.d. 6,1) without male heir, his 
dominions were annexed, and the annexation was carried out 
brutally. He had by his will divided his private wealth between 
his two daughters and Nero, trusting thereby to win imperial 
favour for his family. Instead, his wife was scourged (doubtless 
for resisting the annexation), his daughters outraged, his chief 
tribesmen plundered. The proud, fierce queen and her people 
rose, and not alone. With them rose half Britain, enraged, for 
other causes, at Roman rule. Roman taxation and conscription 
lay heavy on the province; in addition, the Roman government 
had just revoked financial concessions made a few years earlier, 
and L. Annaeus Seneca, who combined the parts of a moralist 
and a money-lender, had abruptly recalled large loans made 
from his private wealth to British chiefs. A favourable chance 
for revolt was provided by the absence of the governor-general, 
Suetonius Paulinus, and most of his troops in North Wales and 
Anglesey. All south-east Britain joined the movement. Paulinus 
rushed back without waiting for his troops, but he could do nothing 
alone. The Britons burnt the Roman municipalities of Verulam 
and Colchester, the mart of London, and several military posts, 
massacred " over 70,000 " Romans and Britons friendly to Rome, 
and almost annihilated the Ninth Legion marching from Lincoln 
to the rescue. At last Paulinus, who seems to have rejoined his 
army, met the Britons in the field. The site of the battle is 
unknown. One writer has put it at Chester; others at London, 
where King's Cross had once a narrow escape of being christened 
Boadicea's Cross, and actually for many years bore the name of 
Battle Bridge, in supposed reference to this battle. Probably, 
however, it was on Watling Street, between London and Chester. 
In a desperate soldiers' battle Rome regained the province. 
Boadicea took poison; thousands of Britons fell in the fight or 
were hunted down in the ensuing guerrilla. Finally, Rome 
adopted a kindlier policy, and Britain became quiet. But the 
scantiness of Romano-British remains in Norfolk may be due to 
the severity with which the Iceni were crushed. 

See Tacitus, Annals, xiv. ; Agric. xv. ; Dio lxii. The name 
Boudicca seems to mean in Celtic much the same as Victoria. 

(F. J. H.) 

BOAR (O. Eng. bar; the word is found only in W. Ger. 
languages, cf. Dutch beer, Ger. Eber), the name given to the un- 
castrated male of the domestic pig (q.v.), and to some wild species 
of the family Suidae (see Swine). The European wild boar (Sus 
scrofa) is distributed over Europe, northern Africa, and central 
and northern Asia. It has long been extinct in the British 
Isles, where it once abounded, but traces have been found of its 
survival in Chartley Forest, Staffordshire, in an entry of 1683 
in an account-book of the steward of the manor, and it possibly 
remained till much later in the more remote parts of Scotland 
and Ireland (J. E. Harting, Extinct British Animals, 1880). 
The wild boar is still found in Europe, in marshy woodland 
districts where there is plenty of cover, and it is fairly plentiful 
in Spain, Austria, Russia and Germany, particularly in the 
Black Forest. 

From the earliest times, owing to its great strength, speed, 
and ferocity when at bay, the boar has been one of the favourite 
beasts of the chase. Under the old forest laws of England it wat 
one of the " beasts of the forest," and, as such, under the Norman 
kings the unprivileged killing of it was punishable by death or 
the loss of a member. It was hunted in England and in Europe 
on foot and on horseback with dogs, while the weapon of attack 
was always the spear. In Europe the wild boar is still hunted 
with dogs, but the spear, except when used in emergencies and 
for giving the coup de grdce, has been given up for the gun. It 
is also shot in great forest drives in Austria, Germany and 
Russia. The Indian wild boar (Sus cristatus) is slightly taller 
than Sus scrofa, standing some 30 to 40 in. at the shoulder. It 



is found throughout India, Ceylon and Burma. Here the horse 
and spear are still used, and the sport is one of the most popular 
in India. (See Pig-sticking.) 

The boar is one of the four heraldic beasts of venery, and was 
the cognizance of Richard III., king of England. As an article 
of food the boar's head was long considered a special delicacy, 
and its serving was attended with much ceremonial. At Queen's 
College, Oxford, the dish is still brought on Christmas day in 
procession to the high-table, accompanied by the singing of a 

BOARD (O. Eng. lord), a plank or long narrow piece of 
timber. The word comes into various compounds to describe 
boards used for special purposes, or objects like boards (drawing- 
board, ironing-board, sounding-board, chess-board, cardboard, 
back-board, notice-board, scoring-board). The phrase "to 
keep one's name on the boards," at Cambridge University, 
signifies to remain a member of a college; at Oxford it is " on 
the books." In bookbinding, pasteboard covers are called 
boards. Board was early used of a table, hence such phrases 
as "bed and board," "board and lodging"; or of a gaming- 
table, as in the phrase " to sweep the board," meaning to pocket 
all the stakes, hence, figuratively, to carry all before one. The 
same meaning leads to " Board of Trade," " Local Government 
Board," &c. 

From the meaning of border or side, and especially ship's 
side, comes " sea-board," meaning sea-coast, and the phrases 
"aboard" (Fr. abord), "over-board," "by the board"; 
similarly " weather-board," the side of a ship which is to wind- 
ward; " larboard and starboard " (the former of uncertain 
origin, Mid. Eng. laddeboard or latheboard; the latter meaning 
" steering side," O. Eng. steorbord, the rudder of early ships 
working over the steering side), signifying (to one standing at 
the stern and looking forward) the left and right sides of the 
ship respectively. 

BOARDING-HOUSE, a private house in which the proprietor 
provides board and lodging for paying guests. The position 
of a guest in a boarding-house differs in English law, to some 
extent, on the one hand from that of a lodger in the ordinary 
sense of the term, and on the other from that of a guest in an 
inn. Unlike the lodger, he frequently has not the exclusive 
occupation of particular rooms. Unlike the guest in an inn, 
his landlord has no lien upon his property for rent or any other 
debt due in respect of his board (Thompson v. Lacy, 1820,3 B. 
and Aid. 283). The landlord is under an obligation to take 
reasonable care for the safety of property brought by a guest 
into his house, and is liable for damages in case of breach of this 
obligation (Scarborough v. Cosgrove, 1903, 2 K.B. 803). Again, 
unlike the innkeeper, a boarding-house keeper does not hold 
himself out as ready to receive all travellers for whom he has 
accommodation, for which they are ready to pay, and of course 
he is entitled to get rid of any guest on giving reasonable notice 
(see Lamond v. Richard, 1897, 1 Q.B. 541, 548). What is 
reasonable notice depends on the terms of the contract; and, 
subject thereto, the course of payment of rent is a material 
circumstance (see Landlord and Tenant). Apparently the 
same implied warranty of fitness for habitation at the commence- 
ment of the tenancy which exists in the case of furnished lodg- 
ings (see Lodger and Lodgings) exists also in the case of 
boarding-houses; and the guest in a boarding-house, like a lodger, 
is entitled to all the usual and necessary conveniences of a 

The law of the United States is similar to English law. 

Under the French Code Civil, claims for subsistence furnished 
to a debtor and his family during the last year of his life by 
boarding-house keepers (maitres de pension) are privileged over 
the generality of moveables, the privilege being exerciseable 
after legal expenses, funeral expenses, the expenses of the last 
illness, and the wages of servants for the year elapsed and what 
is due for the current year (art. 2101 (5)). Keepers of taverns 
(aubergistes) and hotels (hdteliers) are responsible for the goods 
of their guests — the committal of which to their custody is 
regarded as a deposit of necessity (dipdt necessaire). They are 

liable for the loss of such goods by theft, whether by servants 
or strangers, but not where the loss is due to force majeure (arts. 
1952-1954). Their liability for money and bearer securities not 
actually deposited is limited to 1000 francs (law of 18 th of April 
1889). These provisions are reproduced in substance in the 
Civil Codes of Quebec (arts. 1814, 1815, 1994, 2006) and of 
St Lucia (art. 1889). In Quebec, boarding-house keepers have 
a lien on the goods of their guests for the value or price of any 
food or accommodation furnished to them, and have also a right 
to sell their baggage and other property, if the amount remains 
unpaid for three months, under conditions similar to those 
imposed on innkeepers in England (art. 18 16 A; and see Inns 
and Innkeepers); also in the Civil Code of St Lucia (arts. 
iS78, 1714, 1715)- ' (A. W. R.) 

BOARDING-OUT SYSTEM, in the English poor law, the 
boarding-out of orphan or deserted children with suitable foster- 
parents. The practice was first authorized in 1868, though 
for many years previously it had been carried out by some 
boards of guardians on their own initiative. Boarding-out is 
governed by two orders of the Local Government Board, issued 
in 1 889. The first permits guardians to board-out children within 
their own union, except in the metropolis. The second governs 
the boarding-out of children in localities outside the union. 
The sum payable to the foster-parents is not to exceed 4s. per 
week for each child. 'The system has been much discussed by 
authorities on the administration of the poor law. It has been 
objected that few working-men with an average-sized family 
can afford to devote such an amount for the maintenance of 
each child, and that, therefore, boarded-out children are better 
off than the children of the independent (Fawcett, Pauperism). 
Working-class guardians, also, do not favour the system, being 
suspicious as to the disinterestedness of the foster-parents. 
On the other hand, it is argued that from the economic and 
educational point of view much better results are obtained by 
boarding-out children; they are given a natural life, and when 
they grow up they are without effort merged in the general 
population (Mackay, Hist. Eng. Poor Law). See also Poor 

The " boarding-out " of lunatics is, in Scotland, a regular part 
of the lunacy administration. It has also been successfully 
adopted in Belgium. (See Insanity.) 

BOARDMAN, GEORGE DANA (1801-1831), American 
Baptist missionary, was born at Livermore, Me., and educated 
at Waterville College and Andover Theological Seminary. In 
1825 he went to India as a missionary, and in 1827 to Burma, 
where his promising work among the Karens was cut short 
by his early death. His widow married another well-known 
Burmese missionary, Adoniram Judson. 

His son, George Dana Boardman, the younger (1828-1903), 
made the voyage from Burma to America alone when six years 
of age. He graduated in 1852 at Brown University, and from 
the Newton Theological Institution in 1855. He held Baptist 
pastorates at Rochester (1856-1864), and at Philadelphia, and 
was president of the American Baptist Missionary Union, 1880- 
1884. At Philadelphia he is said to have taken his congregation 
through every verse of the New Testament in 643 Wednesday 
evening lectures, which occupied nearly eighteen years, and 
afterwards to have begun on the Old Testament in similar 
fashion. Among his published works are Studies in the Model 
Prayer (1879), and Epiphanies of the Risen Lord (1879). 

BOASE, HENRY SAMUEL (1799-1883), English geologist, 
the eldest son of Henry Boase (1763-1827), banker, of Madron, 
Cornwall, was born in London on the 2nd of September 1799. 
Educated partly at Tiverton grammar-school, and partly at 
Dublin, where he studied chemistry, he afterwards proceeded 
to Edinburgh and took the degree of M.D. in 1821. He then 
settled for some years as a medical practitioner at Penzance; 
there geology engaged his particular attention, and he became 
secretary of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. The 
results of his observations were embodied in his Treatise on 
Primary Geology (1834), a work of considerable merit in regard 
to the older crystalline and igneous rocks and the subject of 

9 6 


mineral veins. In 1837 he removed to London, where he 
remained for about a year, being elected F.R.S. In 1838 he 
became partner in a firm of bleachers at Dundee. He retired 
in 187 1, and died on the 5th of May 1883. 

BOAT (O. Eng. bdt; the true etymological connexion with 
Dutch and Ger. boot, Fr. bateau, Ital. battello presents great 
difficulties; Celtic forms are from O. Eng.), a comparatively 
small open craft for conveyance on water, usually propelled 
by some form of oar or sail. 

The origin of the word " boat " is probably to be looked 
for in the A.S. bat = 3. stem, a stick, a piece of wood. If 
this be so, the term in its inception referred to the material of 
which the primitive vessel was constructed, and in this respect 
may well be contrasted with the word " ship," of which the 
primary idea was the process by which the material was fashioned 
and adapted for the use of man. 

We may assume that primitive man, in his earliest efforts to 
achieve the feat of conveying himself and his belongings by 
water, succeeded in doing so — (1) by fastening together a 
quantity of material of sufficient buoyancy to float and carry 
him above the level of the water; (2) by scooping out a fallen 
tree so as to obtain buoyancy enough for the same purpose. 
In these two processes is to be found the genesis of both boat and 
ship, of which, though often used as convertible terms, the 
former is generally restricted to the smaller type of vessel such 
as is dealt with in this article. For the larger type the reader 
is referred to Ship. 

Great must have been the triumph of the man who first 
discovered that the rushes or the trunks he had managed to tie 
together would, propelled by a stick or a branch (cf. ramus and 
remus) used as pole or paddle, convey him safely across the river 
or lake, which had hitherto been his barrier. But use multiplies 
wants, discovers deficiencies, suggests improvements. Man soon 
found out that he wanted to go faster than the raft would move, 
that the water washed over and up through it, and this need of 
speed, and of dry carrying power, which we find operative 
throughout the history of the boat down to the present day, 
drove him to devise other modes of flotation as well as to try 
to improve his first invention. 

The invention of the hollowed trunk, of the " dug-out " 
(monoxylon), however it came about, whenever and wherever 
it came into comparison with the raft, must have superseded the 
latter for some purposes, though not by any means for all. It 
was superior to the raft in speed, and was, to a certain extent, 
water-tight. On the other hand it was inferior in carrying 
power and stability. But the two types once conceived had 
come to stay, and to them severally, or to attempts to combine 
the useful properties of both, may be traced all the varieties of 
vessel to which the name of boat may be applied. 

The development of the raft is admirably illustrated in the 
description, given us by Homer in the Odyssey, of the construc- 
tion by the hero Ulysses of a vessel of the kind. Floating timber 
is cut down and carefully shaped and planed with axe and adze, 
and the timbers are then exactly fitted face to face and com- 
pacted with trenails and dowels, just as the flat floor of a lump 
or lighter might be fashioned and fitted nowadays. A platform 
is raised upon the floor and a bulwark of osiers contrived to 
keep out the wash of the waves (cf. infra, Malay boats). It 
seems as if the poet, who was intimately acquainted with the 
sea ways of his time, intended to convey the idea of progress in 
construction, as illustrated by the technical skill of his hero, 
and the use of the various tools with which he supplies him. 

On the other hand the dug-out had its limitations. The 
largest tree that could be thrown and scooped out afforded but 
a narrow space for carrying goods, and presented problems as 
to stability which must have been very difficult to solve. The 
shaping of bow and stern, the bulging out of the sides, the 
flattening of the bottom, the invention of a keel piece, the 
attempt to raise the sides by building up with planks, all led 
on towards the idea of constructing a boat properly so called, or 
perhaps to the invention of the canoe, which in some ways may 
be regarded as the intermediate stage between dug-out and boat. 

Meanwhile the raft had undergone improvements such as 
those which Homer indicates. It had arrived at a floor composed 
of timbers squared and shaped. It had risen to a platform, the 
prototype of a deck. It was but a step to build up the sides and 
turn up the ends, and at this point we reach the genesis of ark 
and punt, of sanpan and junk, or, in other words, of all the many 
varieties of flat-bottomed craft. 

When once we have reached the point at which the improve- 
ments in the construction of the raft and dug-out bring them, 
as it were, within sight of each other, we can enter upon the 
history of the development of boats properly so called, which, 
in accordance with the uses and the circumstances that dictated 
their build, may be said to be descended from the raft or the 
dug-out, or from the attempt to combine the respective advan- 
tages of the two original types. 

Uses and circumstances are infinite in variety and have 
produced an infinite variety of boats. But we may safely say 
that in all cases the need to be satisfied, the nature of the material 
available, and the character of the difficulties to be overcome 
have governed the reason and tested the reasonableness of the 
architecture of the craft in use. 

It is not proposed in this article to enter at any length into 
the details of the construction of boats, but it is desirable, for 
the sake of clearness, to indicate certain broad distinctions 
in the method of building, which, though they run back into the 
far past, in some form or other survive and are in use at the 
present day. 

The tying of trunks together to form a raft is still not unknown 
in the lumber trade of the Danube or of North America, nor was 
it in early days confined to the raft. It extended to many 
boats properly so called, even to many of those built by the 
Vikings of old. It may still be seen in the Madras surf boats, 
and in those constructed out of driftwood by the inhabitants of 
Easter Island in the south Pacific. Virgil, who was an archae- 
ologist, represents Charon's boat on the Styx as of this con- 
struction, and notes the defect, which still survives, in the craft 
of the kind when loaded — 

" Gemuit sub pondere cymba 
Sutilis, et multam accepit rimosa paludem!" 

Aen. vi. 303. 

Next to the raft, and to be counted in direct descent from it-, 
comes the whole class of flat-bottomed boats including punts 
and lighters. As soon as the method of constructing a solid 
floor, with trenails and dowels, had been discovered, the method 
of converting it into a water-tight box was pursued, sides were 
attached plank fashion, with strong knees to stiffen them, and 
cross pieces to yoke or key (cf. £vyov, kAt/is) them together. 
These thwarts once fixed naturally suggested seats for those 
that plied the paddle or the oar. The ends of the vessel were 
shaped into bow or stern, either turned up, or with the side 
planking convergent in stem or stern post, or joined together 
fore and aft by bulkheads fitted in, while interstices were made 
water-tight by caulking, and by smearing with bitumen or some 
resinous material. 

The evolution of the boat as distinct from the punt, or flat- 
bottomed type, and following the configuration of the dug-out 
in its length and rounded bottom, must have taxed the inventive 
art and skill of constructors much more severely than that of 
the raft. It is possible that the coracle or the canoe may have 
suggested the construction of a framework of sufficient stiffness 
to carry a water-tight wooden skin, such as would successfully 
resist the pressure of wind and water. And in this regard two 
methods were open to the builder, both of which have survived 
to the present day: (1) the construction first of the shell of 
the boat, into which the stiffening ribs and cross ties were 
subsequently fitted; (2) the construction first of a framework 
of requisite size and shape, on to which the outer skin of the 
boat was subsequently attached. 

Further, besides the primitive mode of tying the parts to- 
gether, two main types of build must be noticed, in accord- 
ance with which a boat is said to be either carvel-built or 



clinker-built, (i) A boat is carvel-built when the planks are 
laid edge to edge so that they present a smooth surface without. 
(2) A boat is clinker-built when each plank is laid on so as to 
overlap the one below it, thus presenting a series of ledges 
running longitudinally. 

The former method is said to be of Mediterranean, or perhaps 
of Eastern origin. The latter was probably invented by the 
old Scandinavian builders, and from them handed down through 
the fishing boats of the northern nations to our own time. 

The accounts of vessels used by the Egyptians and Phoe- 
nicians generally refer to larger craft which naturally fall under 
the head of Ship (q.v.). The Nile boats, however, 
boats described by Herodotus (ii. 60), built of acacia wood, 

were no doubt of various sizes, some of them quite 
small, but all following the same type of construction, built up 
brick fashion, the blocks being fastened internally to long poles 
secured by cross pieces, and the interstices caulked with papyrus. 
The ends rose high above the water, and to prevent hogging were 
often attached by a truss running longitudinally over crutches 
from stem to stern. 

The Assyrian and Babylonian vessels described by Herodotus 
(i. 194), built up of twigs and boughs, and covered with skins 
smeared with bitumen, were really more like huge coracles 
and hardly deserve the name of boats. 

The use of boats by the Greeks and Romans is attested by 
the frequent reference to them in Greek and Latin literature, 
though, as regards such small craft, the details given are 
hardly enough to form the basis of an accurate classification. 

We hear of small boats attendant on a fleet (KtkqTwv, Thuc. 
i. 53), and of similar craft employed in piracy (Thuc. iv. 9), and 
in one case of a sculling boat, or pair oar (cucanov aiufapiKov, 
Thuc. iv. 67), which was carted up and down between the town 
of Megara and the sea, being used for the purpose of marauding 
at night. We are also familiar with the passage in the Acts 
(xxvii.) where in the storm they had hard work "to come by 
the boat"; which same boat the sailors afterwards "let down 
into the sea, under colour as though they would have cast anchors 
out of the foreship," and would have escaped to land in her 
themselves, leaving the passengers to drown, if the centurion 
and soldiers acting upon St Paul's advice had not cut off the 
ropes of the boat and let her fall off. 

There can be little doubt that boat races were in vogue among 
the Greeks (see Prof. Gardner, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
ii. 91 ff.), and probably formed part of the Panathenaic and 
Isthmian festivals. It is, however, difficult to prove that small 
boats took part in these races, though it is not unlikely that 
they may have done so. The testimony of the coins, such as it 
is, points to galleys, and the descriptive term (vtSiv a/uXXa) 
leads to the same conclusion. 

It is hardly possible now to define the differences which 
separated aKaros, anariov, from Ke\r)S, Kekqnov, or from 
Xe/i/3oJ, or They seem all to have been rowing 
boats, probably carvel-built, some with keels {acatii modo 
carinata, Plin. ix. 19), and to have varied in size, some being 
simply sculling boats, and others running up to as many as thirty 

Similarly in Latin authors we have frequent mention of boats 
accompanying ships of war. Of this there is a well-known 
instance in the account of Caesar's invasion of Britain (B.C. 
iv. 26), when the boats of the fleet, and the pinnaces, were filled 
with soldiers and sent to assist the Legionaries who were being 
fiercely attacked as they waded on to the shore. There is also 
an instance in the civil war, which is a prototype of a modern 
attack of torpedo boats upon men of war, when Antonius manned 
the pinnaces of his large ships to the number of sixty, and with 
them attacked and defeated an imprudent squadron of Quad- 
riremes (B.C. hi. 24). The class of boats so frequently mentioned 
as actuariae seems to have contained craft of all sizes, and to 
have been used for all purposes, whether as pleasure boats or as 
despatch vessels, or for piracy. In fact the term was employed 
vaguely just as we speak of craft in general, 
iv. 4 

The lembus, which is often referred to in Livy and Polybius, 
seems to have been of Illyrian origin, with fine lines and sharp 
bows. The class contained boats of various sizes and with a 
variable number of oars (biremis, Livy xxiv. 40, sexdecim, 
Livy xxxiv. 35); and it is interesting to note the origin in this 
case, as the invention of the light Liburnian galleys, which won 
the battle of Actium, and altered the whole system of naval 
construction, came from the same seaboard. 

Besides these, the piratical myoparones (see Cic. In Verrem), 
and the poetical phaselus, deserve mention, but here again we 
are met with the difficulty of distinguishing boats from ships. 
There is also an interesting notice in Tacitus (Hist. iii. 47) of 
boats hastily constructed by the natives of the northern coast 
of Asia Minor, which he describes as of broad beam with narrow 
sides- (probably meaning that the sides "tumbled home"), 
joined together without any fastenings of brass or iron. In 
a sea-way the sides were raised with planks added till they were 
cased in as with a roof, whence their name camarae, and so they 
rolled about in the waves, having prow and stern alike and 
convertible rowlocks, so that it was a matter of indifference 
and equally safe, or perhaps unsafe, whichever way they 

Similar vessels were constructed by Germanicus in his north 
German campaign (Ann. ii. 6) and by the Suiones (Ger. 44). 
These also had stem and stern alike, and remind us of the old 
Norse construction, being rowed either way, having the oars 
loose in the rowlock, and not, as was usual in the south, attached 
by a thong to the thowl pin. 

Lastly, as a class of boat directly descended from the raft, 
we may notice the flat-bottomed boats or punts or lighters which 
plied on the Tiber as ferry-boats, or carrying go'ods, which were 
called codicariae from caudex, the old word for a plank. 

It is difficult to trace any order of development in the construc- 
tion of boats during the Byzantine period, or the middle ages. 
Sea-going vessels according to their size carried one or more 
boats, some of them small boats with two or four oars, others 
boats of a larger size fitted with masts and sail as well as with 
oars. We find lembus and phaselus as generic names in the 
earlier period, but the indications as to size and character are 
vague and variable. The same may be said of the batelli, coquets, 
chaloupes,chalans, gattes, &c, of which, in almost endless number 
and variety, the nautical erudition of M. Jal has collected the 
names in his monumental works, Archeologie navale and the 
Glossaire naulique. 

It is clear, however, that in many instances the names, 
originally applied to boats properly so called, gradually attached 
themselves to larger vessels, as in the case of chaloupe and others, 
a fact which leads to the conclusion that the type of build 
followed originally in smaller vessels was often developed on a 
larger scale, according as it was found useful and convenient, 
while the name remained the same. Many of these types still 
survive and may be found in the Eastern seas, or in the Mediter- 
ranean or in the northern waters, each of which has its own 
peculiarities of build and rig. 

It would be impossible within our limits to do justice to the 
number and variety of existing types in sea-going boats, and for 
more detailed information concerning them the reader 
would do well to consult Mast and Sail in Europe and E x,stIa z 
Asia, by H. Warington Smyth, an excellent and 
exhaustive work, from which much of the information which 
follows regarding them has been derived. 

In the Eastern seas the Chinese sanpan is ubiquitous. Origin- 
ally a small raft of three timbers with fore end upturned, it grew 
into a boat in very early times, and has given its name to a very 
large class of vessels. With flat bottom, and considerable width 
in proportion to its length, the normal sanpan runs out into two 
tails astern, the timbers rounding up, and the end being built 
in like a bulkhead, with room for the rudder to work between 
it and the transom which connects the two projecting upper 
timbers of the stern. Some of them are as much as 30 ft. in 


9 8 


length and 8 to 10 ft. in beam. They are good carriers and 
speedy under sail. 

The Chinese in all probability were the earliest of all peoples 
to solve the chief problems of boat building, and after their own 
fashion to work out the art of navigation, which for them has 
now been set and unchanged for thousands of years. They 
appear to have used the lee-board and centre-board in junks and 
sanpans, and to have extended their trade to India and even 
beyond, centuries before anything like maritime enterprise is 
heard of in the north of Europe. 

As regards the practice of long boat racing on rivers or tidal 
waters the Chinese are easily antecedent in time to the rest of 
the world. On great festivals in certain places the Dragon boat 
race forms part of the ceremony. The Dragon boats are just 
over 73 ft. long, with 4 ft. beam, and depth 21 in. The rowing 
or paddling space is about 63 ft. and the number of thwarts 27, 
thus giving exactly the same number of rowers as that of the 
Zygites in the Greek trireme. The two extremities of the boat 
are much cambered and rise to about 2 ft. above the water. At 
about 1 5 ft. from each end the single plank gives place to three, 
so as to offer a concave surface to the water. The paddle blade 
is spade-like in form and about 65 in. broad. 

Both in Siam and Burma there is a very large river population, 
and boat racing is on festival days a common amusement. The 
typical craft, however, is the Duck-boat, which in the shape of 
hull is in direct contrast to the dug-out form, and primarily 
intended for sailing. It is interesting to note that the Siamese 
method of slinging and using quarter rudders is the oldest used 
by men in sailing craft, being in fact the earliest development 
from the simple paddle rudder, which has in all ages been the 
first method of steering boats. The king of Siam's state barge, 
we are told, is steered by long paddles, precisely in the same way 
as is figured in the case of the Egyptian boats of the 3rd dynasty 
(6000 B.C.). On the other hand the slung quarter rudders are the 
same in fashion as those used by Roman and Greek merchantmen, 
by Norsemen and Anglo-Saxons, and by medieval seamen down 
to about the 14th century. 

The Malays have generally the credit of being expert boat- 
builders, but the local conditions are not such as to favour the 
construction of a good type of boat. " Small displacement, 
hollow lines, V-shaped sections, shallow draught and lack of 
beam " result in want of stability and weatherliness. But it is 
among them that the ancient process of dug-out building still 
survives and flourishes, preserving all the primitive and ingenious 
methods of hollowing the tree trunk, of forcing its sides outwards, 
and in many cases building them up with added planks, so that 
from the dug-out a regular boat is formed, with increased though 
limited carrying power, increased though still hardly sufficient 

To ensure this last very necessary quality many devices and 
contrivances are resorted to. 

In some cases (just as Ulysses is described as doing by Homer, 
Od. v. 256) the boatman fastens bundles of reeds or of bamboos 
all along the sides of his boat. These being very buoyant not 
only act as a defence against the wash of the waves, but are 
sufficient to keep the boat afloat in any sea. 

But the most characteristic device is the outrigger, a piece of 
floating wood sharpened at both ends, which is fixed parallel to 
the longer axis of the boat, at a distance of two or three beams, 
by two or more poles laid at right angles to it. This, while not 
interfering materially with the speed of the boat, acts as a 
counterpoise to any pressure on it which would tend, owing to its 
lack of stability, to upset it, and makes it possible for the long 
narrow dug-out to face even the open sea. It is remarkable 
that this invention, which must have been seen by the Egyptians 
and Phoenicians in very early times, was not introduced by them 
into the Mediterranean. Possibly this was owing to the lack of 
large timber suitable for dug-outs, and the consequent evolution 
by them of boat from raft, with sufficient beam to rely upon for 

On the other hand in the boats of India the influence of 
Egyptian and Arab types of build is apparent, and the dinghy of 

the Hugh is cited as being in form strangely like the ancient 
Egyptian model still preserved in the Ghizeh museum. Coming 
westward the dominant type of build is that of the Arab dhow, 
the boat class of which has all the characteristics of the larger 
vessel developed from it, plenty of beam, overhanging stem and 
transom stern. The planking of the shell over the wooden frame 
has a double thickness which conduces to dryness and durability 
in the craft. 

On the Nile it is interesting to find the naggar preserving, in its 
construction out of blocks of acacia wood pinned together, the 
old-world fashion of building described by Herodotus. The 
gaiassa and dahabiah are too large to be classed as boats, but they 
and their smaller sisters follow the Arab type in build and rig. 

It is noteworthy that nothing apparently of the ancient 
Egyptian or classical methods of build survives in the Mediter- 
ranean, while the records of the development of boat-building 
in the middle ages are meagre arid confusing. The best illustra- 
tions of ancient methods of construction, and of ancient seaman- 
ship, are to be found, if anywhere, in the East, that conservative 
storehouse of types and fashions, to which they were either 
communicated, or from which they were borrowed, by Egyptians 
or Phoenicians, from whom they were afterwards copied by 
Greeks and Romans. 

In the Mediterranean the chief characteristics of the types 
belonging to it are " carvel-build, high bow, round stern and 
deep rudder hung on stern post outside the vessel." 

In the eastern basin the long-bowed wide-sterned caique of the 
Bosporus is perhaps the type of boat best known, but both Greek 
and Italian waters abound with an unnumbered variety of boats 
of " beautiful lines and great carrying power." In the Adriatic, 
the Venetian gondola, and the light craft generally, are of the 
type developed from the raft, flat-bottomed, and capable of 
navigating shallow waters with minimum of draught and 
maximum of load. 

In the western basin the majority of the smaller vessels are of 
the sharp-sterned build. Upon the boats of the felucca class, 
long vessels with easy lines and low free-board, suitable for 
rowing as well as sailing, the influence of the long galley of the 
middle ages was apparent. In Genoese waters at the beginning 
of the 19th century there were single-decked rowing vessels, 
which preserved the name of galley, and were said to be the 
descendants of the Liburnians that defeated the many-banked 
vessels of Antonius at Actium. But the introduction of steam 
vessels has already relegated into obscurity these memorials 
of the past. 

Along the Riviera and the Spanish coast a type of boat is 
noticeable which is peculiar for the inward curve of both stem 
and stern from a keel which has considerable camber, enabling 
them to be beached in a heavy surf. 

On the Douro, in Portugal, it is said that the boats which may 
be seen laden with casks of wine, trailing behind them an 
enormously long steering paddle, are of Phoenician ancestry, 
and that the curious signs, which many of them have painted on 
the cross board over the cabin, are of Semitic origin though now 

Coming to the northern waters, as with men, so with boats, 
we meet with a totally different type. Instead of the smooth 
exterior of the carvel-build, we have the more rugged form of 
clinker-built craft with great beam, and raking sterns and stems, 
and a wide flare forward. In the most northern waters the 
strakes of the sea-going boats are wide and of considerable 
thickness, of oak or fir, often compacted with wooden trenails, 
strong and fit to do battle with the rough seas and rough usage 
which they have to endure. 

In most of these the origin of form and character is to be 
sought for in the old Viking vessels or long keeles of the 5th century 
A.D., with curved and elevated stem and stern posts, and without 
decks or, at the most, half decked. 

In the Baltic and the North Sea most of the fishing boats 
follow this type, with, however, considerable variety in details. 
It is noticeable that here also, as in other parts of the world, and 
at other times, the pressing demand for speed and carrying power 



has increased the size in almost all classes of boats till they pass 
into the category of ships. At the same time the carvel-build is 
becoming more common, while, in the struggle for life, steam and 
motor power are threatening to obliterate the old types of rowing 
and sailing boats altogether. 

Next to the Norse skiff and its descendants, perhaps the oldest 
type of boat in northern waters is to be found in Holland, 
where the conditions of navigation have hardly altered for 
centuries. It is to the Dutch that we chiefly owe the original 
of our pleasure craft, but, though we have developed these 
enormously, the Dutch boats have remained pretty much the 
same. The clinker-build and the wide rounded bow are now 
very much of the same character as they are represented in the 
old pictures of the 17th and 18th centuries. 

The development of boat-building in the British Isles during 
the 19th century has been unceasing and would need a treatise 
to itself to do it justice. The expansion of the fishing industry 
and the pressure of competition have stimulated constant 
improvement in the craft engaged, and here also are observable 
the same tendencies to substitute carvel, though it is more 
expensive, for clinker build, and to increase the length and size 
of the boats, and the gradual supersession of sail and oar by steam 
Dower. Under these influences we hear of the fifie and the 
skqffie classes, old favourites in northern waters, being superseded 
by the more modern Zulu, which is supposed to unite the good 
qualities of both; and these in turn running to such a size as to 
take them outside the category of boats. But even in the case 
of smaller boats the Zulu model is widely followed, so that they 
have actually been imported to the Irish coast for the use of the 
crofter fishermen in the congested districts. 

For the Shetland sexem and the broad boats of the Orkneys, 
and the nabbies of the west coast of Scotland, the curious will do 
well to refer to H. Warington Smyth's most excellent account. 

On the eastern coast of England the influence of the Dutch 
type of build is manifest in many of the flat-bottomed and mostly 
round-ended craft, such as the Yorkshire Billyboy, and partly in 
the coble, which latter is interesting as built for launching off 
beaches against heavy seas, and as containing relics of Norse 
influence, though in the main of Dutch origin. 

The life-boats of the eastern coast are in themselves an admir- 
able class of boat, with fine lines, great length, and shallow 
draught, wonderful in their daring work in foul weather and 
heavy seas, in which as a rule their services are required. Here, 
however, as in the fishing boats, the size is increasing, and steam 
is appropriating to itself the provinces of the sail and the oar. 

The wherry of the Norfolk Broads has a type of its own, and is 
often fitted out as a pleasure boat. It is safe and comfortable for 
inland waters, but not the sort of boat to live in a sea-way in 
anything but good weather. 

The Thames and its estuary rejoice in a great variety of boats, 
of which the old Peter boat (so called after the legend of the 
foundation of the abbey on Thorney Island) preserved a very 
ancient type of build, shorter and broader than the old Thames 
pleasure wherry. But these and the old hatch boat have now 
almost disappeared. Possibly survivors may still be seen on the 
upper part of the tidal river. Round the English coast from the 
mouth of the Thames southwards the conditions of landing and 
of hauling up boats above high-water mark affect the type, 
demanding strong clinker-build and stout timbers. Hence there 
is a strong family resemblance in most of the short boats in use 
from the North Foreland round to Brighton. Among these are 
the life-boats of Deal and the other Channel ports, which have 
done and are still doing heroic work in saving life from wrecks 
upon the Goodwins and the other dangerous shoals that beset 
the narrowing sleeve of the English Channel. 

Farther down, along the southern coast, and to the west, where 
harbours are more frequent, a finer and deeper class of boats, 
chiefly of carvel-build, is to be found. The Cornish ports are the 
home of a great boat-building industry, and from them a large 
number of the finest fishing boats in the world are turned out 
annually. Most of them are built with stem and stern alike, with 
full and bold quarters, and ample floor. 

13* 4' 8" 



4' 6" 
5' 6" 

27 5' 6" 

30 5' 6" 



2' 8$' 


10' 2" 

3' 5" 


n' 6" 

4' 6" 

It is not possible here to enumerate, much less to describe 
in detail, the variety of types in sea-going boats which have 
been elaborated in England and in America. For this purpose 
reference should be made to the list of works given at the end oi 
the article. 

The following is a list of the boats at present used in the royal 
navy. They have all of them a deep fore foot, and with the 
exception of the whalers and Berthon boats, upright stems and 
transom sterns. The whalers have a raking stem and a sharp 
stern, and a certain amount of sheer in the bows. 

Length. Beam. Depth. 
Feet. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

la. Dinghy. Freeboard about 9 in. 

Weight 3 cwt. 2 qr. Between 

thwarts 2 ft. 9 in. Elm 
lb. Skiff dinghy for torpedo boats. Free- 
board about 9 in. Carry about 

ten men in moderate weather. 

Between thwarts 2 ft. 7J in. 

Weight 3 cwt. 4B5. Yellow pine . 
2a. Whaler for destroyers. 5 in. sheer. 

Yellow pine 

2b. Whaler. Between thwarts 2 ft. 10 in. 

Freeboard about 12 in. Weight, 

8 cwt. Strakes No. 13. Lap 

f in. Elm 

(All have bilge strakes with hand-holes.) 

3. Gig. Between thwarts 2 ft. 9J in. 

Weight 8 cwt. 2 qr. 15 lb. 13 
Strakes. Elm 

4. Cutter. Between thwarts 3 ft. 1 in. 

To carry 49 men. Carvel built 

5. Pinnace. Between thwarts 3 ft. 

Carvel-built. Elm .... 

6. Launch. Between thwarts 3 ft. 1 in. 

To carry 140 men. Double skin 
diagonal. Teak .... 

7. Berthon collapsible boats weighing 

7 cwt. for destroyers. 

With the exception of the larger classes, viz. cutters, pinnaces 
and launches, the V-shape of bottom is still preserved, which 
does not tend to stability, and it is difficult to see why the 
smaller classes have not followed the improvement made in their 
larger sisters. 

Though the number and variety of sea-going boats is of much 
greater importance, no account of boats in general would be com- 
plete without reference to the development of pleasure 
craft upon rivers and inland waters, especially in '^lats'and 
England, during the past century. There is a legend, racing. 
dating from Saxon times, which tells of King Edgar 
the Peaceable being rowed on the Dee from his palace in Chester 
to the church of St John, by eight kings, himself the ninth, 
steering this ancient 8-oar; but not much is heard of rowing 
in England until 1453, when John Norman, lord mayor of 
London, set the example of going by water to Westminster, 
which, we are told, made him popular with the watermen of his 
day, as in consequence the use of pleasure boats by the citizens 
became common. Thus it was that the old Thames pleasure 
wherry, with its high bows and low sharp stern and V-shaped 
section, and the old skiff came into vogue, both of which have 
now given way to boats, mostly of clinker-build, but with 
rounder bottoms and greater depth, safer and more comfortable 
to row in. 

In 171 s Thomas Doggett (q.v.) founded a race which is still 
rowed in peculiar sculling boats, straked, and with sides flaring 
up to the sill of the rowlock. Strutt tells us of a regatta in 1775 
in which watermen contended in pair-oared boats or skiffs. 

At the beginning of the 19th century numerous rowing clubs 
flourished on the upper tidal waters of the Thames, and we hear 
of four-oared races from Westminster to Putney, and from 
Putney to Kew, in what we should now consider large and 
heavy boats, clinker-built, with bluff entry. 

Longer boats, 8-oars, and 10-oars, seem to have been ex- 
istent at the end of the 18th century. Eton certainly had one 
10-oar, and three 8-oars, and two 6-oars, before 1811. The 
record of 8-oar races at Oxford begins in 1815, at Cambridge in 



1827. Pair-oar and sculling races in lighter boats seem to have 
come in soon after 1820, and the first Oxford and Cambridge 
eight-oared race was rowed in 1829, in which year also Eton 
and Westminster contended at Putney. 

Henley regatta was founded in 1839, and since that date the 
building of racing boats, eights, fours, pairs, and sculling boats, 
has made great progress. The products of the present time are 
such, in lightness of build and swiftness of propulsion, as 
would have been thought impossible between 1810 and 1830. 

In the middle of the 19th century the long boats in use were 
mostly clinker-built with a keel. At Oxford the torpids were 
rowed, as now, in clinker-built craft, but the summer races 
were rowed in carvel-built boats, which also had a keel. 

In 1855 the first keelless 8-oar made its appearance at 
Henley, built by Mat Taylor for the Royal Chester Rowing Club. 
The new type was constructed on moulds, bottom upwards, 
a cedar skin bent and fitted on to the moulds, and the ribs built 
in after the boat had been turned over. 

In 1857 Oxford rowed in a similar boat at Putney, 55 ft. long, 
25 in. beam. From that time the keelless racing boat has held 
its own, fours and pairs and sculling boats all following suit. 
But with the introduction of sliding seats racing eights have 
developed in length to 63 ft. or more, with considerable camber, 
and a beam of 23-24 in. There are, however, still advocates of 
the shorter type with broader beam, and it is noticeable that 
the Belgian boat that won the Grand Challenge at Henley in 
1906 did not exceed 60 ft. The boat in which Oxford won the 
University race in 1901 was 56 ft. long with 27 in. of beam. 

In sculling boats the acceptance of the Australian type of 
build has led to the construction of a much shorter boat with 
broader beam than that which was in vogue twenty years ago. 
The same tendency has not shown itself so pronouncedly in pair 
oars, but will no doubt be manifest in time as the build improves. 
In fact we may expect the controversy between long and short 
racing boats, and the proper method of propelling them re- 
spectively, to be carried a step farther. The tendency, with the 
long slide, and long type of boat, is to try to avoid "pinch" 
by adopting the scullers' method of easy beginning, and strong 
drive with the legs, and sharp finish to follow, but it remains 
to be seen whether superior pace is not to be obtained in a 
shorter boat by sharp beginning at a reasonable angle to 
the boat's side, and a continuous drive right out to the finish 
of the stroke. 

Appended is a list of pleasure boats in use (1909) on the 
Thames, with their measurements (in feet and inches). 

9" to 10" 
9" to 10" 
8" to 9" 
13" from keel to 

top of stem 
7" to 8" 
51" to 6" 
iol" to 14" 


15" to 16" 

13" from keel to 

top of stem 
6" from keel to 

top of stem 
12" over all 
6" to 7" 
9" to 10J" 
12" to 13" 

Authorities. — For ancient boats: Diet. Ant., " Navis "; C. Torr, 
Ancient Ships; Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of St Paul; Graser, 
De re navali; Breusing, Die Nautik der Alten; Contre-amiral Serre, 
La Marine des anciens; Jules Var, V Art nautique dans Vantiquite. 
Medieval: Jal, Archeologie navale, and Glossaire nautique; Marquis 
de Folin, Bateaux et navires, progris de la construction navale; 
W. S. Lindsay, History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce. 
Modern: H. Warington Smyth, Mast and Sail in Europe and Asia; 
Dixon Kempe, Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing; H. C. Folkhard, 
The Sailing Boat; F. G. Aflalo, The Sea Fishing Industry of England 
and Wales; R. C. Leslie, Old Sea Wings, &c. (E. Wa.) 

Class of Boat. 



Racing eight 

• 56' to 63' 

23" to 27" 

Clinker eight . 

. 56' to 60' 

24" to 27" 

Clinker four 

. 38' to 42' 

23" to 24" 

Tub fours . 

• 3°' to 32' 

3'8"- 3 ' 10" 

Outrigger pair 

30' to 34' 

14" to 16" 

Outrigger sculls 

• 25' to 30' 

10" to 13" 

Coaching gigs . 

. 26' to 28' 

3' to 3' 4" 

Skiffs (Thames) 

. 24' to 26' 

3' 9" to 4' 

Skiffs (Eton) . 


2/ 3" 

Gigs (pleasure) . 

. 24' to 26' 



. 27' to 30' 

4' to 4' 6" 

Whiffs . . . 

20' to 23' 

1' 4" to i'6" 

Whiff Gigs 

19' to 20' 

2' 8" to 2' 10" 

Punts racers 

30' to 34' 

1' 3" to 1' 6" 

,, semi racers 

28' to 30' 


„ pleasure 

26' to 28' 

2' 9" to 3' 

BOATSWAIN (pronounced " bo 'sun "; derived from " boat " 
and " swain," a servant), the warrant officer of the navy who 
in sailing-ships had particular charge of the boats, sails, rigging, 
colours, anchors and cordage. He superintended the rigging 
of the ship in dock, and it was his duty to summon the crew 
to work by a whistle. The office still remains, though with 
functions modified by the introduction of steam. In a merchant 
ship the boatswain is the foreman of the crew and is sometimes 
also third or fourth mate. 

BOBBILI, a town of British India, in the Vizagapatam district 
of Madras, 70 m. north of Vizagapatam town. Pop. (1901) 
17,387. It is the residence of a raja of old family, whose estate 
covers an area of 227 sq. m.; estimated income, £40,000; 
permanent land revenue, £9000. 

The attack on the fort at Bobbili made by General Bussy in 
1756 is one of the most memorable episodes in Indian history. 
There was a constant feud between the chief of Bobbili and the 
raja of Vizianagram; and when Bussy marched to restore order 
the raja persuaded him that the fault lay with the chief of 
Bobbili and joined the French with 11,000 men against his rival. 
In spite of the fact that the French field-pieces at once made 
practicable breaches in the mud walls of the fort, the defenders 
held out with desperate valour. Two assaults were repulsed 
after hours of hand-to-hand fighting; and when, after a fresh 
bombardment, the garrison saw that their case was hopeless, 
they killed their women and children, and only succumbed at 
last to a third assault because every man of them was either 
killed or mortally wounded. An old man, however, crept out 
of a hut with a child, whom he presented to Bussy as the son 
of the dead chief. Three nights later four followers of the chief 
of Bobbili crept into the tent of the raja of Vizianagram and 
stabbed him to death. The child, Chinna Ranga Rao, was 
invested by Bussy with his father's estate, but during his minority 
it was seized by his uncle. After a temporary arrangement of 
terms with the raja of Vizianagram the old feud broke out again, 
and the Bobbili chief was forced to take refuge in the nizam's 
country. In 1794, however, on the break-up of the Vizianagram 
estate, Chinna Ranga Rao was restored by the British, and 
in 1801 a permanent settlement was made with his son. The 
title of raja was recognized as hereditary in the family; that 
of maharaja was conferred as a personal distinction on Sir 
Venkataswetachalapati Ranga Rao, K.C.I.E., the adopted 
great-great-grandson of Chinna Ranga Rao. 

For the siege see Imp. Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908), s. v. 
" Bobbili Estate." 

BOBBIO, a town and episcopal see of Lombardy, Italy, in the 
province of Pa via, 32! m. S.W. of Piacenza by road. Pop. 
(1901) 4848. Its most important building is the church dedicated 
to St Columban, who became first abbot of Bobbio in 595 or 612, 
and died there in 615. It was erected in Lombard style in the 
nth or 1 2th century (to which period the campanile belongs) 
and restored in the 13th. The cathedral is also interesting. 
Bobbio was especially famous for the manuscripts which belonged 
to the monastery of St Columban, and are now dispersed, the 
greater part being in the Vatican library at Rome, and others 
at Milan and Turin. The cathedral archives contain documents 
of the 10th and nth centuries. 

See M. Stokes, Six Months in the Apennines (London, 1892), 154 
seq.; C. Cipolla, in L 'Arte (1904), 241. 

BOBER, a river of Germany, the most considerable of the 
left bank tributaries of the Oder; it rises at an altitude of 2440 ft., 
on the northern (Silesian) side of the Riesengebirge. In its 
upper course it traverses a higher plateau, whence, after passing 
the town of Landeshut, it descends through a narrow and fertile 
valley to Kupferberg. Here its romantic middle course begins, 
and after dashing through a deep ravine between the towns of 
Hirschberg and Lowenberg, it gains the plain. In its lower 
course it meanders through pleasant pastures, bogland and pine 
forests in succession, receives the waters of various mountain 
streams, passes close by Bunzlau and through Sagan, and finally, 
after a course of 160 m., joins the Oder at Crossen. Swollen by 
the melting of the winter snows and by heavy rains in the 



mountains, it is frequently a torrent, and is thus, except in the 
last few miles, unnavigable for either boats or rafts. 

BOBRUISK, a town and formerly a first-class fortress of 
Russia, in the government of Minsk, and ioo m. by rail S.E. 
of the town of Minsk, in 53° 15' N. lat. and 28° 52' E. long., on 
the right bank of the Berezina river, and on the railway from 
Libau and Vilna to Ekaterinoslav. Pop. (i860) 23,761; (1897) 
35,177, of whom one-half were Jews. In the reign of Alexander I. 
there was erected here, at the confluence of the Bobruiska with 
the Berezina, nearly a mile from the town, a fort, which success- 
fully withstood a bombardment by Napoleon in 181 2, and was 
made equal to the best in Europe by the emperor Nicholas I. 
It was demolished in 1897, the defences being antiquated. The 
town has a military hospital and a departmental college. There 
are ironworks and flour-mills; and corn and timber are shipped 
to Libau. The town was half burnt down in 1902. 

Portuguese poet, was a native of Setubal. His father had held 
important judicial and administrative appointments, and his 
mother, from whom he took his last surname, was the daughter 
of a Portuguese vice-admiral of French birth who had fought 
at the battle of Matapan. Bocage began to make verses in 
infancy, and being somewhat of a prodigy grew up to be flattered, 
self-conscious and unstable. At the age of fourteen, he suddenly 
left school and joined the 7th infantry regiment; but tiring of 
garrison life at Setubal after' two years, he decided to enter the 
navy. He proceeded to the royal marine academy in Lisbon, 
but instead of studying he pursued love adventures, and for the 
next five years burnt incense on many altars, while his retentive 
memory and extraordinary talent for improvisation gained him 
a host of admirers and turned his head. The Brazilian modinhas, 
little rhymed poems sung to a guitar at family parties, were then 
in great vogue, and Bocage added to his fame by writing a number 
of these, by his skill in extemporizing verses on a given theme, 
and by allegorical idyllic pieces, the subjects of which are similar 
to those of Watteau's and Boucher's pictures. In 1786 he was 
appointed gimrdamarinha in the Indian navy, and he reached 
Goa by way of Brazil in October. There he came into an ignorant 
society full of petty intrigue, where his particular talents found 
no scope to display themselves; the glamour of the East left 
him unmoved and the climate brought on a serious illness. In 
these circumstances he compared the heroic traditions of Portugal 
in Asia, which had induced him to leave home, with the reality, 
and wrote his satirical sonnets on " The Decadence of the 
Portuguese Empire in Asia," and those addressed to Affonso 
de Albuquerque and D. Joao de Castro. The irritation caused 
by these satires, together with rivalries in love affairs, made it 
advisable for him to leave Goa, and early in 1 789 he obtained the 
post of lieutenant of the infantry company at Damaun; but 
he promptly deserted and made his way to Macao, where he 
arrived in July- August. According to a modern tradition much 
of the Lusiads had been written there, and Bocage probably 
travelled to China under the influence of Camoens, to whose life 
and misfortunes he loved to compare his own. Though he 
escaped the penalty of his desertion, he had no resources and 
lived on friends, whose help enabled him to return to Lisbon in 
the middle of the following year. 

Once back in Portugal he found his old popularity, and 
resumed his vagabond existence. The age was one of reaction 
against the Pombaline reforms, and the famous, intendant of 
police, Manique, in his determination to keep out French revolu- 
tionary and atheistic propaganda, forbade the importation of 
foreign classics and the discussion of all liberal ideas. Hence 
the only vehicle of expression left was satire, which Bocage 
employed with an unsparing hand. His poverty compelled him 
to eat and sleep with friends like the turbulent friar Jose Agos ; 
tinho de Macedo (q.v.), and he soon fell under suspicion with 
Manique. He became a member of the New Arcadia, a literary 
society founded in 1790, under the name of Elmano Sadino, but 
left it three years later. Though including in its ranks most 
of the poets of the time, the New Arcadia produced little of 
real merit, and before long its adherents became enemies and 

descended to an angry warfare of words. But Bocage's reputa- 
tion among the general public and with foreign travellers grew 
year by year. Beckford, the author of Vathek, for instance, 
describes him as " a pale, limber, odd-looking young man, the 
queerest but perhaps the most original of God's poetical creatures. 
This strange and versatile character may be said to possess 
the true wand of enchantment which at the will of its master 
either animates or petrifies." In 1797 enemies of Bocage belong- 
ing to the New Arcadia delated him to Manique, who on the 
pretext afforded by some anti-religious verses, the Epistola 
a Marilia, and by his loose life, arrested him when he was about 
to flee the country and lodged him in the Limoeiro, where he 
spent his thirty-second birthday. His sufferings induced him 
to a speedy recantation, and after much importuning of friends, 
he obtained his transfer in November from the state prison to 
that of the Inquisition, then a mild tribunal, and shortly after- 
wards recovered his liberty. He returned to his bohemian life 
and subsisted by writing empty Elogios Dramaticos for the 
theatres, printing volumes of verses and translating the didactic 
poems of Delillc, Castel and others, some second-rate French 
plays and Ovid's Metamorphoses. These resources and the help 
of brother Freemasons just enabled him to exist, and a purifying 
influence came into his life in the shape of a real affection for the 
two beautiful daughters of D. Antonio Bersane Leite, which 
drew from him verses of true feeling mixed with regrets for the 
past. He would have married the younger lady, D. Anna 
Perpetua (Analia), but excesses had ruined his health. In 1801 
his poetical rivalry with Macedo became more acute and personal, 
and ended by drawing from Bocage a stinging extempore poem, 
Pena de Taliao, which remains a monument to his powers of 
invective. In 1804 the malady from which he suffered increased, 
and the approach of death inspired some beautiful sonnets, 
including one directed to D. Maria (Maroia), elder sister of 
Analia, who visited and consoled him. He became reconciled 
to his enemies, and breathed his last on the 21st of December 
1805. His end recalled that of Camoens, for he expired in 
poverty on the eve of the French invasion, while the singer of 
the Lusiads just failed to see the occupation of Portugal by the 
duke of Alva's army. The gulf that divides the life and.achieve- 
ments of these two poets is accounted for, less by difference of 
talent and temperament than by their environment, and it 
gives an accurate measure of the decline of Portugal in the two 
centuries that separate 1580 from 1805. 

To Beckford, Bocage was " a powerful genius," and Link 
was struck by his nervous expression, harmonious versification 
and the fire of his poetry. He employed every variety of lyric 
and made his mark in all. His roundels are good, his epigrams 
witty, his satires rigorous and searching, his odes often full of 
nobility, but his fame must rest on his sonnets, which almost 
rival those of Camoens in power, elevation of thought and tender 
melancholy, though they lack the latter's scholarly refinement 
of phrasing. So dazzled were contemporary critics by his 
brilliant and inspired extemporizations that they ignored 
Bocage's licentiousness, and overlooked the slightness of his 
creative output and the artificial character of most of his 
poetry. In 1871 a monument was erected to the poet in the 
chief square of Setubal, and the centenary of his death was 
kept there with much circumstance in 1905. 

The best editions of his collected works are those of I. F. da 
Silva, with a biographical and literary study by Rebello da Silva, in 
6 vols. (Lisbon, 1853), and of Dr Theophilo Braga, in 8 vols. (Oporto, 
1875-1876). See also I. F. da Silva. Diccionario Bibliographico 
Portuguez, vol. vi. pp. 45-53, and vol. xvi. pp. 260-264; Dr T. Braga, 
Bocage, sua vida e epocalitteraria, (Oporto, 1902). A striking portrait 
of Bocage by H. J. da Silva was engraved by Bartolozzi, who spent 
his last years in Lisbon. (E. Pr.) 

BOCAGE (from 0. Fr. boscage, Late Lat. boscum, a wood), a 
French topographical term applied to several regions of France, 
the commonest characteristics of which are a granite formation 
and an undulating or hilly surface, consisting largely of heath 
or reclaimed land, and dotted with clumps of trees. The 
most important districts designated by the word are (1) the 
Bocage of Normandy, which comprises portions of the 



departments of Calvados, Manche and Orne; (2) the Bocage of 
Vendee, situated in the departments of Vendee, Deux-Sevres, 
Maine-et-Loire, and Loire-Inferieure. 

BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI (1313-1375), Italian author, whose 
Decameron is one of the classics of literature, was born in 13 13, 
as we know from a letter of Petrarch, in which that poet, 
who was born in 1304, calls himself the senior of his friend by- 
nine years. The place of his birth is somewhat doubtful — 
Florence, Paris and Certaldo being all mentioned by various 
writers as his native city. Boccaccio undoubtedly calls himself 
a Florentine, but this may refer merely to the Florentine citizen- 
ship acquired by his grandfather. The claim of Paris has been 
supported by Baldelli and Tiraboschi, mainly on the ground 
that his mother was a lady of good family in that city, where 
she met Boccaccio's father. There is a good deal in favour of 
Certaldo, a small town or castle in the valley of the Elsa, 20 m. 
from Florence, where the family had some property, and where 
the poet spent much of the latter part of his life. He always 
signed his name Boccaccio da Certaldo, and named that town 
as his birthplace in his own epitaph. Petrarch calls his friend 
Certaldese; and Filippo Villani, a contemporary, distinctly says 
that Boccaccio was born in Certaldo. 

Boccaccio, an illegitimate son, as is put beyond dispute by the 
fact that a special licence had to be obtained when he desired 
to become a priest, was brought up with tender care by his 
father, who seems to have been a merchant of respectable rank. 
His elementary education he received from Giovanni da Strada, 
an esteemed teacher of grammar in Florence. But at an early 
age he was apprenticed to an eminent merchant, with whom he 
remained for six years, a time entirely lost to him, if we may 
believe his own statement. For from his tenderest years his soul 
was attached to that " alma poesis," which, on his tombstone, 
he names as the task and study of his life. In one of his works 
he relates that, in his seventh year, before he had ever seen 
a book of poetry or learned the rules of metrical composition, 
he began to write verse in his childish fashion, and earned for 
himself amongst his friends the name of " the poet." It is un- 
certain where Boccaccio passed these six years of bondage; 
most likely he followed his master to various centres of commerce 
in Italy and France. We know at least that he was in Naples 
and Paris for some time, and the youthful impressions received 
in the latter city, as well as the knowledge of the French 
language acquired there, were of considerable influence on his 
later career. Yielding at last to his son's immutable aversion 
to commerce, the elder Boccaccio permitted him to adopt a 
course of study somewhat more congenial to the literary tastes 
of the young man. He was sent to a celebrated professor of 
canon law, at that time an important field of action both to the 
student and the practical jurist. According to some accounts 
—far from authentic, it is true — this professor was Cino da 
Pistoia, the friend of Dante, and himself a celebrated poet and 
scholar. But, whoever he may have been, Boccaccio's master 
was unable to inspire his pupil with scientific ardour. " Again," 
Boccaccio says, " I lost nearly six years. And so nauseous was 
this study to my mind, that neither the teaching of my master, 
nor the authority and command of my father, nor yet the 
exertions and reproof of my friends, could make me take to it, 
for my love of poetry was invincible." 

About 1333 Boccaccio settled for some years at Naples, 
apparently sent there by his father to resume his mercantile 
pursuits, the canon law being finally abandoned. The place, 
it must be confessed, was little adapted to lead to a practical 
view of life one in whose heart the love of poetry was firmly 
rooted. The court of King Robert of Anjou at Naples was 
frequented by many Italian and French men of letters, the great 
Petrarch amongst the number. At the latter's public examina- 
tion in the noble science of poetry by the king, previous to his 
receiving the laurel crown at Rome, Boccaccio was present, — 
without, however, making his personal acquaintance at this 
period. In the atmosphere of this gay court, enlivened and 
adorned by the wit of men and the beauty of women, Boccaccio 
lived for several years. We can imagine how the tedious duties 

of the market and the counting-house became more and mort 
distasteful to his aspiring nature. We are told that, finding 
himself by chance on the supposed grave of Virgil, near Naples, 
Boccaccio on that sacred spot took the firm resolution of devoting 
himself for ever to poetry. But perhaps another event, which 
happened some time after, led quite as much as the first-men- 
tioned occurrence to this decisive turning-point in his life. On 
Easter-eve, 1341, in the church of San Lorenzo, Boccaccio saw 
for the first time the natural daughter of King Robert, Maria, 
whom he immortalized as Fiammetta in the noblest creations 
of his muse. Boccaccio's passion on seeing her was instantaneous, 
and (if we may accept as genuine the confessions contained in 
one of her lover's works) was returned with equal ardour on the 
part of the lady. But not till after much delay did she yield to 
the amorous demands of the poet, in spite of her honour and her 
duty as the wife of another. All the information we have with 
regard to Maria or Fiammetta is derived from the works of 
Boccaccio himself, and owing to several apparently contradictory 
statements occurring in these works, the very existence of the 
lady has been doubted by commentators, who seem to forget 
that, surrounded by the chattering tongues of a court, and 
watched perhaps by a jealous husband, Boccaccio had all possible 
reason to give the appearance of fictitious incongruity to the 
effusions of his real passion. But there seems no more reason to 
call into question the main features of the story, or even the 
identity of the person, than there would be in the case of Petrarch's 
Laura or of Dante's Beatrice. It has been ingeniously pointed 
out by Baldelli, that the fact of her descent from King Robert 
being known only to Maria herself, and through her to Boccaccio, 
the latter was the more at liberty to refer to this circumstance, — • 
the bold expression of the truth serving in this case to increase 
the mystery with which the poets of the middle ages loved, or 
were obliged, to surround the objects of their praise. From 
Boccaccio's Ameto we learn that Maria's mother was, like his 
own, a French lady, whose husband, according to Baldelli's 
ingenious conjecture, was of the noble house of Aquino, and 
therefore of the same family with the celebrated Thomas Aquinas. 
Maria died, according to his account, long before her lover, who 
cherished her memory to the end of his life, as we see from a 
sonnet written shortly before his death. 

The first work of Boccaccio, composed by him at Fiammetta's 
command, was the prose tale, Filocopo, describing the romantic 
love and adventures of Florio and Biancafiore, a favourite 
subject with the knightly minstrels of France, Italy and Germany. 
The treatment of the story by Boccaccio is not remarkable for 
originality or beauty, and the narrative is encumbered by classical 
allusions and allegorical conceits. The style also cannot be held 
worthy of the future great master of Italian prose. Considering, 
however, that this prose was in its infancy, and that this was 
Boccaccio's first attempt at remoulding the unwieldy material 
at his disposal, it would be unjust to deny that Filocopo is a 
highly interesting work, full of promise and all but articulate 
power. Another work, written about the same time by Fiam- 
metta's desire and dedicated to her, is the Teseide, an epic poem, 
and indeed the first heroic epic in the Italian language. The 
name is chosen somewhat inappropriately, as King Theseus plays 
a secondary part, and the interest of the story centres in the two 
noble knights, Palemone and Arcito, and their wooing of the 
beautiful Emelia. The Teseide is of particular interest to the 
student of poetry, because it exhibits the first example of the 
ottava rima, a metre which was adopted by Tasso and Ariosto, 
and in English by Byron in Bon Juan. Another link between 
Boccaccio's epic and English literature is formed by the fact of 
Chaucer having in the Knight's Tale adopted its main features. 

Boccaccio's poetry has been severely criticized by his country- 
men, and most severely by the author himself. On reading 
Petrarch's sonnets, Boccaccio resolved in a fit of despair to burn 
his own attempts, and only the kindly encouragement of his 
great friend prevented the holocaust. Posterity has justly 
differed from the author's sweeping self-criticism. It is true, 
that compared with Dante's grandeur and passion, and with 
Petrarch's absolute mastership of metre, and language, Boccaccio's 



poetry seems to be somewhat thrown into shade. His verse is 
occasionally slip-shod, and particularly his epic poetry lacks 
what in modern parlance is called poetic diction, — the quality, 
that is, which distinguishes the elevated pathos of the recorder 
of heroic deeds from the easy grace of the mere conleur. This 
latter feature, so charmingly displayed in Boccaccio's prose, has 
to some extent proved fatal to his verse. At the same time, his 
narrative is always fluent and interesting, and his lyrical pieces, 
particularly the poetic interludes in the Decameron, abound with 
charming gallantry, and frequently rise to lyrical pathos. 

About the year 1341 Boccaccio returned to Florence by 
command of his father, who in his old age desired the assistance 
and company of his son. Florence, at that time disturbed by 
civil feuds, and the silent gloom of his father's house could not 
but appear in an unfavourable light to one accustomed to the 
gay life of the Neapolitan court. But more than all this, Boccaccio 
regretted the separation from his beloved Fiammetta. The 
thought of her at once embittered and consoled his loneliness. 
Three of his works owe their existence to this period. With all 
of them Fiammetta is connected; of one of them she alone is the 
subject. The first work, called Ameto, describes the civilizing 
influence of love, which subdues the ferocious manners of the 
savage with its gentle power. Fiammetta, although not the 
heroine of the story, is amongst the nymphs who with their tales 
of true love soften the mind of the huntsman. Ameto is written 
in prose alternating with verse, specimens of which form occur 
in old and middle Latin writings. It is more probable, however, 
that Boccaccio adopted it from that sweetest and purest blossom 
of medieval French literature, Aucassin et Nicolette, which dates 
from the 13th century, and was undoubtedly known to him. So 
pleased was Boccaccio with the idea embodied in the character 
of Ameto that he repeated its essential features in the Cimone of 
his Decameron (Day 5th, tale i.). The second work referred to is 
a poem in fifty chapters, called U amorosa Visione. It describes 
a dream in which the poet, guided by a lady, sees the heroes and 
lovers of ancient and medieval times. Boccaccio evidently has 
tried to imitate the celebrated Trionfi of Petrarch, but without 
much success. There is little organic development in the poem, 
which reads like the catalogue raisonne of a picture gallery; but 
it is remarkable from another point of view. It is perhaps the 
most astounding instance in literature of ingenuity wasted on 
trifles; even Edgar Poe, had he known Boccaccio's puzzle, 
must have confessed himself surpassed. For the whole of the 
Amorosa Visione is nothing but an acrostic on a gigantic scale. 
The poem is written, like the Divina Commedia, in terza rima, and 
the initial letters of all the triplets throughout the work compose 
three poems of considerable length, in the first of which the whole 
is dedicated to Boccaccio's lady-love, this time under her real 
name of Maria. In addition to this, the initial letters of the first, 
third, fifth, seventh and ninth lines of the dedicatory poem form 
the name of Maria; so that here we have the acrostic in the 
second degree. No wonder that thus entrammelled the poet's 
thought begins to flag and his language to halt. The third 
important work written by Boccaccio during his stay at Florence, 
or soon after his return to Naples, is called L' amorosa Fiammetta; 
and although written in prose, it contains more real poetry than 
the elaborate production just referred to. It purports to be 
Fiammetta's complaint after her lover, following the call of 
filial duty, had deserted her. Bitterly she deplores her fate, and 
upbraids her lover with coldness and want of devotion. Jealous 
fears add to her torture, not altogether unfounded, if we believe 
the commentators' assertion that the heroine of Ameto is in 
reality the beautiful Lucia, a Florentine lady loved by Boccaccio. 
Sadly Fiammetta recalls the moments of former bliss, the first 
meeting, the stolen embrace. Her narrative is indeed our chief 
source of information for the incidents of this strange love-story. 
It has been thought unlikely, and indeed impossible, that 
Boccaccio should thus have become the mouthpiece of a real 
lady's real passion for himself; but there seems nothing in- 
congruous in the supposition that after a happy reunion the poet 
should have heard with satisfaction, and surrounded with the 
halo of ideal art, the story of his lady's sufferings. Moreover, the 

language is too full of individual intensity to make the conjecture 
of an entirely fictitious love affair intrinsicaUy probable. L' amo- 
rosa Fiammetta is a monody of passion sustained even to the 
verge of dulness, but strikingly real, and therefore artistically 

By the intercession of an influential friend, Boccaccio at last 
obtained (in 1344) his father's permission to return to Naples, 
where in the meantime Giovanna, grand-daughter of King Robert, 
had succeeded to the crown. Being young and beautiful, fond of 
poetry and of the praise of poets, she received Boccaccio with all 
the distinction due to his literary fame. For many years she 
remained his faithful friend, and the poet returned her favour 
with grateful devotion. Even when the charge of having 
instigated, or at least connived at, the murder of her husband 
was but too clearly proved against her, Boccaccio was amongst 
the few who stood by her, and undertook the hopeless task of 
clearing her name from the dreadful stain. It was by her desire, 
no less than by that of Fiammetta, that he composed (between 
1344 and 1350) most of the stories of his Decameron, which 
afterwards were collected and placed in the mouths of the 
Florentine ladies and gentlemen. During this time he also 
composed the Filostrato, a narrative poem, the chief interest of 
which, for the English reader, lies in its connexion with Chaucer. 
With a boldness pardonable only in men of genius, Chaucer 
adopted the main features of the plot, and literally translated 
1 parts of Boccaccio's work, without so much as mentioning the 
name of his Italian source. 

In 1350 Boccaccio returned to Florence, owing to the death 
of his father, who had made him guardian to his younger brother 
Jacopo. He was received with great distinction, and entered 
the service of the Republic, being at various times sent on 
important missions to the margrave of Brandenburg, and to the 
courts of several popes, both in Avignon and Rome. Boccaccio 
boasts of the friendly terms on which he had been with the great 
potentates of Europe, the emperor and pope amongst the number. 
But he was never a politician in the sense that Dante and 
Petrarch were. As a man of the world he enjoyed the society 
of the great, but his interest in the internal commotions of the 
Florentine state seems to have been very slight. Besides, he 
never liked Florence, and the expressions used by him regarding 
his fellow-citizens betray anything but patriotic prejudice. In 
a Latin eclogue he applies to them the term " Batrachos " (frogs), 
by which, he adds parenthetically — Ego intclligo Florentinorum 
morem; loquacissimi enim sumus, verum in rebus bellicis nihil 
valemus. The only important result of Boccaccio's diplomatic 
career was his intimacy with Petrarch. The first acquaintance 
of these two great men dates from the year 1350, when Boccaccio, 
then just returned to Florence, did all in his power to make the 
great poet's short stay in that city agreeable. When in the 
following year the Florentines were anxious to draw men of 
great reputation to their newly-founded university, it was again 
Boccaccio who insisted on the claims of Petrarch to the most 
distinguished position. He himself accepted the mission of 
inviting his friend to Florence, and of announcing to Petrarch 
at the same time that the forfeited estates of his family had been 
restored to him. In this manner an intimate friendship grew up 
between them to be parted only by death. Common interests 
and common literary pursuits were the natural basis of their 
friendship, and both occupy prominent positions in the early 
history of that great intellectual revival commonly called the 

During the 14th century the study of ancient literature was 
at a low ebb in Italy. The interest of the lay world was engrossed 
by political struggles, and the treasures of classical history and 
poetry were at the mercy of monks, too lazy or too ignorant to 
use, or even to preserve them. Boccaccio himself told that, 
on asking to see the library of the celebrated monastery of 
Monte Cassino, he was shown into a dusty room without a door 
to it. Many of the valuable manuscripts were mutilated; and 
his guide told him that the monks were in the habit of tearing 
leaves from the codices to turn them into psalters for children, 
or amulets for women at the price of four or five soldi apiece. 

10 4 


Boccaccio did all in his power to remove by word and example 
this barbarous indifference. He bought or copied with his own 
hand numerous valuable manuscripts, and an old writer remarks 
that if Boccacci